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9[rcl)aeoIogical 3^ournal, 



^hc llogal ^rchjtologiifal institute o{ <Bun\ §xxhxux nnli 



Ci)e Carl J) anti J^ititile Sfges;. 





(distributed gratuitously to subscribing members), 
to be obtained through all booksellers. 


The Council of the Royal Arch^ological Institute desire that it should be 
distinctly understood that they are not responsible for any statement or opinions 
expressed in the Archceological Journal, the authors of the several memoii-s and 
communications being alone answerable for the same. 


OF TH£ j 



Castle Acre. By A. Haktshorne, Esq., F.S.A. ... .. 1 

Antonine's Itinerary. Route is., Britain. By the Rev. Cauou Raven, D.D. . 9 

The Monastic Institutions of Coventry. By W. G. Fuetton, Esq., F.S.A. ... 17 

The Great Sphinx : Ideas of the Sphinx in the Ancient World. By Helen 

Mary TiRARD ... ... ... 28 

On the First Passage of the Thames by Aulus Plautius. By F. C. J. 

Spubbell, Esq. ... ... ... 43 

The Church Plate of the County of Warwick. By the Rev. G. Miller, M.A. 48 

Unusual Doorways in Old Buildings. By T. Turner, E.'^q. ... 55 

Notes on Painted Screens and Roofs in Norfolk. By G. E. Fox, Esq., F.S.A.... 65 

Shoebury Camp, Essex. By F. C. J. Spcrrell, Esq. ... ... 78 

Burton Church, Sussex. By J. L. Andr^, Esq. ... ... 89 

Further Discoveries at the Roman Baths in Bath, and the probable date of their 

first formation. By the late Rev. Prebendary Scarth, M.A. ... 101 

On the Whitefriars or Carmelites of Hulne, Northumberland. By W. H. St. 

John Hope, Esq., M.A. ... ... ... 105 

English Wrought Iron- Work from the Thirteenth Century. By H. Longden, 

Esq. ... ... ... ... 130 

Notices of Sculptures of Oriental design at Bredwardine and Moccas, Hereford- 
shire. By the Rev. Greville I. Chester, B.A. ... ... 140 

Anglo-Norman Ornament, comi)ared with Designs in Anglo-Saxon JISS. By 

J. Park Harrison, Esq., M.A. ... 1-13 

On Early Methods of Bell Founding. By the Rev Canon Raven, D.D. ,. 154 



On the Norintm Fout in the Church of All Saints, Toftrees, Norfolk. By J. E. 

Bale, Esq. ... ... ..160 

The Unpublished Material for a History of the County of Norfolk. By Walter 

Kte, Esq. ... ... ... 164 

Note on a Boat found at Albert Dock, Woolwich. By F. C. J, SpuRRELL, Esq. 170 

The late Rev. H. M. Scarth ... ... ...179 

Roman Antiquities of the Middle Rhine. By Professor Bunnell Lewis, M.A., 
F.S.A. ... .. 193-378 

On a Hittite Seal purchased at Smyrna by the Rev. Greville I. Chester. By 
Professor Sayce ... ... ... 215 

Bosses of the Wooden Vaulting of the Eastern Walk of the Cloistei-s of 

Lincoln Minster. By the Rev. Precentor Venables, M. A. ...220 

Roman Inscriptions in Britain, 1888-1890. By F. Haverpield, Esq., M.A. ... 229 

Opening Address of the Antiquarian Section at the Gloucester Meeting. By 

E. Freshfield, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. ... ... 268 

Tewkesbury Abb(-y Church. By Albert Hartshorne, Esq., F.S.A. .. 290 

Opening Address of the Historical Section. By the Very Rev. the Dean of 
Gloucester ... ... ... 302 

Some Notes on the Ancient Encaustic Tiles in Gloucester Cathedral. By the 
Rev. A. S. Porter, M.A., F.S.A. ... ...311 

Picture Board Dummies at the County Hotel, Carlisle. By R. S. Ferguson, 

Esq., F.S.A. (Chancellor of Carlisle). ... ...321 

The Keys of St. Peter at Liege and Maestricht. By E. W. Beck, Esq. ... 334 

Opening Address of the Architectural Section. By Professor Middleton, F.S.A. 343 

Oxford as a Factor in the Progress of Archaeology. By Professor Montagu 
Burrows, M. A., F.S.A. ... .. ...351 

Inaugural Address of Sir John Dorington, Bart., M.P., to the Annual Meeting 

of the Institute held at Gloucester ... ... 359 

Gloucester Civic Insignia : with Notes on Maces of the time of the Common- 
wealth. By W. H. St. J. Hope, Esq., M.A. ... ... 369 

Original Dooinnent relating to the Borders, 1542. Communicated by J. Bain, 

Esq., F.S.A. (Scot.) ... ... ... 82 

Original Document connecting the Border Watches. By the same ... 171 

Balance Sheet for 1889 ... ... ...314 



Proceedings at Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute, November, 1889, 

to July, 1890 ... .. 84,175,315,408 

Report of Annual Meeting at Gloucester .. ... 412 

Notices op Arch^ological Pdblications : — 

A History of Coggeshall in Essex. By G. F. Beaumont ... 87 

Westmoreland Church Notes, vol. II. By E. Bellasis ... 88 

A History of Cumberland. By R. S. Ferguson \ 

Diocesan Histories — Carlisle. » » > 180 

Historic Towns— Carlisle. By M. Creighton ) 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library — Bibliogi-aphical Notes. Edited by 

by G. L. Gomme .. ... ... 189 

Rental of all the Houses in Gloucester, a.d. 1455. Edited by W. H. 

Stevenson ... ... ... 318 

The Monumental Inscriptions of the Church, Churchyard, and Cemetery 

of St. Michaels, Dalstou, Cumberland. By J. Wilson .. 319 

An Inventory of all the Church Plate of Leicestershire. By the Rev. A. 

Trollope ... .. ... 426 

Market Harborough Parish Records. By B. E. Stocks and W. B. Bragg 431 

Stafford in Olden Times. Edited by J. L. Cherry ... 432 

The Gentlemen's Magazine Library. Edited by G. L. Gomme ... 434 

Arch^ological Intelligence ... ... 192,437 

Index TO Volume XL VII. <^. ,.. ... 442 

List of Members ... ,. ... 452 



Remains of Whitefriars Mouastery, Coventry ... ... 22 

Shoebury Camp, Essex ... ... To face 80 

Ground Plan of Hulne Priory ... ... ,,105 

Hulne Priory, Northumberland— Sedilia ... „ 114 

„ Elevation and Plan of the south side of the 

Vestry .. ••• To follow ib. 

Hulne Priory, Northumberland— Windows in Church „ „ 

(The Institute is indebted to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland 
for the loan of these wood-cut blocks). 

Anglo-Norman Ornament compared with Designs in Anglo-Saxon MSS. — 

Plate I., Oxford Cathedral ... ... To face 152 

Plate II., Pre-Norman Ornament ... To follow ib. 

Plate III., ,, » ••• )» )> 

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. J. Park Harrison for these illustrations). 

Font in Toft-Trees Church, Norfolk ... To face 161 

HittiteSeal ... ... ... 215 

(The Institute is indebted to the Rev. Greville I. Chester fur this 

Sketch Plan of Roman and Modern Walls of Chester ... To face 242 

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. F. Haverfield for this illustration). 

Tombstone, with Banqueting Scene, Chester ... To face 245 

„ ,, ,. .. ■•• -, 246 

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Earwukcr for the loan of these 



Early Laconian Tombstone ... . . . • To follow ib. 

(The Institute is indebted to the Council of the Society for Hellenic 
Studies for the use of this wood-cut block). 

Tombstone, with Banqueting Scene „ To face 247 

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Earwaker for the loan of this 

Inscribed Plate of Lead ... ... ... 252 

Pig of Lead ... ... ... 257 

Roman Inscription found at York, 1884 ... To face 259 

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. F. Haverfield for half the cost of 
this illustration and for many of the wood-cuts in the type). 

Grenadier of H.M. Second Regiment of Foot, 1714-1727. From Picture 

Board Dummy, No. I., County Hotel, Carlisle ... To face 321 

„ „ No. II., ... ... „ 324 

Grenadier of H.M. Third Regiment of Foot Guards (?). From Picture 

Board Dummy in the po!3session of Sir H. Dryden, Bart To face 332 

The Key of St. Peter at Maestricht . . „ 339 

„ „ „ Liege ... ... „ 341 

(The Institute is indebted to the kindness of Mr. W. II. J. Weale for 
permission to reproduce these two illustrations from " Le BefFroi.") 

Front of the Mithraic Tablet at Wiesbaden ... To face 378 

Back of „ ,, „ ... To follow ib. 

The Mosaic Pavement at Darmstadt ... To face 386 

(The Institute is indebted to Professor Bunnell Lewis for half the cost of 
these illustrations). 

Ancient Chair in Lincoln Cathedral ... To face 40G 

(The Institute is indebted to the Editor of Lincolnshire Notes and Queries 
for permission to reproduce this illustration). 

Chalice at Blaston St. Giles, anno. 1500 ... To face 427 

„ Wymeswold, 1512 ... ... To follow ib. 

^rcljaeologtcal Souriial 

MARCH, 1890. 


I have brought the Members of the Eoyal Archaeologi- 
cal Institute to this rather perilous eminence because from 
this point we get the best general view of these very- 
large earthworks. From here we can plainly distinguish 
the work of three periods and three people — the Roman, 
the Saxon, and the Norman. When we came through 
the ancient ford at the foot of the hill a few yards more 
brought us into the precincts of the Eoman camp, we 
then passed into the Saxon burh, and we now stand 
within the Norman keep. 

Now, first, as to the Roman. A camp of this size at 
once suggests a situation upon a great Roman road ; and 
we accordingly find, leading straight from the north 
coast, and impinging on the centre of this Roman camp, 
an ancient route called " Peddar's Way." The subject of 
Roman roads in Norfolk is at present rather obscure, and 
proof is wanted, but I see no reason why the way should 
not be of the age of the camp and the name medifBval. 

It will have been noticed, before we came up the hill, that 
we crossed some level ground skirting the river, and that 
the whole camp lay before us upon the rising ground. 
In its integrity the camp consisted of a parallelogram of 
about 380 by 280 yds., enclosed by a bank and a more 
or less deep ditch, with entrances on the north and south 
sides. As we shall see presently, a considerable part of 

1 Read cat Ccastle Acre, August 7, 1889. 
VOL. XLVII (No. 184) B 


this ancient defence has been quite removed. That is 
to say, roughly speaking, three-fifths of the north side, 
and one-fifth of the south. This leaves the whole of the 
west side, and two-fifths of the southern one, in their 
integrity. There remain, therefore, the whole of the 
eastern portion, two-fifths of the north side, and the 
remaining two-fifths of the southern side to be accounted 

Before we do this let us analyse these Eoman defences. 
Taking advantage of the natural resources of the site, the 
Boman engineer found that the rising ground was sup- 
ported on the south side by a broad morass moistened by 
" the pale waves of Xar," and now level meadow land. 
On this side he only required a slight bank, with a cause- 
way leading to the ford, or a bridge, over the river. At 
the south-west angle the bank at once rose, and the ditch 
deepened. Along the north front, where he came upon 
level ground, both bank and ditch ran on, and so con- 
tinued round the north-east angle, and down the slope to 
the south front on the morass. Such was the Roman 

When the Saxon came — I will say in the ninth century 
— he found the works of the Eoman both out of agreement 
with his mode of warfare and too large for his wants. Yet 
it behoved him so to deal with it that he could have sole 
control. He accordingly threw up a mound in the north- 
east corner of the Roman camp, which he surrounded 
with a profound ditch, out of which, in fact, the mound 
was partly formed, and he utilized as much of the material 
of the eastern side of the Roman bank as he required 
for throwing out a court on this flank. The court or 
enclosure thus formed is irregularly broken by some 
earthworks about half way across it, which seem to 
indicate the remains of the original Roman defence. The 
Saxon further formed a second and a larger court in front 
and southward of the mound, by utilizing and adapting 
the south-east corner of the Roman camp and striking a 
new bank, with a deep external ditch, from the south 
side, running northward, and resting originally upon the 

Thus the whole of the Roman earthworks are accounted 
for, and thus was formed a hurh — namely, the mound, the 


hill of the burh, with two appended courts. Upon the 
mound was planted the timber dwelling and offices of the 
chief, surrounded by a timber palisade — a real wooden 
wall, the courts being further protected by lines of the 
same defence on the comprising banks. It is improbable 
that the remaining and larger portion of the Roman camp 
would have been abandoned to the chance, or rather 
likelihood, of being converted by an enemy into a sort of 
mai voisi?i, so this portion would also be taken possession 
of, and perhaps also palisaded or hedged about, as a 
refuge for cattle, for the inhabitants of the place, or for 
men seeking the shelter of the burh from an advancing 
force. This, then, was the stronghold which Earl Warren 
found at the Caput of his 140 lordships in Norfolk at the 
time of the Great Survey. 

Earl Warren had his castle at Lewes in the days of the 
Conqueror, and I see nothing here to show that he built a 
fortress of stone at Castle Acre. He died in 1088, and was 
succeeded by his son William, who died in 1138, to whom 
succeeded his son, another William, who died in 1148. 

The history of Castle Acre castle has not been preju- 
diced by much speculation as to its date, nor is there 
much architectural detail remaining that enables us to fix 
its precise period. We know that upon such a site as this 
the shell keep of stone was the usual form of fortress that 
replaced the earlier structure of timber ; but very few 
remain for comparison of their details, and fewer still of 
which we know the date. The shell keep of Berkeley 
fortunatel)^ exists, and, more fortunately still, we know 
the date of it from a charter. It was begun in 1155. On 
comparing the only remaining ashlar details of Castle 
Acre castle with those serving the same purpose at Berke- 
ley, namely, the six pilaster buttresses on the outside of 
the shell, we find that those at Berkeley have a full set-ofi 
half-way up, while those at Castle Acre are of the earlier 
form, namely, simple strips with only a slight break on 
their faces. 

Persons who have studied the growth of buttresses 
from narrow Saxon strips, to the panelled and pinnacled 
structures of Perpendicular, will appreciate the value 
of the slight distinction I have just alluded to, and in a 
case like this we must make the best we can ot" the 


evidence we have got, without trying to extract more out 
of it than it properly gives. I think, therefore, we are 
justified in considering that this keep is at least earlier 
than 1155, and the evidence of a charter of the second 
Earl Warren, who died in 1138, in which he speaks of 
meum castellum, seems to imply that this actual stone 
castle was then existing, inasmuch as the Saxon structure 
is hardly likely to have endured so late, or to have had 
such a term applied to it by Earl Warren. I put the date 
at about 1125. I admit, the actual evidence here for it is 
slight, but the general history of castle building in the first 
half of the twelfth century supports it, and it will be re- 
membered that the successor of this William de Warren 
was in possession only for ten years, and died in 1148. 
We may take it, therefore, that the second Earl Warren set 
up the shell keep on the mound, and enclosed the greater 
court with a curtain wall of masonry. But the mound 
was not so old, or so firm in its nature, that the Norman 
builder could be heedless in his work, and we accordingly 
find that, for greater solidity, the shell was built against 
the upper part of the mound, the wall showing conse- 
quently much higher without than within, and being 
further strengthened outside, in the north-west quarter 
only — its weakest point — by the six pilaster buttresses 
before mentioned. 

When my grandfather, Mr. Kerrich, was here, just 
107 years ago, he made careful notes and plans of the 
castle, which were bequeathed to the British Museum in 
1828. Great changes have taken place in the last 
hundred years, but on applying Mr. Kerrich's plans to 
the existing remains we are enabled, not only to identify 
the fragments, but to reconstruct a great deal that must 
otherwise have entirely perished out of knowledge. His 
plans show four walls, or, as he rightly calls them, 
" traverses," crossing the ditch and abutting upon the 
keep. Of these, two were the continuation of the curtain 
of the large enclosure or lower ward. That on the south- 
east still remains in part; that on the south-west connected 
the gateway with the keep, and may yet just be traced up 
the mound. That on the north-west may still be seen in 
the bottom of the ditch, and where it joined the second 
pilaster buttress, and the traverse on the north-east has 


entirely vanished. The use and value of these walls in 
checking the progress of an enemy round the ditches, 
who might possess the great court, is ol)vious, and no 
doubt at an earlier period timber defences were similarly 
emplo3^ed, A wall remains, crossing the ditch of the 
great court on the east side, and there is another crossing 
the ditch at the south- west corner, of which more 
presently. It is probable that there was also a wall 
on the counter-scarp of the ditch of the mound. Mr. 
Kerrich speaks of foundations on the west side. 

He gives a sketch of the gateway as it was standing in 
his day. It consisted of two half drum towers flanking 
a round-headed entrance, which ran through like a 
tunnel for a distance of eighteen feet, divided midway by 
a portcullis — a defence not common in Norman times. 
The towers abut right and left against the curtain wall, 
and are supported on the inside by the walls of the 
tunnel entrance, 18 ft. long and 7 ft. thick. The whole 
was solid, and the plan can still be made out, though most 
of it has fallen down. It was approached by a drawbridge 
across the outer ditch, and covered by a bastion on the 
south side. As to the curtain wall of the lower ward, 
in Mr. Kerrich's time a great part of it was still standing, 
and he mentions foundations of a tower at each corner, 
of which the lower part remained at the north-east angle. 
There was apparently a gateway through it, facing the 
great gateway, to the smaller enclosure, but no appearance 
of any wall round that space. Mr. Harrod saw none, but 
Mr. Hope has just now uncovered a small piece of 
walling on the south side of the court, and some years 
ago Mr. Vere Irvine found another fragment on the north; 
but the whole wall may hardly be taken as proved upon 
such slight evidences. 

More particularly with regard to the keep — the inner 
ward. It is planted upon the top of the mound which 
slopes to the south, and we have a good deal of the 
wall of its original height, with its flint-work parapet 
and allure. It is very rude work, as these shell keeps 
usually were, and they had not yet learned to split and 
square the flints, but the surface is hard and imperishable, 
particularly outside. The ivy has seized the wall in its 
deadly grasp, but, happily, draws but little sustenance 


from the flinty and rigid mass. It is evident that the 
walls of the keep were of two heights ; about one-third — 
the upper portion, being ten or twelve feet higher than 
the lower, the two being no doubt connected by flights 
of steps from the lower to the upper allure. This outline, 
with the commanding character of the earthworks, must 
have had a very fine eflect. 

As to the details of the inside of the keep, they are 
rude, but something is to be made out of them. The wall 
has been much broken down on the east and south sides. 
First, then, we have at the broken end of the wall, due 
north, some masonry starting out diagonally, and contain- 
ing in the angle the end of an arched passage. This is 
locally known as " Dolly Handle's Hole," and is, of course, 
only the remnant of something much bigger, perhaps a 
low watch tower ; there are the remains of a garderobe 
below. Working westward we find indications of putlog 
holes, implying either the requirements of the original 
construction, or wooden erections planted against the 
wall, perhaps both. The wall is here of its full height, 
and the allure quite practicable for hardy climbers. 
Continuing, we come to the broken end of the wall 
on the west side. Here we find the remains of a 
postern entrance, approached, as I take it. by a flight of 
steps running up the outer side of the curtain wall that 
connected the keep with the gateway. In the keep wall 
we have the springing of the vaulted passage in its thick- 
ness, and indications of the arched entrance direct into it, 
The evidences are slight, but it is desirable to seize upon, 
and not pass over, such an interesting bit of detail, which 
perhaps a little clearing out might render more intelligible. 

We next meet with a fine piece of masonry, broken 
midway by the end of a wall projecting from it. A few 
feet above the grass are marks of a low barrel vaulting 
along the face of the wall, which here is of its full height, 
and exhibits two original crenelles or openings in the 
parapet. I think this vault sustained a stone platform and 
shelter for the guard or watch, the common room being 
below ; they would keep a look-oul through the crenelles 
which covered the gateway. 

Now, a very important part of the enceinte is missing. 
It is inconceivable that a shell keep of this size was merely 


entered by a doorway, a hole in the wall, and had no 
strong ingress. The mass of masonry in the wall at this 
point, as well as the amount of material that has fallen 
into the ditch, forbids the supposition that the wall simply 
ran on, and it appears that the entrance was made, as 
at Lincoln, between two broad buttresses or masses of 
masonry, and that a flight of steps descended from the 
upper ward to a bridge over the ditch. These steps were 
to be seen in Mr. Kerrich's time. 

Within the ward was a strong tower, not, I think, 
necessarily of the same date as the keep. Mr. Kerrich 
shows the south and east walls of it in his plans, and Mr. 
Harrod laid bare the other two, which were of great 
thickness on account of their nearness to the earthen 
bank ; the whole measured 50 ft. by 40 ft. 

In the middle of the outer ward both Mr. Kerrich 
and Mr, Harrod indicate considerable foundations, of 
which the outline is perceptible at the present day. No 
doubt some digging would reveal the plans of a great 
hall, chapel and kitchen, perhaps of a later date than the 
keep, in accordance with the not unusual later Norman 
practice of abandoning the shell keep on the mound as a 
dwelling place for better lodgings lower down.^ 

A small portion of the wall at the lower end of the 
outer ward is quite complete, and near it is a low 
postern, that has had on the inner side a lintol of wood — 
showing the scarcity of stone of any length, which has 
left the impress of its ends in the lasting concrete. Mr. 
Kerrich also mentions a gateway at the lower end of the 
town, in connection with the wall crossing the ditch at 
the south-west corner, before alluded to. Mr. Bloom, in 
his Notices of Castle Acre, says it was precisely like the 
upper gateway in the street, and that the remains of it 
were only removed in this century. Both would therefore 
be Early English, and, as they are placed upon the north 
and south lines of the Roman camp, they would have been 
in connection with Norman or Early English defences 
along those lines, and they further show that the later men 
were also disposed to fortify, or at least make use of, the 
whole of the earliest works, as I have supposed the Saxons 

' 111 some slight excavations which Mr. tend, the later Normau work was at once 
Hope has been kind enough to superin- found. 


did. The details of the upper gateway show a re-use of 
late Norman work. 

There has been difference of opinion as to the date of 
the earliest earthworks at Castle Acre. Mr. Harrod, of 
whose labours here, and anywhere else in Norfolk, I 
should wish to speak with the greatest respect, was 
of opinion that the circular and horse-shoe works were 
pre-Eoman. Many were carried away with this idea who 
have since abandoned it, and the change is creditable — 
and I suppose inevitable — for archaeology of this kind has 
made great strides in the last thirty years. The story at 
Mileham, a few miles off, is just the same ; there we have 
the Roman, the Saxon, and the Norman works quite as 
distinct as here, and each perhaps individually coeval 
with that at Castle Acre. Many other precisely similar 
instances could be adduced. 

The written history of the castle is very slight — we 
know, indeed, the descent of the lordship — but we fortu- 
nately still have in mound and masonry these great 
witnesses of a long life, not silent, but more eloquent 
than the written record. But slight as the written history 
is, it is something to know that the great Edward was 
more than once at Castle Acre, and I am willing to 
believe that he lodged here, and not at the Priory, in 
February 1297. At any rate he would have visited the 
castle — at that time in its prime, and with its Norman 
defences just then getting a little obsolete; and, no doubt, 
he came under the gateway that has fallen, and mounted 
the now vanished steps into the keep which has nearly 
perished. And, perchance, it was on this very spot, where 
we are now standing, that he made answer to the deputa- 
tion from the clergy in the parliament at Bury, who had 
refused a subsidy to the king : — " From the moment that 
you cease to bind yourselves by the homage and on the 
pledge to me for your baronies, I hold myself to be bound 
in no respect to you." This was bold speech, but I think 
the king had to give way. Fifty years later the castle 
was in ruins. 


By the Rev. Canon RAVEN, D.D. 

At the Colchester Meeting of the Institute in 1876 I 
had the honour of reading a paper on Roman roads in the 
east of England, in which something was said on the 
subject treated of on this occasion. The views then 
enunciated have been modified on some points and con- 
firmed on others by further information and examination. 
It is not without hesitation that the present remarks are 
made. They will be found mainly directed towards the 
first stage on the route, to which I have been able to give 
some personal attention. 

A few words may be said on the document with which 
we have to deal. 

The detail of the work which has come down to us by 
the name of Antonine's Itinerary of necessity ranges over 
a great extent of time. From the record of the Appian 
Way to the mention of Diocletianopolis the mind has to 
traverse some six centuries, and the mileage of the former 
as well as of other early roads is probably earlier than 
their titles, for the words of Livy about the Appian Way 
( " viam munivit," Liv. ix, 29,) leave it quite open to 
conjecture whether Appius Claudius Cascus laid out the 
great road which goes by his name, or merely threw up 
an agger on that which had long existed as a level road. 
A compilation embedding in itself the result of earlier 
work it must of course be ; and the question is to whom 
it owes its name. There are three Emperors who bore 
the name of Antoninus, to any one of whom the publica- 
tion of the Itinerary may be ascribed. The claims of 

^ Read in the Antiquarian Section at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, at 
Norwich, August 7th, 1889. 


10 antonine's itinerary. 

others of the name are but slender. These three are 
Titus Antoninus Pius, Marcus AureUus Antoninus, and 
the elder son of Severus, commonly called Caracalla, 
but never known formally by that name, his designation 
on coins being also Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The 
name of the first is little connected with road-making, 
but Julius Capitolinus in his life of the great philosophic 
Emperor records his care for the roads of the Itinera 
(" Vias etiam urbis atque itiuerum diligentissima curavit," 
cxi.),' and this is very strong evidence, if the text be 
trustworthy. To support Caracalla' s claim, there is an 
inscription recorded by Maffei, to the effect that Severus 
and Caracalla ordered the restoration of " milliaria vet- 
ustate conlabsa." The honours thus divide themselves 
between the philosopher and the fratricide. The Itinerary 
further contains traces of the days of Diocletian, but 
nothing later than those of Constantine the Great. 

An element of uncertainty is thus introduced by the 
very title of the book, which does not leave us when we 
come to the examination of the special route, which is 
our subject this evening. 

The text, after a most exhaustive recension of MSS., by 
the latest editors stands thus : — " Item a Venta Icinorum 

Ad Ansam 

The sum of these distances is a mile short of the total. 
It will be unnecessary for me, in the presence of so many 
members of the Norfolk and Norwich Arclijeological 
Society, to reiterate the arguments by which the identity 
of Norwich with Venta Icenorum has been established. 
I have been for years a convert to them. The extremities 
being thus fixed, let us first take the half-way house, 
Camolodunum, better known under the form Camulodu- 

* Parthey and Pinder qtiestion the correctness of the text. 




















num, the KojuouAoSouvov of Dion Cassius.' Now we have 

as a guide to this part of our road the fifth route in the 

Itinerary ; the obscurities in which are comparatively 

trivial till we get past Essex. In that route from London to 

Luguvalium ad vallum, on the Roman wall near Carlisle, 

via Colchester and Lincoln, we have the following 

mileage : — 

A Londinio Osesaromago mpm. XXVIII. 
Colonia mpm. XXIV. 

I quite assent to the identification of Cassaromagus 
with Billericay, but would draw attention to the difference 
of mileage in the two routes, twenty-eight miles in the 
fifth route to thirty-one in the ninth. Now, in the latter 
there is an intermediate station, Durolitum, which accord- 
ing to Keynolds and Mannert is Romford. I follow them 
from etymology and mileage ; and suggest that a shorter 
road was made by cutting through the scrub and forest 
further east. If this be the true solution of the dis- 
crepancy, then the ninth route is older than the fifth. 
This, I think, is confirmed by Camolodunum appearing in 
the ninth route, but Colonia in the fifth. That the two 
places are not identical is shown by the fact that the 
ninth route gives twenty-four miles between Csesaromagus 
and Colonia, whereas the fifth gives twenty-one between 
Caesaromagus and Camulodunum ; and the fifth, which as 
yet we have found the longer road, has an intermediate 
station, Canonium, which would be unlikely to shorten 
the distance. Thus we are taken by the mileage to 
Prebendary Scarth's conclusion that Lexden, not Col- 
chester, is the Camulodunum of Tacitus, Dion Cassius, 
and the ninth route in Antonine's Itinerary, the city of 
Cunobellinus and Boadicea. 

Standing now at Lexden we have to deal with the 
distance from that place to Norwich, seventy-five Eoman 
miles in the Itinerary, but under fifty as the crow flies. 
How is this to be accounted for ? It seems certain that 
there must have been a great deflection either to the east 
or to the west. First of all the Stour had to be crossed, no 
doubt near the station ad Ansam, presumably the lowest 
point where the river would be usually fordable, still 

^ 6 TIKavTios — rh Kafj.ovXdSowov rh rod KwoPfWluov ^acriXuov ilXiv. DioD Cassius, 
LX. 21. 

12 antonine's itineraey. 

known by the suggestive name of Stratford S. Mary. The 
name seems to have arisen from the gathering up as in a 
clamp the various tracks which came together at the 
ford. Once across the river we must use our judgment 
for the east or for the west. The next station is Combre- 
tonium. It we adopt the eastward course this will be 
Burgh near Woodbridge, if the westward it will be 
Brettenham, about half-way between Lavenham and 
Stowmarket. I regret that I have been unable to visit 
either place, but I am informed that both possess earth- 
works. The syllable Bret has, of course, proved 
attractive, but it ought not to weigh against the entire 
absence of roads of any note radiating from Brettenham in 
any direction. In the Peutinger Tabula Convetni which 
no doubt represents Comhretonium is close to the coast. 
Written against it is xv. the Antonine mileage between it 
and ad Ansam. 

Suckling's remark that the adoption of the eastward 
course would charge the Romans with having left the 
heart of the county of Suffolk unprotected may be disposed 
of by the fact that the fifth route traversed that very 
district. Camden's preference for the westward course 
has no other basis but the supposed identity of " Sit " in 
Sitomagus, with " Thet " in Thetford. He speaks of the 
river Sit or Thet, but there is no proof of other existence 
of the first name. 

The balance of evidence seems to me to incline eastward, 
and such remarks as I have to make from local knowledge 
are based on that theory. Assuming this, let us look to 
the first stage. And first of all its length (32 miles) is 
remarkable, being rarely surpassed. We have 35 mile 
stages twice in the very obscure Iter v., and one 36 mile 
stage on Iter xv. between Durnonovaria and Muridimum, 
on the road from Silchester to Exeter, and these are the 
only British instances in excess of the stage between Venta 
Icinorum and Sitomagus. And as it was undoubtedly 
long, so it was presumably difficult. Three rivers, the 
Tase, the Waveney, and the Blyth, had to be forded. On 
the inland side lay, for the greater part of the way, an 
ancient and deep forest, which also extended occasionally 
beyond the road on the sea side. The lighter lands on 
the sea side were covered with thickets and scrub, and 


excellent shelter was afforded to marauders, whether sea- 
rovers or salvagers. The character of the soil was hostile 
to traffic for a great part of the year, and so far as the 
record of Antonine's Itinerary goes, the road was no 
thoroughfare. I am not denying the existence of other 
roads out of Norwich at the time ; none of them, however, 
were thought worthy of a place in the Itinerary. If the 
centurion, M. Favonius, whose monument remains at 
Colchester, ever made the journey, he would have had 
occasion to contrast the stage with others to its disadvan- 

We pass out of Norwich by Ber Street and Bracondale, 
and cross the Tase by Trowse Station. 

Here the name of the place must stop us. A suggestion 
has been made to me by the Eev. M. H. Lee, Vicar of Hanmer, 
that Trowse is a British word, Traws, the crossing, a 
corruption of the Latin Trajectus. I am told that this is 
confirmed by the discovery of the old ford, close to 
Trowse Bridge. By this way we are reminded that King 
Anna rode forth to the fatal field of Bulcamp, (bellus 
campus), and the Conisford Ward preserved the name till 
the Eeform Bill swept away the beautiful picturesqueness 
of the old designations, and ticketed the citizens by 
number, like cattle on the hill. I am inclined to think 
that the road did not make straight for the ford across the 
Waveney, but bent to the left to catch the little earth- 
work at Bergh Apton, and thence by Mundham and 
Thwaite reached Belsey bridge. The road beyond Thwaite, 
with Tindal wood on the right, is remarkably good, much 
better than might be expected in such a district. At 
Belsey bridge, a small tributary of the Waveney is crossed, 
and near here in September, 1862, some urns of inferior 
construction were discovered. 

The passage of the Waveney was the most critical point 
in the road, and at no place are the conditions more 
favourable than at Wainford. The extent of marsh is here 
reduced by the presence of a two-fold patch of higher 
ground called Pirnough-street. Below Wainford the 
Waveney is not fordable. On Friday last I examined the 
way between Ditchingham station and the church of 
Ilketshall S. John's. The turns in the road at first are 
quite accounted for by the advantage of keeping on these 

14 antonine's itinerary. 

patches of gravel in the marsh. The second of the two 
patches ends a Uttle more than 100 yards before the first 
of the two present bridges ; but everything here has been 
cut about for milling and malting. The old road ran to 
the east of the malthouses, and here in 1856 were found 
Eoman coins. ' Very likely if the mill were ever to be pulled 
down we might have a second edition of the Bassingbourne 
discovery. The gravel on the south side of the river is about 
five feet from the surface, so that the little bit of marsh could 
not have been very formidable. I have little doubt that the 
present little-used road which continues the route straight 
away indicates Iter ix. It is a water-course road, and 
probably the Roman road lay just to the east of it, detail 
being thus arranged for carrying off the water. On the 
top of the ridge there is a well-defined double elbow, the 
middle about fifty yards long, quite level, and at right 
angles to the general course of the road. This way is 
described as the Packway, between Wangford Cross and 
Wangford Green. No better arrangement could be made 
for a good rest before descending what must have been a 
bad hill. Wangford Green, between Mettingham Castle 
and the slope of the hill, was all open common till the 
enclosure of 1817. No trace therefore can be found here, 
save that land between Mettingham Castle and Wainford 
bridge is described as " abutting on a certain street 
called Wangford street." I think, however, that at the 
north-west corner of the Mettingham Castle property the 
Eoman road appears again, and goes away for Ilketshall 
S. John's church, with another double elbow before the dip 
for the little stream which has there to be crossed. There 
are some suspicious looking pieces of brick in the outer 
wall of this church. Here the road assumes its most im- 
portant aspect, and begins to bear the high title of Stone 

The church and churchyard of Ilketshall S. Laurence, 
on the left of the road, stand on an artificially raised plat- 
form. At S. Laurence's Green the road is crossed by 
another, leading to Rumburgh, to the west, which west- 
ward road is called S. Margaret's Street ; and eastwardly, 
avoiding all brooks in a truly British fashion, coming out 

^ Ex. inform. Rob. Mann, de Wainford. 

antonine's itinerary. 15 

on the piece of " Corduroy Road," described by Mr. 
Edwards in his pamphlet, dealing with the question 
whether the Waveney ever reached the sea at Lowestoft. 
The name of Stone Street belongs to the road, even after 
passing the Triple Plea, when it turns towards the right 
for Halesworth. The farm called Harley Archer's lies 
on the left after this turn. Part of it is described in the 
title deeds as abutting " upon the Queen's Highway, and 
turnpike road leading from Halesworth aforesaid to 
Bungay, formerly called Stone Street, or the broadway, 
towards the south." Broadway farm is on the right of 
the road. On the other side, the road turns eastward for 
Holton, but the name of Stone Street no longer belongs to 
it ; a piece of copyhold land hard by being described in 
the Court Books of the manor of Dame Margaries in 
Halesworth, as situate in Holton, and " abutting upon 
the common way, leading from Holton towards Stone 

This, however, may have been part of Iter ix, leading 
down to Holton, and so by the present road, nearly 
parallel to the river Blyth to Blythford, when the circum- 
stances of crossing are most favourable. I am convinced 
that I thought too well of Blythburgh. 

For the rest of the way there would be an easy course 
over the heaths to Dunwich. 

It appears to me that great efforts were made to deal 
effectively with the worst parts of the road. 

Sticking in the mud time after time between Holton and 
Ilketshall S. John's and attacked by parties of plunderers 
when in these straits, the great necessity was to get clear 
of this middle section of the stage. Hence not only was 
this grand Stone Si^reet laid down but little redoubts were 
thrown up at some distance from the route, not as 
summer camps, but rather to be occupied occasionally 
when some baggage train was to pass to or from Norwich. 
Such was Rumburgh, a highly suggestive name. There 
seem to have been earthworks here, but I am not bold 
enough to discriminate between them and the foundations 
of the house of the Augustinian Canons, for the dissolu- 
tion whereof Cardinal Wolsey procured a bull from Pope 
Clement VII. Such was the little square rampart round 
that venerable building known as the Old Minster, while 

16 antonine's itineraky. 

Alburgh, the great mounds at Bungay and others of 
British origin may have been turned to useful account. 
I have already exceeded the limits of a paper, and will 
leave untouched for the present the chain of posts con- 
necting this great road with the sea, and the detail by 
Kelsale, Stratford S. Andrew and Wickham Market to 
Combretonium, or according to the theory here adopted, 
Burgh near Woodbridge, and thence Londonwards. 



It is impossible to review the evidences which yet 
remain in the ancient city of Coventry of its ecclesiastical 
wealth and importance in the middle ages, without being- 
convinced that it held no mean position compared with 
other cities of England in regard to its religious houses. 
We first meet with notice of it as possessing a nunnery of 
the Benedictine order said to have been founded by St. 
Osburg, and being under her especial charge. Of this 
convent we have not the shghtest relic, and no particulars 
save the record of its destruction in the raid of Canute and 
Edric in 1016, nor is the actual site positively known. 
For nearly thirty years the place lay desolate, and then a 
new monastery was founded in 1043, under the auspices 
of Leofric, and his Countess Godiva. He was a nobleman 
high in the councils and personal esteem of Edward the 
Confessor. Dugdale says that it occupied the place of the 
former house, and if so, the destroyed habitation of the 
Nuns was on the south bank of the Sherbourne, where the 
remains of the institution which succeeded it are still to 
be met with. 

Under the fostering care of the Earl and Countess, and 
by their unbounded liberality, the new monastery rapidly 

gained reputation and wealth. Godiva spared not even 
er own personal adornments, but generously offered both 
gold and jewels at the shrine of St. Mary and St. Osburg. 
Here the noble pair were eventually buried, and even at 
the Conquest the possessions of the abbey were held 

^ Read in the Historical Section, at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, ac 
Leamington, August 10th, 1888. 



sacred, and confirmed to them under the hand and seal of 
the Conqueror. Only three abbots held rule here, for on 
the death of Leofwinus, Robert de Limesey, bishop of 
the diocese, asked and obtained the custody of the abbey 
from the king, and in 1102 removed the see from St. John's, 
Chester, to Coventry ; the title of abbot being thus absorbed 
in the higher dignity of bishop, became extinct, and the 
ofovernment of the monastery was then vested in the prior. 
Limesey soon showed himself in his true colours, it was 
not the welfare of the priory he sought to promote, but 
the gratification of his own avarice. He read the injunction 
of our Lord to Peter, "Feed my sheep," in the reverse way, 
for instead of so doing, he fleeced them, by robbing the 
shrines of their gold and jewels, starving the monks, 
and reducing them and tiieir house to poverty ; they 
must have felt some satisfaction in burying him in 
his Cathedral in 1117, tinged with some pardonable 
regret that they had not been required to perform the 
rite a few years earlier. 

During the wars of Stephen, Coventry suffered severely. 
The castle, which belonged, together with the greater 
part of the city, to the Earl of Chester, was besieged by 
Robert Marmion, of Tamworth, on behalf of the king. 
This nobleman turned out the monks and converted the 
priory into a fortress, from which to attack the castle, but 
he came to a tragical end himself, for having had some 
deep trenches constructed to defend his position, and for- 
getting their whereabouts he fell into one of them, and was 
dispatched by one of the Earl's soldiers. This was regarded 
by the monks as a judgment upon him. On the conclusion 
of peace, a few years afterwards, the monks were reinstated, 
and matters were in a fair way for improvement with them, 
when fresh troul)les arose in the form of disputes with the 
then bishop, Hugh Novant, who appears to have been the 
first to style himself Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, his 
six predecessors having signed as Bishops of Coventry only. 
Between Novant and the monks, the discussion waxed 
warm, and on one occasion it came to blows, for the monks 
rushing on the bishop, broke his head with one of the 
crosses belonging to the church, a powerful argument it is 
true, but one which recoiled upon themselves, for the bishop 
laid a complaint against them before tlie Chancellor, and 


the monks were expelled, secular canons being placed in 
their room. This state continued till 1198, when owing 
to repeated representations made to several successive 
Popes by Thomas (one of the dispossessed monks) the 
Benedictines were re-instated, and were enabled by liberal 
assistance afforded them, to put their house in order again. 

During the wars of the Barons, the monks of Coven- 
try suffered severely from both parties before and 
during the siege of Kenilworth. Friend and foe served 
them alike, the only compensation made to them at the 
time being the issue of letters from the King (Hen. III.) 
to the monks' tenants, recommending them to afford 
what relief they could to their landlords, promising them 
recompense from God and thanks from him : he was so 
impoverished himself it was all he had to give. In the 
course of the next sixty years the original cathedral 
church in which the Bishops of Coventry had been en- 
throned, and most of them buried, gave way to the 
magnificent priory church of which the remains of the 
west end are the most important portions left. As their 
wealth increased, the monks extended their buildings until 
nearly the whole of the area between the two churchyards 
and the river was occupied by the courts and offices of 
the monastery, and we can even now trace considerable 
fragments of the Priory buildings scattered over the site, 
and incorporated with modern erections. 

But the time arrived when the long association of the 
Benedictines with Hill Close was finally severed, and the 
home which they had extended and beautified during a 
period of five centuries became to them a habitation no 
longer, when in spite of the intercession of Bishop Lee, 
who pleaded hard for the preservation of what he described 
as his principal cathedral church, the decree of the mon- 
arch went forth for its destruction, and we seek in vain 
the long drawn aisles, the stately towers, the cloistered 
areas, and the noble halls where parliaments had been 
held, princes entertained, including this same Henry VIII. 
himself, who so ruthlessly caused its destruction and 
spoliation. The greater part of the monastic buildings 
has been removed or buried beneath the accumulations 
of three centuries. Thomas Camswell was the last of the 
priors, and the gross income at the suppression amounted 


to £731 19s. 5d. from which certain payments had to be 
made reducing the net sum to about £500 per annum, a 
very large sum in those days. 

The Hospital of St John the Baptist was founded by • 
Prior Laurence, in the reign of Henry II, at the suggestion 
of the then Archdeacon of Coventry, and was established 
to meet a want, which the necessities of the unsettled 
times had created. There was at that period no organ- 
ized provision for the sick and infirm, the poor, or the 
stranger, and this institution was designed to supply this 
want ; and though managed by a separate staff of officials 
known as the master, brethren and sisters, was always 
more or less subordinate to the prior and convent. It 
had all the principal features of a religious house, a 
chapel, (now much curtailed, and for the last three 
centuries used as a Grammar School), refectory, dormi- 
tories, infirmary, and other offices. The community wore 
a special dress, were subjected to strict regulation, man- 
aged their own financial affairs, and derived their income 
from distinct sources, assisted by contributions in pro- 
visions, &c., from the priory. At the dissolution, the net 
income was £67 a year ; it shared the fate of the other 
religious houses, excepting utter destruction. The chapel, 
diminished in size by the setting back of the west front, 
and the removal of its south aisle, still remains. It was 
converted into a school by John Hales, 1545, who came 
into possession of it by purchase, at the time of the 
general wreck, and on the removal of the scholars to new 
premises on the south-side of the city in 1885, ceased to 
be used as such. 

There was some fear at the time of the removal 
of the school, that this venerable structure would 
be either demolished, or appropriated to some entirely 
secular purpose ; but fortunately it has been secured by 
the vicar and churchwardens of Trinity, having been 
purchased by subscription, and is now used as a mission 
hall for weekly and occasional services, a meeting room 
for young men's institutions, and other useful parochial 
purposes, a much preferable fate to being converted into 
either an auction room or theatre, or to entire removal ; 
to one of these, it seemed at one time, this venerable relic 
was doomed. 


The Hospital for Lepers was founded by Hugh Keveliok 
in the time of Hen. 11. This Earl of Chester had a Knight 
in his household who had contracted this loathsome 
disease in one of the crusades, and it was out of affection 
for him that the Earl founded this Lazar House. It was 
first dedicated to St. Leonard but was afterwards known 
as St. Mary Magdalene, both names being frequently 
found associated with hospitals established for lepers. It 
was situated at the west end of Coventry in what is now 
known as Chapel Fields, at the angle formed by a lane 
leading from the old Holyhead road to Hearsall common. 
Of the structure nothing now remains ; the last remnant, a 
portion of the chapel, used as a barn, having been 
removed about 1847. On ceasing to be used as a Lazar 
house it came into the possession of Basingwerk Abbey, 
Flintshire, but was afterwards appropriated by the monks 
of Coventry ; it then reverted to the Crown. Edward IV. 
gave it to the monks of Studley as a free chapel and it 
was from this circumstance that the district is called 
Chapel Fields. 

The Franciscans or Grey Friars settled in Coventry 
about the year 1230 under the patronage of Eanulf 
Earl of Chester, who gave them a piece of land on 
his manor of Cheylesmore on which they built their 
church and monastery. They were liberally supported 
by families in the neighbourhood. Among these were 
the Hastings of AUesley and Fillongley Castles, one of the 
chantries attached being that of St. Nicholas or the 
Hastings Chapel. The monastery was in close proximity 
to the Manor House of Cheylesmore, and the fraternity 
enjoyed certain privileges in connection therewith. Stone 
was freely granted them from the park wherewith to 
supersede their shingled dwelling with a more permanent 
structure, and access granted to the park itself for the 
benefit of their members. Eiches rolled in as the brother- 
hood increased in popularity, and even Isabella the 
infamous Queen of Edward 11. was among the list of its 
patrons. The Friars were great promoters of the miracle 
or sacred plays, which drew large concourses of people 
to Coventry to witness these pageants. They were 
energetic emissaries of the Pope, and in consequence 
enjoyed considerable privileges. They were subject to 


no diocesan control and were very busy agents in bring- 
ing heretics to the fiery ordeal in the old quarry in the 
park close to the Little Park Gate. But as their influence 
waned, so did their income diminish, and at the dissolu- 
tion of monasteries a sad record is given of the decay of 
this house, its dilapidated condition, and its reduced 
circumstances, much the same state of things being the 
case with the manor house adjoining, for the Com- 
missioners in referring to them in 1534 say, " The hole 
" ho wse besides the churcheys inmoch ruyne," and they 
add " adjoynyng unto the fryery ys an olde manor called 
" Chyldsmore . . . The hall ys down.'' The only 
fragment of this friary remaining above ground is the 
steeple, to which, after standing alone for nearly three 
centuries a new church (Christ church) was attached in 
1832. This is the first of the three tall spires we see 
on entering Coventry from the railway station. 

(From Reader's History of Coventry, 1810.) 

Another order of Friars afterwards obtained a position 
in the city, the Carmelites or White Friars who, by 
means of the liberality of Sir John Poultney, (four times 
Lord Mayor of London), built a house at the east end of 
Coventry in 1342. This, by means of generous contribu- 
tions of the wealth}^, was by degrees so enlarged and 
beautified that it maintained a high place among the 
religious houses in that city where it enjoyed so great a 
reputation for sanctity, that numbers of rich citizens 
sel^ted it as a place of sepulchre ; and, no doubt, the 


friars, like their brethren the Franciscans, reaped no small 
benefit from the concession. Their church was not built on 
their own ground, but on land adjoining, for which they 
paid an annual rent of 2s. At the dissolution the net 
revenue of this house was only £7 13s. 8d. per annum. 
The friars were discharged without pension, and the 
property came by purchase eventually into tlie hands of 
John Hales, who, in the disused church, first opened his 
school, Misunderstandincfs arisim? between him and some 
leading citizens, who, raising a plea that there was a want 
of church accommodation in this part of the city, obtained 
a grant of the church from the crown ; and then dis- 
covering that there was no further need for additional 
churches, pulled it down and sold the materials, Mr. 
Hales having removed his school to the Hospital of St. 
John, and converted the Friary into a residence. In doing 
this, many alterations were made, and after passing through 
subsequent changes of proprietorship, the house ultimate- 
ly came into the possession of the guardians of the poor, 
who incorporated it with their house of industry, and 
thereby preserved it from any further demolition. The 
chief portions now remaining, are the eastern avenue of 
the cloister, with two vaulted chambers adjoining, a por- 
tion of the Chapter House, with dormitory above, the 
entrance to the prior's lodgings, the cloister gateway, and 
the outer gate of the precincts, in Much Park street. Queen 
Elizabeth was a guest here. During her reign, a private 
printing press was surreptitiously placed here, from which 
some of the celebrated Marprelate tracts were issued ; and 
in 1642, it was severely injured in the siege, when the 
city was attacked by Charles 1st. It may be here re- 
marked that the introduction of the Friars into England 
was not by any means graciously received by the orders 
of regular monks, for on the advent of the Franciscans we 
find the Benedictines lamenting after this fashion — "Oh 
shame ! oh worse than shame ! oh barbarous pestilence, 
the minor brethren are come into Enoland ! " 

We meet with our next example of religious foundations 
in Coventry, at the west end of the City, just within the 
Walls, and here it may be noted that of all the nine 
foundations which possess in a greater or less degree the 
character of religious houses here, seven of them are 


within the fortifications, and it is partly owing to the in- 
fluence of the older fraternities, and the conditions of 
Cfrant of stone, &c., by Edward the Black Prince, that his 
manor house, together with the priory, the hospital, and 
the two friaries were brought within the line of wall, 
which owing partly to this fact, is so irregular in its circuit. 
The Collegiate church of St. John Baptist adjoined the 
Spon gate, and originated with a grant of land of very 
limited extent, made by Isabel, to found a chapel at 
" Babbelak," in which masses were to be solemnized for 
the repose of the soul of her dear lord Edward, late 
King of England, among others, hoping thereby, no doubt, 
to justify herself to the world, and satisfy her own con- 
science for the share she had had in causing him the bitter 
miseries which terminated at Berkeley. The chapel was 
built by the brethren of St. John's Guild, and to it was at- 
tached a hermitage (though we learn of only one occupant), 
the work was largely promoted by William Walshman, 
formerly valet to Queen Isabel, and both area and build- 
ings much increased by his munificent aid, and the Black 
Prince's additional o'rant of land. Suitable buildino-s for 
the purpose of a Collegiate establishment were raised, and a 
Warden and Priests installed : the necessary provision of 
means being supplied by the united Guilds. The offices 
were ranged along the sides of an irregular court, the 
church forming the south side, the great gate on the east, 
the dirge hall, warden's and priest's chambers on the north 
and west, the school forming an extension along the west 
side of Hill street. There can be but little doubt that the 
present dining hall and dormitory of the Ballake Boys' 
Hospital formed this northern wing of the College. 

At the dissolution the college became by purchase the 
property of the Corporation, and the Hall and adjacent 
buildings were converted into a Bridewell, which was 
removed about fifty years ago. The church after many 
vicissitudes, and adaptations as a lecture hall, temporary 
prison, &c., was converted into a parish church in 1734, a 
rectory attached to the free grammar school, a union dis- 
solved some years ago. The whole fabric has been restored, 
and internal and external accumulations removed, the 
process revealing some singular peculiarities, in fact the 
whole church is a study. In ground plan a parallelogram, 


in the clerestory stage cruciform, with tower in centre, no 
right angles, eastern and western piers of the tower totally 
different, and the north and south clerestory unUke. The 
south aisle of the nave is called Walshman's aisle. 

On the south-east of the city, within walls of its own, 
stands all that remains of the Carthusian Monastery of St. 
Ann, or Charter House : a few fragmentary portions are 
incorporated in the modern dwelling house. It was 
founded on a parcel of land of fourteen acres known as 
St. Ann's Grove by William Lord Zouch of Harringworth, 
Northampshire, in 1381. He did not, however, live to see 
his purpose carried into effect, but left £60 per annum 
towards its future maintenance. The design did not lack 
support; the Botoners, a family to whom St. Michael's 
Church was so largely indebted, the Luffs, and other 
citizens of wealth, contributed liberally to the erection of 
the church, chapter house, cloister, and cells. Local 
efforts were largely supplemented in 1385 by Richard IL 
on his return from Scotland, who further endowed it with 
possessions which had belonged to the alien monasteries, 
and himself laid the foundation stone of the church, being 
regarded as principal founder of the monastery. Among 
its possessions were the advowson of the parish church of 
Sheffield, the priory of Ecclesfield, &c. At the dissolu- 
tion its income amounted to £131 6s 8d. above all 
reprises. John Bockard was the last of the priors, and 
having made an easy surrender was, together with the 
assenting eight monks, liberally pensioned, he himself 
receiving £40 a year. 

Two other foundations of a pre-reformation origin 
remain to be noticed, which, though charitable institutions, 
partook of a semi-religious character and which still exist. 
The oldest of these is the hospital for old men founded in 
1506 by Thomas Bond, an ex-mayor of the city, for " ten 
" poor men as long as the world shall endure and a woman 
" to look to them," as the brass in St, Michael's church 
quaintly expresses it. The recipients were to be chosen 
as far as possible from decayed members of the Trinity 
Guild, to wear a monastic dress, and daily after they had 
supped to go into the church hard by and say fifteen 
paternosters, fifteen aves, and three creeds, and a devout 
secular priest was to be appointed to attend upon them, 



to preach and give spiritual consolation, and to pray for 
the souls of the founder and others. At the dissolution 
this foundation had a narrow escape of being confiscated, 
but the Corporation intervened, and the charitable inten- 
tions of the founder were maintained, although a further 
attempt was made by the son to set aside the vrill, which 
was frustrated by a decree in Chancery. The double 
cloistered fabric of half timber work still remains, and 
occupies the northern side of the enclosure of which St. 
John's Church forms the southern. 

The other Institutions to which I have referred, is 
Ford's Hospital for aged women, and was founded in 1529 
on the east side of Grey Friars -lane. . The building is a 
perfect gem of timber frame work, and was evidently con- 
structed for the purpose it still serves. Wm. Ford was a 
merchant, he was Mayor in 1496, and his executor, William 
Pisford, also an ex-Mayor, nobly seconded his efforts by 
adding to the endowment, and to the building. At first 
aged men and old married couples partook of the charity, 
but this was subsequently altered, and aged women are 
now the only recipients. Like Bond's Hospital, Ford's 
Almshouse had a narrow escape at the dissolution, on the 
pretence, that as a priest was provided to perform the 
service of the mass in the little chapel over the gateway, 
it was an institution " given to superstitious uses," a plea 
which was fortunately over-ruled. Owing to the depreci- 
ation in the value of the property of both these charities, 
the number of inmates and recipients has been much 
decreased of late years, but they still exist as evidences 
of the large hearted benevolence which characterized the 
good old merchant princes of Coventry, who out of their 
wealth, did not forget the claims for consideration of the 
wants of their poorer fellow citizens. Let us hope that it 
will be very long ere the influence of the " dead hand " 
will fail to assert its power, and that the pious intentions 
of these generous founders will continue to be held sacred 
for the benefit of future generations. We have in Coven- 
try a recent proof that the spirit of this best of all gifts — 
of charity — is not dead amongst us, for a noble benefactor 
recently deceased has bequeathed, in addition to many 
" other good gifts,'' a sum exceeding £100,000 to found 
an asvlum for acfed women, and the name of David 


Spencer may thus be added to those of Bond, Ford, 
Wheatly, Haddon, White, Hales, Bayley, Fairfax, Baker, 
Billing, Crow, and a long roll of other generous names 
whom the citizens of Coventry have good cause to remem- 
ber with thankfulness and gratitude. 

I have thus briefly treated in some order of time, of the 
monastic institutions of this ancient city, which originated 
and flourished previous to the reformation, and which 
exhibited, more or less, the character of religious houses; 
to attempt to give anything like a detailed history and 
description of either of them would entail a much longer 
chapter, than the epitome of the nine, which I have the 
honour to lay before my hearers ; but I shall have said 
enough to convince them that Coventry held a high rank 
in the mediseval period, as a city rich indeed in monastic 
fraternities, and in the glorious houses they erected and 



Every now and then our interest is renewed in one of 
the oldest monuments of the world, by a sort of ceremony 
of unveiling. However long the Great Sphinx of Egypt 
may have crouched on the edge of the Libyan desert, 
with the exception of his head, he has certainly spent 
most of his time covered up with the sand, which, accord- 
ing to Arab tradition, he is supposed to keep back from 
encroaching upon the fertile land in front of him. We 
read of this sand being cleared away as early as 1500 B.C. 
Again, in modern times Lepsius and the Due de Luynes 
accomplished the same work ; and in 1869 Mariette cleared 
it out in honour of the opening of the Suez Canal, and yet 
again, three years ago, the sphinx was covered as thickly 
as hundreds of years before. In 1886 the excavators 
again set to work, and the great sphinx was unveiled to 
the world, and for a time, at least, we are able to see the 
whole of the huge lion body crouching far below the 
gigantic human head, which rises high above the level 
of the surrounding table land. How long we may have 
this advantage is very doubtful. Thothmes IV, when he 
cleared away the sand about 1500 B.C., built a crude 
brick wall to keep it back, and there is some talk of 
restoring this old wall, unless something of the kind 
is soon undertaken the greater part of the sphinx will be 
speedily again hidden. That at the present moment he 
can be seen will, I hope, be a sufficient excuse for my 
asking you to give a few minutes to the consideration of 
such a very well-known object of antiquity. 

^Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, November 7, 1889. 


The form of the great sphinx is that of the man- 
headed lion ; it is carved out of the Hmestone rock, the 
natural form of which probably gave the artists the first 
idea of their design. 

The head, which rises 40 ft, above the surrounding 
plateau, is carved with much more care than the rest of 
the figure ; the forehead is wide, the eyes remarkably 
deep set, the cheeks round, the lips very full. As a whole 
the face gives the characteristics of the old Egyptian 
face, features which are repeated in the Copts of to-day, 
and it therefore may be regarded as a portrait, not of any 
individual, but of the race itself. The face was bearded, 
the beard being plaited broad and square, and slightly 
turned up at the end, representing the false beard of the 
ancient Egyptians, which was fastened by a strap round 
the face. Good examples ol this form of beard may be 
seen in pictures and statues of gods and kings of ancient 
Egypt. The head is encircled by a headdress made of 
folded linen, striped with red or blue lines ; it covers the 
whole of the head and upper part of the forehead ; the 
broad folds stand out behind the ears, and fall in two 
lappets in front over the sides of the chest. This headdress 
is called the Uaft, a word signifying in the Coptic a monk's 
cowl ; it was formerly reserved for royalty, and may be 
seen on many sculptures of sphinxes and kings of ancient 
Egypt, a good example being the diorite statue of King 
Khafra of the fourth dynasty. Centuries later it was used 
as an artistic drapery for the head by Greek workers in 
Alexandria, as we see by some of the bronzes of that 
period. At the present day the Coptic priest puts a 
striped handkerchief over his head, much like the klaft of 
the great sphinx, at the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion, as part of his ritual dress. Above the klaft, the 
head of the great sphinx is surmounted by the hooded 
snake or uraeus, which rears its upraised head from the 
forehead ; the origin of this symbol is most obscure, but 
from the earliest times it seems to have been the emblem 
of royalty, both human and divine. Pieces of the uraeus 
and the beard were found broken off, and were brought to 
England early in this century, and are now in glass cases 
in the British Museum. The body of the sphinx, in the 
form of a crouching lion, lies 100 ft. below in a huge 


artificial amphitheatre hollowed out in the limestone 
plateau. It is 140 ft. long, and, like the head, is formed of 
the rock itself, but supplemented here and there with 
masonry to complete the shape ; it was formerly plastered 
all over with smoothed limestone, and coloured ; this has 
almost disappeared ; but we read of traces having been 
seen by Greaves in 1736. The colour used was chiefly a 
dull red, the same red as the Egyptians used to depict 
themselves as distinguished from the lighter coloured 
Libyans or the darker Ethiopians. Some of this colour is 
still to be seen, not only on the face and body, but also on 
the broken pieces in the British Museum. In order to 
reach the front paws, a sloping descent leads to a flight of 
steps, 40 ft. wide, described by Pliny, and uncovered by 
Caviglia in 1817, but since then entirely lost to sight for 
seventy years. These steps lead to a platform of the 
rock, on which some Roman buildings seem to have stood ; 
from this platform another flight of thirty steps lead down 
to the level of the paws. The paws are stretched out 
straight; they were restored in Roman time, and look 
very insignificant and poor with their covering of thin 
slabs. Before them still stands the Roman altar made 
from a piece of granite, which possibly was taken from the 
granite temple close by ; this altar probably replaced an 
earlier one, on which sacrifices and incense may have been 
offered to the great sphinx for some thousands of years. 

A monument in the Louvre informs us that as late as 
600 B.C.J a priest named Psammetichus offered incense in 
honour of the pyramid builders, Khufu and Khafva the 
king gods, and to the great Hormakhu (Hor on the 
Horizon), the name by which the sphinx was known to the 
Greeks. Close to this altar were found the little sphinx, 
the hawk and the lion, which were dedicated to the 
sphinx in Ptolemaic times, and which are now in the 
British Museum. From the altar the old processions 
passed along the sacred paved way, between the paws to 
the sanctuary at the breast. This was a chamber, 35 ft. 
long by 10 broad, formed by three stelae 14 ft. high. The 
two side ones are gone ; they were made of limestone, and 
two low jambs projected to form a doorway. The third 
stela is of granite, and still rests against the breast ; it 
was placed there by the king Thothmes lY, and some 


holes in it behind shew that he appropriated a piece of 
granite from the granite temple to make it. In the bas- 
relief at the top, the king is represented offering incense 
and a libation to the sphinx, who like the colossal figure 
behind has a beard and other divine attributes. Below 
is an inscription, a full translation of which may be found 
in Brugsch's history. The following extracts are perhaps 
the most interesting : We read how Thothmes IV, before 
he came to the throne, hunted lions in the valley of 
gazelles, behind the pyramids, riding in a two-horsed 
chariot, with two attendants. When in the heat of the 
day he granted rest to his servants, he was wont to 
advance and present an offering of the seeds of flowers 
to Hormakhu, and to the great goddesses. 

Further on we read, "On one of these days it liappened, 
when the king's son Thothmes had arrived on his journey 
about the time of midday, and had stretched himself to 
rest in the shade of this great god, that sleep overtook 
him. He dreamt in his slumber at the moment when the 
sun was at the zenith, and it seemed to him as though 
this great god spoke to him with his own mouth, just as 
a father speaks to his son, addressing him thus: — 
" Behold me ! look at me, thou, my son Thothmes. I am 
thy father, Hormakhu, Khepra, Ra, Tum. The kingdom 
shall be given unto thee, and thou shalt wear the white 
crown and the red crown on the throne of the earth-god 
Seb, the youngest (among the gods). The world shall be 
thine in its length and in its breadth, as far as the light of 
the eye of the Lord of the Universe shines. Plenty and 
riches shall be thine ; the best from the interior of the 
land, and rich tributes from all nations ; long years shall 
be granted thee as the term of life. My countenance is 
gracious towards thee, and my heart clings to thee; 
I will give thee the best of all things. The sand of the 
district has covered me up. Promise me that thou wilt 
do what I wish in my heart, then shall I know whether 
thou art my son, my helper. Go forward ; let me be 
united to thee." After this Thothmes awoke and he re- 
peated all these speeches, and he understood the meaning 
of the words of the god and laid them up in his heart, 
speaking thus with himself : " I see how the dwellers in 
the temple of the city honour this god with sacrificial 


gifts, without thinkino- of freeincr from sand the work 
of King Khafra, the statue which was made to Turn 

Thus Thothmes lY received, as he said, the command 
in a dream to clear the sand away from round the 
sphinx. This he faithfully fulfilled afterwards when he 
became king, as a thank-offering to the sun-god, who 
had helped him to ascend the throne of Egypt. 

As to the date of the sphinx there have been diversities 
of opinion, varying not by centuries, but by thousands 
of years. Miss Edwards, in a recent lecture on portrait 
sculpture, proposes 10,000 B.C. as a possible date. For 
myself, I feel that we know so little of the course of 
events we will say between 4,000 B.C. and 10,000 B.C., 
that at present it does not much matter what date we 
fix upon between those limits. 

From the conclusion of the inscription on the granite 
tablet of Thothmes IV, we see that in his time the great 
sphinx was said to be the work of King Khafra, the 
builder of the second pyramid, according to Brugsch 
3666 B.C. This idea may have arisen from the fact, that 
this colossal work lies in a direct line east of that 
pyramid, and that close by, is the granite temple, pro- 
bably built by Khafra, wrongly called the temple of the 
sphinx. But that this opinion was erroneous, we learn 
from a limestone stela in the Boulak Museum which was 
found in the ruins of the temple, close to the southern- 
most of the three little pyramids near the great pyramid. 
Though this inscription only dates from the time of the 
21st or 25th dynasty, and therefore not earlier than 1000 
or 700 B.C., yet there seems no doubt that it was a copy 
of an older stela. It tells us that before the time of 
Khafra, king Khufu, the builder of the great pyramid, 
re-established the offerings in three temples, that of his 
mother Isis, that of Osiris, and that of the Sphinx. He 
built his pyramid and a pyramid for the king's daughter, 
Hontsen, near the temple of the goddess. The stela also 
gives representations of the gods and goddesses, and state 
the material of which they were made. Amongst these, the 
most interesting is that of the great sphinx, whose dwell- 
ing place, we are told, is to the south of the temple of 
Isis, lady of the pyramid, and to the north of the temple 


of Osiris, master of the city of the dead. Therefore from 
this stela, we gather that the great sphinx is anterior 
to the time of Khufu whom Brugsch places 3733 B.C., and 
further than that, I feel we cannot as yet go. 

An idea has struck me, which I will mention here 
as a hypothesis, which would reconcile the two im- 
portant stelae relating to the great sphinx. Is it not 
possible that the head and the body belong to different 
eras ? A limestone rock rising above the table land may 
like other rocks, still in Egypt, have borne a resemblance 
to a great head, and artists in the pre-historic times before 
the pyramid age, may have carved the splendid face, 
looking ever to the east. King Khafra, needing lime- 
stone for his pyramid, may have hollowed out the 
great amphitheatre and added the lion's body to the 
head above. There is a great causeway leading from 
the second pyramid to the temple of the sphinx close 
by, up which these great limestone blocks could 
have been taken to the site of the pyramid. If this 
were the case, it would s^ive a reason for the leo-end 
current in the time of Thothmes IV, nearly two thousand 
years later, that the great sphinx was the work of King 

As to later accounts of the great sphinx, we have the 
ex-votos of the Greek visitors, and also the verses of the 
historian Arrian, still to be seen on the paws ; these 
graffiti are of late date, and are scarcely legible, being 
generally faintly scratched ; two years ago Prof. Maspero 
began the difficult task of translating them. Yet, notwith- 
standing these, we can find no mention of the great sphinx 
by any author or traveller before Eoman time ; even 
Herodotos, who describes the pyramids and mentions the 
avenue of andro-sphinxes which he saw at Sais, passes 
him over in silence. Pliny gives a long account of this 
monument, supposing it to be the tomb of King Amasis 
of the twenty-sixth dynasty. 

The old Arabs, like the modern Bedouins, called him 
Aboulhol, the father of terror, and spoke of him as a 
talisman or charm to keep the sand from the cultivated 
land ; they say that the desert has encroached only since 
he suffered terrible mutilations at the hands of a fanatical 
sheik in the fourteenth century. Abdel Lateef of Bagh- 



dad, the learned Arabian doctor, philosopher, and 
traveller, who visited Egypt about the beginning of 
the thirteenth century, gives us his impressions of 
the great sphinx. He tells us that at a little more 
than an arrow's shot from the pyramids he saw the 
colossal fio-ure of a head and neck risincj out of the 
ground. " This figure is called Aboulhol, and it is said 
that the body to which this figure belongs is buried 
beneath. On the face is seen a reddish tint, which has 
all the sparkle of freshness. This face is very beautiful, 
and the mouth bears the impression of grace and beauty. 
One might say that it smiles graciously. An intellectual 
man asked me what I most admired of all I had seen in 
Egypt, which object had most excited my admiration; 
I told him the truth of the proportions of the head of 
the sphinx. In fact, the different parts of the head, for 
instance, the nose, ears, and eyes, bear the same pro- 
portions, which nature observes in her works. Now 
it is most astonishing that in a work so colossal the 
sculptor should have been able to preserve the right pro- 
portion of all the parts, whilst nature gave him no mode- 
of such a colossus, nor anything which could be com- 
pared to it." 

Since the above was written, the sphinx has suffered 
much at the hands of man. The Mamluks are even 
said to have used the face as a target; the nose is 
gone, the beard has been knocked off, the sides of the 
headdress have been broken, and yet we feel the old Arab 
traveller was quite right in the admiration he expressed. 
Seen in the full light, the scars and injuries catch the eye 
and disturb the impression ; but seen in the dim light or 
by moonlight, the grand face still gives one the best idea 
the world has perhaps ever yet produced of sublime 

All testimony is unanimous in bearing witness to the fact 
that the sphinx personified the sun-god ; the old Egyptian 
names Hu and Akar seem to denote the man-headed lion 
as a symbol of the sun of the day and of the night ; the 
word seshep is found as a title of Eameses, signifying the 
sphinx and the luminous. The titles used on the stela of 
Thothmes IV, Khepra, Ra and Tum, all denote difTerent 
phases of the sun-god, and the common name by which 


he was known in later times, was Hor-ma-kliu or 
Hor-em-khu, signifying Horus or the sun on the Horizon. 
This was translated by the Greeks as Harmais or Harma- 
chis, the latter being cut upon one of the paws by a 
Greek called Babillus, the old Egyptian idea was evidently 
that the sphinx represented Horus the sun-god, the sun 
of the morning, of mid-day, of the evening, and even of 
the night. Later, the Greeks, perhaps because his face 
was turned to the east, thought and spoke of him as the 
rising sun only, Horus on the horizon, Horus the light 
of the morning. Mariette follows these later ideas, when 
he says of the sphinx : " at the entrance of the great 
plateau, stands the great sphinx, image of Harmachis or 
the rising sun, the eternal guardian of this vast cemetery, 
personifying in the midst of all these tombs, the idea 
of the resurrection, the idea of the light which begins 
again every morning after having conquered the shades 
of darkness." 

The great sphinx is the only isolated sphinx in Egypt. 
In later times the rule was to represent sphinxes in 
pairs ; and these later sphinxes are not used as repre- 
sentations of the sun-god, to be worshipped and adored 
with sacrifices, incense and offerings of flowers, but 
as sacred emblems of the king. Each Pharaoh claimed 
to be the mortal incarnation of the sun-god, and 
therefore selected the sphinx as best expresing his person- 
ality. The royal sphinxes of Egypt, stamped with the 
royal cartouches, usurped sometimes over and over again 
by succeeding monarchs, must be regarded not as por- 
traits of any particular king, but as representing royalty, 
majesty, and kingly power in the form appropriated to 
the sun-god ; and with the face bearing the impress of 
the features, belonging to the ruling race. The Hyksos 
sphinxes can scarcely be excepted, for however much 
we may regard them as marvellous portraits, yet they 
show us more the features of a new race of kings, the 
typical characteristics of another nation, than portraits of 
individual men. The sphinx, as indicative of royalty, 
became female in Egypt in a few rare instances, and then 
represented a queen. Queen Notemmut, wife of king 
Horus of the eighteenth dynasty, queen in her own right, 
is represented as a sphinx on the left side of the black 


granite throne, on which she and her husband are seated 
in the museum of Turin. She wears a strange head-dress, 
a group of lotus flowers, emblematic of Upper Egypt, 
springing from the crown of Lower Egypt ; an erect pair 
of wings spring out of the body, which were probably 
Asiatic in origin, there being much intercourse at that 
time between Assyria and Egypt. A little later, Batanta, 
daughter of Kameses II, is represented as a female sphinx ; 
there are a few others, for instance, a small winged 
one of Greeco-Eoman time of grey schist, in the Gizeh 

The sphinx was also used architectually to form 
entrance avenues to the temples ; some thousands of 
sphinxes in Egypt here find their raison d'Stre. They 
have almost lost their divine attributes, though they may 
still be regarded as royal in character, and sometimes 
bear a small efligy of the king before the breast. In these 
avenues we find the sphinx, not only as the man-headed 
lion, as at Wady Saboach, where the beautiful lions 
still sit in the golden sand of I*s"ubia, but also ram-headed 
and pure lion as in the wonderful avenues at Karnak. In 
the British Museum, one of the ram's heads may be seen 
from the Karnak avenue ; it is certainly one of the best 
pieces of animal sculpture in the world. The hawk- 
headed sphinx is also found in the decoration of Egyptian 
temples the haw^k being chosen probably as sacred to the 

The decorative use of the sphinx in Egypt does not 
appear to have been earlier than the eighteenth dynasty, 
and this may have been induced by foreign influence 
but once permitted, it spread rapidly and on scarabs and 
vases and jewelry we are never surprised to find the 
sphinx form, sometimes with human arms presenting 
offerings, sometimes with human, sometimes with lion or 
hawk head ; it is one of the favourite emblems used in 
necklets and bracelets from the time of the empire down- 
wards to the Greek period in Egypt. 

But the sphinx does not belong to Egypt alone. 
The idea of the sphinx form seems common to the 
ancient world, and it is impossible to tell where 
it first arose, whether in Asia or in Africa. Maspero 
says that he thinks none of the sphinx forms are 


the result of calculated combination, but that as Pliny, 
Diodorus, and Strabo all describe the lion with human 
head as really existing, so both the Egyptians and 
Assyrians believed that in the desert these unnatural 
beings lived beyond the ken of human kind. To the 
inhabitants of the ancient world the desert represented 
the unknown, and was often the symbol of the other 
world ; they, therefore, peopled it with beings of an 
unearthly nature, in whose existence they nevertheless 
had unbounded faith. In Assyria, though the sphinx is 
far rarer than in Egypt, yet it would seem to have its 
natural home, for in their sculpture the Assyrians far 
more than the Egyptians preferred the animal body 
united with the human head ; the Egyptian gods of 
composite form with the exception of the sphinx and 
one or two others are animal-headed. 

In Assyria the sphinxes can scarcely be said to represent 
gods, they have been called the " ministers of the great 
gods " ; as in Egypt they are generally placed in pairs, and 
are often the guardians of the gate like the human-headed 
bulls, and must be classified as genii rather than as deities. 
The earlier sphinxes were male, and were further developed 
by the addition of wings. Layard found two male winged 
sphinxes in the southernmost palace at Nimroud, which 
he thinks were intended to bear the base of a column, 
they are crouching and instead of the front paws being 
stretched out like those of the Egyptian sphinx, they are 
drawn back in the position of an animal ready to rise, 
instead of in perfect repose. This apparently small 
difference is characteristic of the sculpture of the two 
nations, the one excelling in depicting the position of rest, 
the other that of life and action. The crouching female- 
winged sphinx is first found in the palace of Esarhaddon, 
the seventh century before our era ; here it appears tech- 
nically weak as considered from an artistic point of view, 
though it is decorative, and the head is adorned vvith a 
tiara of twisting horns. In sculpture at this time, the 
erect lion-headed man looking like the fourth incarnation 
of Vishnu, seems to supersede the crouching man-headed 
lion ; many examples of the former may be seen in the 
Assyrian basement at the British Museum, and the sphinx 
form proper was to a great degree relegated to the sphere 


of decoration. On cylinders we find the sphinx repre- 
sented seated or crouching, generally male and bearded ; 
on the inner side of bowls the winged sphinx appears, and 
also on small works of art such as amulets, the latter 
shewing unmistakable signs of foreign influence received 
from the great metal workers of antiquity, the Phoenicians. 
These great decorators nearly always used the winged 
form, they possessed the imitative rather than the creative 
faculty, so that in their work we generally find com- 
binations of Egyptian and Assyrian motives, harmonised 
together to form decorative patterns, rather than to 
express religious ideas. In Asia Minor we have many 
interesting examples of the use of the sphinx, it is more 
common in relief than in the round, though it seems to 
have been placed sometimes in the latter form at the 
entrances to buildings, for one wingless female sphinx lies 
on the holy way at Miletus. There is a sphinx in relief 
on an alabaster slab in the Louvre brought from Aradus 
on the Syrian coast which seems to follow naturally after 
Layard's Nimroud sphinx, being both Assyrian and 
Egyptian in design. It is crouching but with its paws 
tucked in, on the head is the Egyptian double crown 
worn above a modified Klaft while above the forehead 
is the uraeus. It has curved Assyrian wings, and 
the ornamentation of the slab, which is both elaborate 
and effective is Assyrian rather than Egyptian. The 
sphinxes in relief at Euyuk in Cappadocia are still more 
extraordinary, the head, breast, and fore-paws emerge 
from the granite pillars on either side of the doorway, 
while above, as if borne on their heads is the lintel of the 
door. Though Egyptian in character this sculpture is 
totally unlike the Egyptian sphinx — it is female, the 
features are like those of the Egyptian nineteenth dynasty 
statues, the eyes appear very deep-set, but the cavities 
were formerly filled in with enamel and crystal, the ear is 
placed in the right place, instead of being high up on the 
side of the head in the Egyptian manner, the headdress 
is very much like the " Klaft " above the face, but the 
lappets are drawn into volutes on either shoulder, and round 
the neck is a simple necklet, both headdress and necklet 
being those commonly worn by Egyptian ladies of the 
time of Kameses II. The front paws hang down in a 


lifeless way, the five toes of even size giving them an 
unnatural appearance. The whole looks very Egyptian, 
but has been adapted by an Asiatic artist familiar with 
Egyptian sculpture. 

At Oum-el-Awamid in Syria the sphinx was used in the 
same way, the hinder parts being left imbedded in the 
block, while the head and forequarters emerged to guard 
the temple. Fragments of a throne (now in the Louvre) 
from the same place are interesting as they shew that the 
sphinx form was here adopted so as to form part of the 
sides of the seat probably in the same way as in the 
throne of a seated figure found at Solento in Sicily. The 
statue may represent a goddess, and a robed sphinx walks 
on each side of her throne, the two front legs of the lion 
appearing out of a narrow skirt. 

In Lycia and in Cyprus the sphinxes are very Greek in 
character. The silver bowls from Curium and Larnaca 
shew on the inner side winged griffins and sphinxes each 
holding a man under its claws. This seems to bring us 
to the Greek myth of the sphinx told us by the old Greek 
poet Hesiod. This myth may be Phoenician as it belongs 
to Shebes in Boetia, a Phoenician colony (brought, so some 
accounts tell us, from Ethiopia to Greece by Hera.) It is 
curious to relate that an Egyptian crouching sphinx in 
the round has been found at Thebes. There are several 
versions of the myth of the sphinx ; the daughter of 
Typhon and Echidna or of Orthros and the Chimaera, she 
was for ever asking her riddle and devouring all those 
who could not tell her secret. Oedipus who guessed it 
received the diadem of Thebes and is represented killing 
the sphinx with a sword. The myth may give us the 
origin of the modern appellation sphinx from (T^tyyo) to 
throttle. The Greek sphinx was supposed to have the 
face, perhaps breast, of a woman, the body, feet, 
and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird, and from 
this time onwards the sphinx is, as a rule, female, 
and only occurs as male in imitative representations 
of Asiatic and Egyptian motives as e.g., on the walls 
of Pompeii, or the male sphinx which stands close to 
the Shoedagong pagoda at Rangoon, wliich was said to 
have been begun about the era of Buddha, 600 B.C. 
Ferguson says he is the last lineal descendant of those 


great human-headed winged lions that once adorned the 
l)ortals of the palaces at Nineveh, but after nearly 3000 
Years of wandering and ill-treatment, have degenerated 
into these wretched caricatures of their former selves. 
The change from male to female was perhaps effected in 
Asia Minor, where female daemonic forms were common ; 
the siren, the harpy, and the chimaera are all said to 
have owed their existence to the inventive faculty of this 
people, who thus tried to bridge over the gulf between 
gods and men. Etruria shews a close union in her ideas 
of the sphinx with the types found in Asia Minor. In the 
Etruscan saloon at the British Museum, is a bronze buck- 
ler of Phoenician workmanship, with two sphinxes in 
the centre of the upper part ; the long lion bodies are 
standing on all four paws, the necks are long and the 
faces reach up towards the top of an elaborate floral orna- 
ment, which stands between the two sphinxes. 

At Mycenae, Schliemann found six little gold sphinxes 
of archaic Greek- work, the sex is not defined, they sit 
erect, and the head is covered with a three cornered cap, 
which he calls Phrygian, In the tombs of Spata, of some- 
what later date, sphinxes were found carved on bone, all 
female, with large broad wings, curved back in the 
Assyrian fashion. 

The East was full of symbol, which was inherited by 
the archaic art of Greece, and the borrowed ideas were 
crystallised into myths. The Greek myth may be found 
foreshadowed in Egypt, in a relief found in the graves of 
Abd-el-Gourneh, at Thebes, where a bearded sphinx is 
seen with one foot on three men, and the idea of the con- 
quering power of the Sphinx was probably inherited from 
Egypt, where men believed that it represented the sun's 
power, which though it might be obscured for a time, 
nevertheless always remained irresistible and continuous. 
The Greek story is rich in developments and in Greece we 
find representations not only of the sphinx conquering, 
but also of men conquering the sphinx, as in the case of 

On the throne of Zeus at Olympia, it is supposed that 
sphinxes were represented carrying off' children, in the 
same way as the harpies from the harpy tomb from 
Xanthus. Amongst the representations of the sphinx, 


which have a mythical significance, we may perhaps class 
the few examples found on scarabs, the Cypriot copy of 
an old Chaldean seal found at Curium (now at New York) 
representing a Chaldean priest in the attitude of worship 
with two sphinxes confronting above him, as well as the 
Greek coins bearing the symbol of the sphinx. The 
sphinx coins of Chios range from 600 to 250 B.C., the 
finest being about 400 B.C., on the latter the Greek sphinx 
is seen seated before an amphora, on the top of which is 
a bunch of grapes, the sphinx seeming to have been con- 
nected with the worship of Dionysos, Another beautiful 
type of sphinx coins belongs to Cyzicus on the sea of 
Marmora about 450 B.C. in one of which the sphinx is seen 
crouching on a fish. Amongst the Alexandrian coins of 
the time of Domitian is a crouching andro-sphinx, very 
Egyptian in character, while on the Alexandrian coins 
of the time of Hadrian, we see ugly queer creatures, and 
amongst them sphinxes, some walking and some seated. 
Of the same nature as the sphinxes on coins is the bas- 
relief on a limestone tablet of about 150 a.d. found at 
Tanis in the house of Bakakhuiu, the lawyer, representing 
a Graeco-Egyptian sphinx with turreted crown and 
curved wings, emblematic of the genius of the town. It 
is published by the Egypt Exploration Fund in Tanis 
vol i. Butin Greek 7Vrt the sphinx form is used not only in 
mythical representations, but also as pure ornamentation, 
and in connection with the grave. It adorned the helmet 
of Athena of the Parthenon, its enigmatical and strange 
character rendered it dear to the heart of the decorator, 
who combined the types in different ways, and repeated 
it a countless number of times on jewelry and on vases, 
until it became a mere technical form of ornamentation 
with apparently no hidden meaning. 

But the sphinx of the tomb is far more interesting than 
that of pure ornament. In Greece, as in Asia, it was com- 
paratively rare in the round, but there seem to have been 
sepulchral pillars, with sphinxes resting on them, which 
Milchhofer thinks may have been erected on the top of 
tumuli ; these are often represented on the vases found in 
the tombs. From the earliest mastabahs of ancient Egypt 
down to the later Greek tombs vases were buried with 
the dead ; water in the East is very precious, and in 



early time signified the water of life necessary for the 
soul, and symbolised by these vases. One very fine vase 
in the British Museum, found at Capua, is borne on the 
back of a sphinx, between the wings ; the face is of a 
beautiful Greek type, the position, one that appears to 
have been the favourite with Greeks, erect on the front 

On grave reliefs in Cyprus and Lycia the sphinx is 
frequently found in relief, as in some of the tombs at 
Golgos, not far from Larnaca, and on the steles, at either 
end of the scarcophagus found at the same place. They 
are about the fifth centur}^ B.C., and the sphinxes are 
seated at the top, back to back, while below them is a 
floral ornament. On the lid of the beautiful marble 
sarcophagus, which was found broken in many pieces at 
Amathus on the southern coast, the sphinxes form the 
corner ornament, and seem to be in the act of advancing 
to the top of the sarcophagus. The front paws are 
straight, the wings down, the lower part of the wings being 
a further development from those of the sphinxes, which 
preceded them. The same sphinx is found in the Lycian 
frieze, discovered at Xanthus by Sir C. Fellowes, forming 
the external decoration of a tomb. Two doorways belong- 
ing to the same building as well as the doorways repre- 
sented in the frieze, have sphinxes on either side of the 
entrance. They are seated in perfect repose, resting at 
the gate of the grave, guardians of those sacred sepulchres 
of antiquity, and the forerunners perhaps of that composite 
creature we call an angel. Yet beautiful as they are, their 
power is gone, and like the great sphinx of Gizeh they 
now watch at the entrance of empty and violated graves. 
The modern world has exchanged the old reverence for 
the dead, for a thirst for knowledge, and a desire to lay 
bare the secrets of the past. Who shall say which is the 
better ? 




In examining the movement of Aulus Plautius with 
respect to his passage of the Eiver Thames at a particular 
spot, described by Dion Cassius Ix § 19 — 23, as marked 
by certain physical features, it is necessary to follow his 
movements from the beginning of the expedition in order 
to determine whether he crossed from the North or the 
South. All previous writers agree and I also that Plautius 
started his expedition from Boulogne.^ It consisted of 
four legions and a carefully prepared equipage, including 
some elephants. There was about 50,000 men divided 
into three parts, which we may call corpfi d'armee. 

From the point of departure the Expedition went West ;^ 
now westward from Boulogne is along the south coast 
of Sussex and Hants. The soldiers did not like this 
expedition, even before it started, and doubtless they 
remembered the failure of Caligula's attempt to land, and 
the painful experience of tossing about and severe sea- 
sickness to which that commander and his forces 
apparently succumbed. On the occasion of Plautius' 
attempt, being further out in the channel, the great seas 

^ Read at the Monthly Meeting of the need not be repeated, for all employ the 

Institute, November, 1888. same words in translation, there is con- 

■^ " The chief papers on the subject of siderable difference in the modes of 

these remarks are those by Dr. Guest in explanation given by Dr. Guest and Sir 

the Archpeological Journal, Vol., xiii. and G. Airy, and I find, in looking carefully 

Sir G. Airy's papers in the Athenajum, at the exact sequence of events mentioned 

Jan. 28th, 1860, reprinted with an added by Dion, that there is room for a still 

map in a collection called 'Essays on the different view." 

Roman Invasions of Britain,' and lastly ^ Guest makes the expedition go north- 
an article in Nature, April 14, 18S6. It ward to Richboro', to Dover, and north- 
might be tedious to recapitulate fully the west to (Lj'mp)ne. Airy makes it go due 
opinions of these writers, so I shall only north to Southend-on-the-Thames, but I 
refer to these occasionally. Dion's account regard the star as my guide from Bon- 
is given in the Archteological Journal, xxiii, logne as a centre, 
and by Petrie and Sharp, and though it 


and tempestuous weather drove the ships back to port, 
and so disheartened the men as to threaten the s access of 
the affair, had they not been re-assured and their com- 
mander assisted by a kindly star, which, like them, 
icestwavd sailing, cheered them on. It is not stated where 
the landing was effected, but that the enemy took to the 
marshes and woods instead of coming to an engagement. 
It may have been, as I think it was, therefore, that they 
landed somewhere in the neighbourhood of Porchester or 
in the Solent, this being the most likely place for reaching 
tYiQ first district named by Dion.i 

Plautius after some time, having with difficulty brought 
on an engagement, defeated first Caractacus and then 
ToiTodumnus. Caractacus was ruler of the Midlands ; he 
was the head of many tribes and kings, and Togodumnus 
was his ally. Bericus, when he sought the aid of Claudius, 
desired to overcome Caractacus as the chief of his enemies; 
this, it appears to me, explains why Plautius made for the 
nearest port to Caractacus' headquarters, among the 
Catuvellauni. No places are indicated by Dion as the sites 
of the first two battles, but the Boduni, who were subject 
to the Catuvellauni, had the honour of supporting a Roman 
Garrison. The Boduni have been generally considered as 
the same tribe as the Dobuni of Ptolemy and they lived 
around Corinuim or Cirencester ; if, therefore, Plautius 
went for that place first it would explain his having no 
rivers to cross, or at least, as we find, none worth recording. 
Having passed round by the Cotswolds, or, at all events 
by the head waters of the Thames river, the army went 
eastward triumphantly through the Catuvellaunian state 
which lay north of the Thames, perhaps somewhat in the 
line of the Akeman Street as given by Guest, until it came 
to a " certain " river, which the barbarians supposed could 
not be crossed without a bridge.- If this was not the 
Colne it was the Lea, being, as I suppose, the only river 
which could have caused any trouble along the line of 

^ Dr. Guest makes the expedition land a river neither so large nor so far west, 

at three distant places. But Dion does Guest says it was the Thames at Walling- 

not mention this, ho only says it was ford, but the Tliames is first mentioned 

divided into three, but it clearly is implied after this battle, and, as the engagement 

that the landing was at one time and took place not far from the estuary, it 

place, no opposition being oftered. could not have occurred at Wallingford. 

' Some older writers, with Horsley, Au'y's account I cannot follow at all with 

make it the fcjeveru. Ward thinks it was Dion. 


march suggested by me. The battle was desperate and 
lasted two days. As the borders of Caractacus' State, 
that of the Catuvellauni, and the borders of Togodumnus' 
State that of the Trmobantes, was at the Lea or somewhere 
near it, it is easily understood why the defeated Britons 
should make a stand at so propitious a spot. The Lea 
below Rye House presented at that time just the con- 
ditions which the description of the battle requires for its 
comprehension. At this battle Togodumnus was slain 
and the Britons retreated to the Thames, which they 
crossed. Having come now to the point of special interest 
with me I give the two translations which, perhaps, have 
the greatest value in the understanding of the matter, thus, 
Petrie and Sharp : — " The Britons retreating to the 
Eiver Thames where it disembogues itself into the ocean 
and becomes an estuary at high tide, and easily passing 
it, as they were well acquainted with those parts which 
were firm and fordable, the Romans pursued them, <^'c. 

Dr. Guest . — " The Britons having withdrawn them- 
selves thence to the River Thames whence it empties itself 
into the ocean, and at flow of tide forms a lake, &c." 
The lake theory is in my opinion a stretch of the verb 
Xtua^w, as it equally well means /orwzs marshes as forms a 
lake, in which case it would be a salt lake. I therefore 
prefer to say, forms an estuary as commonly understood, 
before the river joined the sea. At the time the Romans 
came the river valley was a fenny, marshy district, per- 
meated by fresh streams, for a distance many miles further 
down than at the present day, and at that time never 
overwhelmed by sea-water. The marshes were covered 
with large and old trees, in fact, it was firm ground. 
The meads were inhabited for some distance below 
Gravesend and Tilbury, As the river flowed only in one 
direction in this district it was very different from the 
present one. There were no banks, it was mucli narrower 
and shallower, and liable to be obstructed by gravel and 
sandbanks. Sunken trees (snags) and shallows abounded, 
which facilitated the construction of conveniences for 
traversing the lowlands, thus making it easily passable 
to those knowing the way. It may assist the compre- 
hension of my meaning if we fancy twenty miles or so 
of the Thames above London, without the embankments 


as now, deferred to the twenty miles below it, I mean 
as to physical conditions, not as to direction of flow. 
Then mnch of the theories of Airy and Guest would be 
applicable to the district about Gravesend or lower 
down. Considering the abundant Roman remains about 
East Tilbury and Higham — the course of ancient roads and 
the evidence of subsequent history — it is quite possible 
that Plautius crossed there or thereabout. The word 
ye(pvpa is usually translated bridge, in the sense of a way 
raised clear above the water. Yet this bridge may not 
have been of such a kind ; the expression that " the 
Eomans passed by means of fords and a bridge, a little 
higher up," does not necessarily imply a bridge with 
arches ; at the most, I think, it might have been a bridge 
on piles. Yet even this is not necessary. The English 
word bridge had other meanings than that confined to 
arch or bow, as I have before remarked, and it appears 
that the Greek yerpvpa^ as well as the ' pons as noticed 
by Dr. Ward,^ (Horsley) may sometimes be allowed con- 
siderable and similar varieties of meaninsf. 

When the Britons crossed the Romans pursued them, 
and at this point failed to overtake them, but the Keltoi 
swimming over again (as on the Lea passiin), and others 
passing by means of a bridge, a little higher up, they 
attacked the Britons on every side and cut off many of 
them ; but, rashly pressing on the remainder, they 
(Romans) wandered into the pathless marshes and lost 
many of their own soldiers. Having got across the River,^ 
Plautius secured his present possessions and sent for 
Claudius. Plautius settled for a time on the south side of 
the Thames. 2 I cannot point to any spot where he 

^ Dr. Ward quotes a passage from " stated that they crossed the Thames 
Herodian II., 47, thus " He took care, in they merely meant that they crossed the 
the first place, to lay bridges through the northern area of the Great Lake which 
fenny grounds that the soldiers, march- spread out its waters before them on 
ing in safety, might readily pass them either hand," that is, they crossed the 
and might stand firmly upon a solid Lea River, and he feels " driven to place 
bottom when they fought, for many " this crossing on the fords of the Wat- 
places of Britain upon the recess of the ling Street in the neighbourhood of 
tide become fenny, which the barbarian Stratford." 

are accustomed to swim over or wade ^ He must have got across the river 

through up to the hips." into Kent or Surrey, because Claudius 

* Dr. Guest does not consider that the and he had to re-cross the river to get to 

Romans crossed the River Thames now, Camalodunum. Airy places Plautius' 

but that Plautius encamped on the pre- quarters at Keston, but keston is not on 

sent site of London to wait for Claudius. the Thames, nor do we know where 

He says " When they " (the Romaas) Noviomagus was. 


encamped ; it is not likely that it was in one spot only 
that forty or fifty thousand men encamped, besides, the 
shore, or river side and country of North Kent has always 
been a highly-civilized district, and civilization levels all 
asperities and greatly tends to remove all signs of war. 
In this district sundry vestiges of camps, which I have 
known have been finally obliterated within my memory. 
When Claudius arrived he found Plautius on the south of 
the Thames, in Kent as I think, and this is the more likely 
since Claudius, during his visit, was able to accomplish so 
much in so short a time. He landed and joined Plautius, 
fought a battle in crossing the Thames northward, 
destroyed Camulodunum, subjugated several other places, 
and taking leave of Britain embarked, all within the space 
of sixteen days, of which he could hardly have spent a 
week in Essex. 



By the Rev. G. MILLER, M.A. i 

In tracing the history of the Church Plate belonging to 
the county of Warwick, I would wish at the commence- 
ment to draw your attention to the east window of the 
south aisle of Brinklow church, once a chapel of the 
Blessed Sacrament. For as we gaze upon that window, 
covered with peerless illustrations of the golden chalices 
of our old national church, we are able to realise the 
beautiful enrichment of the altars of the cathedrals, and 
parochial churches, when in the fourteenth and fifteenth, 
and early part of the sixteenth century, on high festival 
they were adorned with communion plate of the highest 
excellence, and of the best and most artistic workman- 
ship. In this church, worthy in many other respects of 
the visit of the archceologist and the historian, many an 
artist now comes to make drawings of these paintings of 
the old chalices, so that they may be reproduced in our 
own age, to be used for the honour and glory of God. 

The first account we possess of the communion plate of 
our parish church is the inventory of Church goods, made 
in 1552, by order of Edward VI. The inventories of our 
county I have carefully studied ; and the first thing that 
struck me was the great devastation that there had been 
previous to that time, in the stores of communion plate. 
For when we compare these records with the requirements 
enforced by many of our Archbishops, as for example 
Archbishop Winchelsea, 1293, and 1313, in respect to the 
church goods of our parishes, the amount of church plate 
recorded in them is exceedingly small. And when we add 
to the plate belonging to the parish church, that which 

' Read iu the Antiquarian Section at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, at 
Leamington, August 7th, 1888. 


was used in the Lady and other chapels, and especially 
that belonging to the chantrys which were so often attached 
to our churciies, and where the Blessed Sacrament was 
daily celebrated, we see at a glance how considerable the 
church plate must have been that was found in each parish 
before the Reformation. 

At the dissolution of the chantries, and chapels, the 
properties belonging to them were seized at once by the 
Royal Commissioners. Nothing was left that had belonged 
to them except the bare walls. Their endowments and 
church goods were taken by the Crown. Nothing, there- 
fore, was left to its parish church except that which could 
be proved to belong actually to it, in the way of endow- 
ments, or of church goods. Still, much plate must have 
remained. But from the year 1536, in different wa3^s, the 
church plate considerably diminished. Sometimes this 
was caused by the action of commissioners sent by royal 
authority ; often the plate was stolen. In a few instances 
a portion was sold for repairs, and for defraying the 
necessary expenses entailed by altering the churciies, so as 
to make them adapted for the ritual of the reformed 
prayer-book ; and for the purchase of new service books, 
the homilies and other books. Some plate also was sold to 
glaze and repair the windows, out of which its fine old 
painted glass had been ruthlessly taken away. 

In the year 1552, commissioners consisting of the 
country gentlemen of each county, city, bishoprics, and 
towns, were appointed to take surveys and inventories of 
the goods, plate, jewels, bells, and other ornaments 
belonging to all churches and chapels within the realm. 
These commissioners were to leave one chalice in each 
church, together with a small portion of the other church 
goods, and at least one bell. The ostensible object of 
these commissioners was to ensure the preservation of all 
church goods that remained. But behind the scenes we 
find that other causes were at work. In the Council book, 
March 3, of the same year, we find the following entry : 
" It was that day agreed that, forasmuch as the King's 
Majesty has need presently of a mass of money, therefore 
commissions should be addressed in all shires of England, 
to take into the King's hands such plate as remaineth, 
to be appHed to the King's use." And again, on 21st 



April, Kdward, himself writes : " It was agreed that 
commissioners should go out and take certificates of 
superfluous plate for mine use." The commissioners were, 
therefore, appointed, and we have their reports. The first 
thing I would remark in reference to these reports is the 
exceedingly few chalices (each chalice had a cover used 
as a paten, therefore we will say chalices and patens) that 
they found. In only a few churches were there two 
chalices. There was, for example, only one in the 
Warwick church. There was a fair amount of vestments, 
altar cloths, brass candlesticks, censers, and holy water 
pots, though of these in the hundred of Barlichway and 
Kineton, there were not so many as in the other two, 
while around Coventry there seem to have been many 
churches, where nothing was left at all, as we have no 
inventory for them. So that there seems to have been 
hardly anything, after paying the expenses of the com- 
mission to fill the needy pocket of the poor young king. 
These lists are given in a summary form in my account 
of the different parishes of Warwickshire. 

During the reign of Mary the small amount of plate 
that remained, as far as we can learn, was safely kept, so 
we must arrive at the conclusion that when Elizabeth 
became queen most of our parish churches possessed a 
chalice of the old shape as well as other ornaments for the 
church and minister. The question then arises, " how 
came it to pass that all these old chalices have passed 
away." The answer is as follows: — In 1559, Archbishop 
Parker enquired in his visitation articles. Question No. 
5, " whether the curate or minister do minister in any 
profane cups, bowls, dishes, or chalices heretofore used 
at mass, or else in a decent communion cup kept for that 
purpose." In* 1576 Archbishop Grindall made the same 
enquiries. How Archbishop Parker, who ever loved 
primitive and ancient customs, could have issued the first 
of these questions passes my comprehension. If the brass 
censers used by Corah and his company were sanctified, 
even the lireatest Puritan ouaht to have allowed, with the 
open Bible before him, that these chalices could not have 
been profaned, however superstitious the older rites might 
appear to him. The result was that the old chalices 
disappeared, so we find nothing remaining of them in the 


church plate that has come down to us from the sixteenth 
century except in a few very rare instances. 

Amongst the communion service of this county, and I 
have personally examined the larger portion of them, a fair 
number of the Elizabethan communion cups still remain — 
perhaps some twenty or thirty. They are all, as usual, 
very much of the same pattern ; and this resemblance of 
the Elizabethan chalice is somewhat curious, as we can 
find no pattern selected and ordered by authority to be 
used at this time, and yet all over the kingdom one 
pattern is to be found. Sometimes they are called the £d 
cup, as £5 was allowed to poor parishes for the purchase 
of them. The cup has a cover, which, as Griudal tells his 
clergy, may be used as a paten. They are, as a rule, 
about five inches high, in some cases rather higher. A 
few years later on we find another shape sometimes used, 
which was called the Puritan pattern. The cup itself 
became enlarged, and the ornamentation of the stem was 

Amongst the plate of the sixteenth century, I must 
mention the fine silver-oilt chalices, with cover, belonohn)* 
to the Holy Trinity Church, Coventry. In some instances 
these old communion cups and covers have passed out of 
use ; modern service, much less elegant and less adapted 
to the purpose, having supplanted them of their birth- 
right. I am glad to say that in some instances I have 
been the means of brino-ino- them back ao-ain to their 
proper place and use. With the advent of the seventeenth 
century, we find the use of flagons becoming frequent. I 
cannot but think that their introduction was caused by 
the Puritan method of partaking of the Holy Communion, 
which made it more of a meal than a sacramental act ; 
and which culminated at the time of the Commonwealth, 
when they sat round the Lord's board instead of kneeling 
before it, and as a consequence, much more wine was 
consumed. From the be<>innino' of the seventeenth 
century the shape of the chalice became varied, and since 
then there has not been any regular shape or size of the 
chalice in general use. 

In Warwickshire the distinguishing feature of the 
church plate in this, the seventeenth century, is the 
magnificent Dudley plate, given by Alicia Lady Dudley, 


relict of Sir Robert Dudley, to those parishes in which 
she had property. The earliest gift seems to have been 
presented in about 1630, the latest 1665. This plate is of 
repousse work, most probably Spanish make. As Arch- 
deacon Lee says, it much resembles the plate which is now 
to be seen at Seville and other cathedrals in Spain. It 
consists generally of one large chalice ; the cup part is 
ornamented with leaves in it, which seem to be of 
applique work ; one paten, one large flagon, one deep 
bowl, which is, I imagine, the decent bason for the 
alms of the people, and a plate. The following entry in 
one of the registers will give a good description of these 
munificent gifts : — " Whereas her Grace the Duchess of 
Dudley — a foreign title — in the county of Middlesex, 
owner of land and tenement in Mare Cliff and Barton, in 
this parish, hath out of her pious disposition and 
benevolence towards the church, freely given and 
bestowed this Communion plate, to wit : a large flagon, a 
bread bowl, and a great chalice, (in other churches there 
are two plates), besides all three having covers belonging 
to them, the said plates being richly gilt, and garnished 
with pictures and flowers ; for the use of the Holy Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, to be administered in the 
same church as an ornament suitable for the service of 
that most sacred banquet. With and upon this condition 
that the sacred plate shall for ever solely remain for the 
use aforesaid, and shall not be diverted, employed, or dis- 
posed of, for any other use ; and upon this further 
condition, that if at any time hereafter the vicar, church- 
wardens, or other officers or inhabitants of the said parish 
for the time being, shall presume or endeavour to alienate 
sell, or embezzle, or otherwise dispose of the plate afore- 
said, or any part thereof for the use aforesaid, that these 
gifts above mentioned shall become void and frustate, and 
be vested in the said Duchess, her heirs and assigns, who 
shall and mav have lawful ri«ht to demand, sue for and 
recover the same or the value thereof, from the parties so 
alienating, selling, and embezzling, or otherwise disposing 
of the plate aforesaid." 

In examining our church plate I cannot fail to notice 
how small a portion of it dates from before the time of the 
Civil War. No doubt a good deal of the old plate dis- 


appeared at that time, partly by being abstracted from the 
churches, partly from being melted down to defray the 
expenses of the war and the necessities of the time. With 
the advent of peaceful days, after the restoration in 1660, 
the churches were refurnished with communion services. 
But, unless I am much mistaken, a considerable portion 
was, through want of money, made of pewter. Still, large 
gifts of silver plate were made, much of which is decidedly 
good of its kind. And, when the Church had regained her 
position in the reign of Queen Anne, large gifts of plate 
were made which were continued to be made till the 
middle of last century. This was the time and period 
when the Holy Communion was more frequently celebrated 
than at any other time since the Eeformation, till the 
present church revival. Then weekly celebrations were 
frequent in London and other large towns — in some cases 
there were daily celebrations, as we see in the '* Pietas 
Londinensis " and other books of a like nature. During 
this period the plate of our shire was naturally much 
increased, and the beautiful specimens of silver-gilt plate 
to be seen at Baginton and Cubbington belong to this 
period. As the century passed on, but few services of 
communion plate were added, and it was not again till 
after the peace of 1815, and when quieter times prevailed, 
that our churches were once more enriched with the pious 
gifts of her children. But here I must not omit to mention 
the Stoneleigh plate given in 1805. 

Since the great Church revival, which dates from 1835, 
numerous beautiful additions have been made to our 
church plate, and once again we see the form of the old 
chalice reappearing in our churches. Amongst these gifts 
of chalices stands pre-eminent those which belong to the 
Parish Church of Leamington, which, though given in our 
own days, really belongs to the time of Henry VIII. The 
cup of the chalice is silver gilt, richly embossed with 
figures. Eound the lower part of the cup are designs, 
taken from the events in our Blessed Lord's life. On the 
central knob are the figures of faith, hope, charity, and 
justice, Eound the foot we see Eve in the temptation, 
Melchesidech and Abraham, Moses striking the rock, the 
Israelites gathering manna. There is also a second chalice, 
which seems to have been obtained to match, as far as 


possible, the one I have just alluded to. It is of more 
modern date, but very handsome. The knob is orna- 
mented with cherubs ; on the foot are the emblems of the 
four Evangelists. This cup is enriched with carving put 
on like applique work. It is of English make, and is unique 
of its kind, as at the period at which it was made no 
chalices were made in England, excepting in the shape of 
cups. Mention, too, must be made of the chalice at Ipsley, 
which has two handles, the Hall Mark is 1682, the corner 
part is embossed with ilowers. 



In brinCTinsf before the Archgeolooical Institute the 
following observations I should at once say that I have 
been induced to do so rather by the hope of obtaining 
information upon some of the difficulties to which I shall 
allude, than with the idea of imparting much information. 
I will describe some of the puzzles which I have met with, 
but I do not intend to explain these features, indeed, 
I cannot do so ; but, on the contrary, I hope the members 
of the Institute will be able to throw light on some of 
my difficulties. 

I will first describe one of the last churches which I 
have seen, viz., that of Orton Longueville. It is situated 
two miles west of Peterborough and is dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity. 

It possesses three unusual features but I will describe 
roughly the whole building. Its ground plan consists of 
a western tower, nave with nortli and south aisle, and 
south porch, and a chancel with a north aisle. So far it 
is a most ordinary building but it is unusual in that it is 
built in one style throughout, viz., the Decorated style, 
excepting a few windows of a later date. Although no 
earlier features are now to be found it was not to be 
supposed that no earlier church existed, and I found 
when it was restored in 1S36, at the expense of the Duke 
of Northumberland and the Marquis of Huntley, that 
remains of Norman foundations were discovered. What 
has become of the font I cannot say. In 1721 this parish 
was merged with Botolph Bridge and the church in that 
village was abandoned. 

^ Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute January 7th, 1889, 


On the outside of the chancel, on the south side, there 
are two wide and deeply recessed niches at the level of 
the windows, but otherwise there is nothing to attract 
special attention. 

Inside the chancel, on the north side, close to where the 
altar rail stands, there is a sharply-pointed recess about 
six inches wide and perhaps three feet to the apex of the 
arch. I cannot even make a guess as to its origin. This 
is my first puzzle. In the west wall of the chancel, on 
either side the chancel arch, there is a recessed stone seat. 
These probably were the return stalls. 

In the eastern respond, of both the north and south 
arcade of the nave, there is an opening something like a 
doorway, although there is no sign of a door having hung 
in either opening. The openings go right through the 
wall and stop about two feet from the present floor level. 
This is my second puzzle. 

In justice to myself it is only fair that I should say 
that my time for studying the archteological features of 
buildings, which I visit on behalf of the Society for the 
Protection of Ancient Buildings, is always limited, my 
duties being, first, to consider the structural condition of 
the building ; secondly, its capacity for meeting present 
requirements ; and lastly, the most pleasurable one, of 
trying to find out its history ; and in tracing the history 
of a building is it not the case that one always wants to 
make a second visit, and often a third and a fourth ? 
After one has left the building, and quietl}^ thought it over, 
fresh possibilities occur to one, or it may be that one talks 
it over with a friend, who throws fresh light upon the 
subject, and one can neither confirm or confute his sug- 
gestion without again seeing the building. I am sorry I 
cannot say for certain whether these openings are of the 
same dates as the arcades or not, but my belief, after 
having studied the jointing, is that they were built at the 
same time as the arcades. They could not have been 
intended merely to give light, for, had that been the need, 
obviousty, the simple course would have been to have let 
the first arch of each arcade spring from the west wall, so 
as to have no respond, or only a slight one. So far I have 
only been able to think of one possible explanation. 
It has seemed to me possible that these openings were 


entrances to the rood loft staircase, or more probably 
ladder. There are signs of a screen having existed across 
the chancel arch. M}' suggestion is that another screen 
was placed west of the openings in question and that a 
way up to the loft was formed between the two screens 
somewhat after the manner of the Canterbury Cathedral 
choir screen although, of course, the two cases are not 
parallel. I should perhaps say that there are no signs of 
a rood loft stair in any of the usual places. 

Doubtless had one seen the church before it was re- 
stored in 1836 the whole of the question would have 
been more intelligible, and I may add that the restoration 
which is just going to take place will make the matter still 
more puzzling to future antiquaries as a screen will be 
placed in the chancel arch and thus hide the marks which 
prove the existence of a former screen. But I am glad 
to be able to say that the architect promises to deal much 
more leniently with the church than is usual. 

My next puzzle is to be found in the western tower, 
but on our way there I should like to call attention to a 
large shallow cupboard on the north aisle wall. Upon 
opening the doors tliere is displayed to view a painting of 
St. Christopher bearing Christ. It is in a far more perfect 
condition than any I have ever seen, although there 
certainly is a very good one at All Saints' Church, War- 
lingham, Surrey. The Warlingham one has been made 
as large as the wall space would allow, but the Orton 
Longueville one might have been much bigger. 

Attached to the pillar of the south arcade, opposite the 
south door, there is a money box which is used solely by 
women who have been churched. 

Now the last unusual feature, which I spoke of as being 
in the tower, is this : on the south side tliere is the usual 
stair turret, leading up to the ringing chamber and the 
belfry, but on the north side there is another turret, which 
leads up as far as the ringing chamber only. 

I suppose there can be no doubt that the turret had 
stairs in it originally, but at present there is a doorway on 
the ground level, and another opening on to the ringing- 
chamber floor, and no steps, a rough vault having been 
throwm over eight or nine feet above the ground level. 
What could have been the reason for building this turret ? 



It is of the same date as the tower, but it could not have 
been built with a view of making the two sides of the 
tower match, for, first of all, it does not do so, and 
secondly, such a motive is quite a foreign one to mediaeval 
builders. There seems to me to be but one possible 
reason for building two staircases, viz., that there was a 
lara'e traffic up to the rinmna chamber or first floor of the 
tower, and therefore one staircase was provided for ascent 
and the other for descent. And the only explanation to 
be given for so many wishing to go up into this room is, I 
suppose, that a relic was kept there, and that pilgrims came 
to see it, but the whole of this suggestion is, to say the 
least, very problematical, and I hope some better sugges- 
tion will be made. 

Let me now ask yon to turn your thoughts from this 
church to the most interesting and well-known church of 
Langford, in Oxfordshire, which stands near the railway 
line beyond Witney, and about two miles short of 
Lechlade, The building has a most unusual plan. There 
is a large Norman tower, with a very long and large 
chancel of greater width than the tower to the east of it 
and a long nave on the west sides with aisles, the nave 
being the same width as the tower and the aisles running 
on beyond the east eud of the nave for half the width of 
the tower, thus forming two good chapels. 

The church will probably be recalled to the mind of 
anyone who has seen it by the two very large flying 
buttresses on the north side of the nave supporting the 
nave aisle wall. This wall has to receive the thrust of two 
other flying arches which support the nave wall. The 
whole is an ingenious contrivance to meet the difficulty of 
the nave arcade having gone outwards at this point. 
However, the special feature I wish to draw attention to 
is an early English doorway on the south side of the 
chancel quite close to the east end. When I visited the 
church the incumbent told me that it was the opinion of 
the local Arch^Bological Society that this doorway must 
have been moved to its present position and recommended 
that it should be moved further west for it was alleged 
that its present position must be wrong as it opened into 
the church Kntliin the altar rail. 

Although this was one way of getting over a difliculty 
it did not appear to me to be a satisfactory one. 


The doorway showed no signs of having been moved 
and on entering? the church I found a lar^e recessed 
locker, with many compartments, on the north wall just 
opposite the doorway. It then occurred to me that the 
east end of the chancel which is, as I have already said, 
of unusual length, must have originally been used as a 
vestry, a screen having been placed across the chancel 
just west of the doorway in question, the altar standing 
against it in the middle on the w^est side, and probably a 
doorway through the screen being provided on either side 
the altar after the usual manner when a vestry was built 
at the east end. I am sorry to have to confess that what 
I have said about this church is from memory only and 
that I have no measured plan of the building, and I will, 
therefore, let my next example be one which I know 
really well and which I have partially measured. In fact 
to make sure of some points I visited it again last 

The building I refer to is St. Catherine's Chapel which 
stands upon a little hill about a mile out of Guildford 
between the river and Portsmouth Eoad. Before des- 
cribing the building, which is now a ruin, I had better 
say that the questions I am going to ask are — Why should 
such a small building have such a large west doorway ? 
Why should it also have a north and south doorway ? and, 
still more strange, why should the two windows over these 
doorways have been blocked up and filled in with two 
more doorways ? The building is a simple parallelogram 
measuring inside 20 ft. 8J in, wide and 4G ft. 1 J in. long. 
The walls are from 2 ft. 9 in. to 2 ft. 10 in, thick and have 
two buttresses at each angle, excepting the north west 
angle where there is a fine vaulted turret staircase, the 
steps having all gone. 

There are two buttresses in the length of the building 
on each side and three windows, a doorway being under 
each central window. There is a large eastern window 
8 ft. wide, and this window, and the windows due north 
and south of the altar, are all about 5 ft. lower than the 
four other side windows. At the west end there is a 
doorway 6 ft. wide with a window about the same width 
above it. There are no corl^els or niches for images, no 
piscina, credence, sedilia, or aumbrey, and no signs of any 
galleries having ever existed. 


The History of Guildford by the two brothers liussell, 
printers, of that town, says that the chapel is spoken of in 
the Pipe Rolls of the fourteenth year of Ilenry III. and 
again in the following reign of Edward I. This makes a 
building to have been in existence here in 1229, and I 
suppose it to be this building. If so the Decorated 
style of media3val architecture came into use earlier than 
is usually believed to have been the case for it was 
undoubtedly built early in the time when the Decorated 
style first came in. The windows originally had tracery 
and the south doorway has a singly cusped head embraced 
with a label struck from two centres the section of which 
is undoubtedly of that period. 

A bell used to hang in the turret having on it the 
inscription " Santa Catharina ora pro nobis," but John 
Weston, the bailitl, of Guildford, in 1735 says that this 
bell was melted in the eight bells in the lower parish of 

The materials used for the walls is the local sandstone 
which is full of iron, and with age turns to a bright purple 
brown, and clunch for the dressings. In passing it is 
worth noting that they bonded the internal angles of the 
building with finely dressed ashlar and that the walls were 
plastered all over on the inside, the plaster being taken 
over the ashlar. In none of the different building trades 
are we so much behind our predecessors as in the plas- 
terer's trade. It is one of the few evils which followed 
upon the good preaching of Mr, Euskin that paint and 
plaster are looked upon as shams and this has resulted in 
quantities of beautiful mediaeval plaster being destroyed 
and with it paintings upon the plaster which have been 
hidden by whitewash. 

Undoubtedly also this disrespect which has been shewn 
towards plaster-work has resulted in its neglect so that we 
cannot now get a plain wall properly plastered, much less 
2iXiy decorative work in plaster properly done. 

I am, however, allowing myself to be led away from 
my subject, viz., that of the five doorways (not counting 
the turret doorway) in this little ruined chapel. 

The western doorway is, as IJiave already said, un- 
usually wide, viz., G ft., but it is unusual in another 
respect for there is no check in the stone jambs for the 


doors to stop against, the jambs being taken square 
straio'lit tliroufxh the wall. The same is the case with the 
north doorway although in both cases there is the usual 
sinking in the arches to receive the doors. The south 
doorway has its jambs and arches arranged in the usual 

Before saying anything about the upper doorways 
which have been added to the building let us first con- 
sider those belonging to the original building. It is 
always safe I think to conclude that the builders in the 
middle ages were as reasonable as the builders of to day. 
Indeed, when one sees attempts made at building in the 
style of the Normans in our days and of rough rubble un- 
plastered walls being put inside buildings or the brick 
front of a house fifty or sixty feet high being carried on 
an iron girder one is even tempted to give the media3val 
builder credit for being more reasonable than the builder 
of to day. I shall, therefore, conclude that there was a 
good reason for building all these doorways as they are. 
But they certainly would not have built them so had the 
chapel simply been a chapel of ease for an ordinary small 

Now, the lane which runs in continuation of the track 
across Puttenham Common and which is now called Sandy 
Lane is marked on the Ordnance map as " Pilgrim's 
Way." This lane runs down close by St. Catherine's 
chapel to the ferry over the river Wey. Tradition says 
that the pilgrims used to visit St. Martha's church, a 
Norman cruciform building which stands on St. Martha's 
Hill. This hill is a little over two miles east of Guildford. 
The more direct route for them to have taken would have 
been along the old Roman road which runs along the 
Hog's back, and a more beautiful road, with its extensive 
view both to the right and left, could hardly be found in 
all England. It seems to me more probable that they 
would go this way both on account of safety and also 
because they then would be able to make Guildford a 
resting place and they could make a special visit to St. 
Catherine's as it would be less than a mile out of their 
way. At any rate tradition says that the pilgrims going 
from Winchester to Canterbury used to visit St. Catherine's 
chapel. It is even now a beautiful spot and it must have 

62 unUkSUAL doorways in old buildings. 

been even more beautiful in those days with the silvery 
river Wey flowing in the valley below, through the water 
meadows unlocked and unpolluted by the town of Godal- 
ming, and its obnoxious paper mills. 

Now, if we study the chapel and bear in mind that it 
must have contained some holy relic and that it was 
visited by the Canterbury pilgrims it becomes more 
intelligible. The large six feet wide doorway at the west 
end would be a great convenience. It may be that they 
had an open grill across it so that the chapel might be 
locked up and people still be able to worship by placing 
themselves at the west door where a considerable number 
would be able to see in, or on special occasions it may be 
that they opened both the north and the south door, so 
that the pilgrims coming in large numbers could pass in 
at one door and out of the other. I am in fact now 
explaining the existence of these two doors in the same 
way as I tried to explain the existence of the two turrets 
in the tower of Orton Longueville church. Of course, I 
do not suppose that every church which had a north 
and south door was visited by pilgrims, and I think that 
these doors, which are to be found in nearly every parish 
church, were in all probability placed there solely for the 
use of funeral and other processions. There is one 
difficulty to be got over and that is why they provided 
no stop for the door in the jambs of the north and west 
doorway, and yet gave the south doorway and the turret 
doorway the usual stop. 

My suggestion is ihat at times when the pilgrims 
were not coming to the chapel, the south doorway, being 
provided with a hung door, was the only one used, 
and that the north and west doorwavs did not have hum? 
doors in them, but only what might be called movable 
shutters. Such shutters would stop against the rebate in 
the stonework of tl:e arch and the doorstep, or they might 
drop into a grove on the floor and be secured against the 
rebate in the arch by a bolt. Shutters so secured would 
be far more safe than any hung on hinges and secured by 
a lock, and they would not require the usual stop in the 
jamb as a door would, although, of course, such a stop 
would break the joint between the wood and the stonework 
and keep the weather out better. 


On the other hand, there can be no doubt tliat an open- 
ing without either a door or stops on the jambs is far the 
best form for a crowd of people to pass' through. 

I am sorry to say that I have not as yet taken the 
obvious course of examining the jambs of all the doorways 
with a view of ascertaining what ironwork has been let 
into them, and this may probably throw some light on the 

The first features about the ruin which originallv 
attracted my attention, and caused me to puzzle over it, 
were the doorways which have been inserted in the central 
window on each side, and I will not trespass upon your 
time further than to describe them to you, and, perhaps, 
offer a humble suggestion. The south window has had a 
doorway with a two-centred arch placed in its middle, flush 
with the outside wall. Both arch and jamb have a plain 
chamfer on them, and the jamb is of the usual door-jamb 
section, i.e., it widens out after passing about six inches 
into the wall, and it is then taken straight through to the 
inner face of the wall, where a segmental arch struck from 
one centre is thrown over the opening. This arch is very 
flat and has a chamfer upon it. 

Clearly then the door on this side of the chapel must 
have been hung in the usual way like the one below it 
and have opened into the building. 

Now the window on the north side of the chapel has 
been filled, in exactly the reverse wa}^ to the window on 
the south side. On the inside it has a doorway with a 
two-centred arch, similar to the one described as beino- on 
the outside of the south wall, and an arch struck from one 
centre, but not so flat as the one in the south wall, has been 
placed on the outside of the north wall. 

Therefore the doorway on the south side lead into the 
building and the doorway on "the north side lead out of 
the buildino-. 

Are we not justified in supposing that a gallery must 
have existed between the two doorways and that its 
object was to allow people to pass through the chapel? 
I venture to think that it could have had no other use 
and that it justifies my suggested origin of the two doors 
on the ground floor. 

There are no signs whatever of any stage having existed 


outside these doors on either side and it is ahnost impossi- 
ble to assign a date to the doorways, but I am inclined to 
believe that they were added very soon after the chapel 
was built. 

As, however, I have been bold enough to start a theory, 
I had better make myself clear by stating how I believe 
this chapel was used, even at the risk of repetition. 

I believe the present chapel was built originally for the 
accommodation of the pilgrims, and that at times of the 
year when there were but few coming, the great west 
doorway was left open, so that it could be used at unusual 
times when pilgrims and others were not expected, but 
that when the crowds of pilgrims came they passed in the 
south door and out at the north. After a time this was 
found to give insufficient accommodation and it was then 
that a gallery over head was resorted to and temporary 
ladders or wooden steps were put up against the building 
to give a way in and out of the gallery. 


By G. E. FOX, F.S.A. 

The following few notes have been arranged for the 
purpose of directing attention to a class of antiquities for 
which East Anglia is celebrated. No other county in 
England except Suffolk can exhibit such a display of 
painted roofs and screens as Norfolk does, and Suffolk 
alone equals Norfolk in the number and beauty of such 

I venture to call your attention to Norfolk screens and 
roofs for the reason that during the meeting fine examples 
of both will be seen. 

The screens are for the most part Chancel screens, the 
forms of which are too well known to need elaborate 
description, the upper portion, consisting, beneath the 
rood loft, of open work tracery in various forms, the 
lower, filled in solidly and divided into narrow panels, 
varying in number with the size and divisions of the screen. 
All these screens are of wood, richly painted and gilt, but 
the interest they have for us lies in the treatment of the 
panels of the lower portion. These are generally enriched 
by a painting of a single figure in each, and the backgrounds 
are often beautifully powdered with rosettes and'spravs, 
in gold and colours, to represent embroidered hanginsfs.* 

The ordinary arrangement of a Norfolk screen shows in 
its panels the twelve apostles, six on one side of its central 
doorway or opening, six on the other, or if the screen, 
from its width, contains more than twelve panels, then the 
centre ones are filled with the figures of other saints, or 
very commonly with the four Docters of the church, though 
if there are doors to the screen, these are placed on the 

'■ Read in the Architectural Section, at the Anuu;U Meeting of the Institute, ut 
ISTorwich, August 10th, 1889. 



door panels. Many saints are, however, represented in 
tlie panel paintings, and naturally the local saints are fre- 
quently found amongst them. Occasionally the heavenly 
hierarchies are represented but not commonly. Those on 
the screen of the church of Barton Turf are good examples, 
but are not equal to similar ones on the screen at the 
east end of the north aisle of Southwold Church, Suffolk, 
where the arrangement is far more complete. 

Eepresentations of subjects, i.e , compositions of several 
figures, as distinguished from single ones, are not common. 
A few instances can, however, be given. 

The first two panels of the screen at North Walsham 
contain the subject of the Annunciation, the figure of the 
Viro-in bein<>- in one, and the Archanael in the other. 
Panels of the screen in Loddon Church exhibit the Mar- 
tyrdom of St, William of Norwich, the Adoration of the 
Magi, and the Circumcision. Two subjects of singular 
nature are to be found on the panels of the screen at 
Sparham church. In the first of the southern division 
stand two skeletons, side by side, of a gallant and a lady, 
both richly attired, the gallant holds in his hand a flaming 
torch, with a scroll round it having the words " Sic transit 
Gloria Mundi," the lady offers him a nosegay. Behind 
both of the figures are inscriptions relating to the brief and 
fleeting nature of human life. In the next compartment 
a single skeleton, in its shroud, rises from a tomb and 
points to a font in the background, on which various scrolls 
bear inscribed a text from Job, also on the transitory 
nature of human life (Job, chap, x., v. 19.') Occasionally 
figures of donors kneeling, occur in late paintings, as on the 
Fritton screen, which perhaps may be dated as late as 
1520 or later .- 

Nothing can exceed the richness of detail in the painted 
ornamentation of some of these screens. The delicate flower 
and spray work which fills every hollow of the mouldings, 
and is powdered over the backgrounds of the figures, the 
wonderful elaboration of the patterns of the dresses of those 
figures — such patterns as are only to be equalled by the 
productions of the Flemish looms — the delicately applied 

1 " Gentleman's Magazine," IS-tG. July Fritton," puljlished by the Norfolk and 
to December, p. 13o. Norwich Archtuological Societj-, 1872. 

- " Illustrations of the Rood Screen at 


gilding, — all combine to make up a whole of the greatest 
beauty. And to enhance the effect, on some of the larger 
and later screens, the backgrounds of the figures are 
worked in gesso, in the most delicate relief, and richly gilt. 
Even the broad flat fillets of the mullions are covered with 
gesso stamped in intricate patterns of tracer}^, and having 
at intervals diminutive niches with tiny figures painted in 
them, which are protected by morsels of glass set in the 
pattern, as in a frame. For variety of detail, both in figure 
and ornament, few screens will equal the one at Kand- 
wortli. For splendour of effect and multi])licity of forms 
in the gilt gesso work, certainly none can surpass that at 
Southwold, but this is a Suffolk screen. 

Remains of this delicate plaster work occur on the 
Cawston screen, which though a fine and large one, fails 
somewhat in its figures. These are for the most part but 
poorly conceived and executed. In the choice of the 
figures the usual arrangement is followed, the whole of 
the Apostles being represented together with St. Helena 
and St. Agnes, the Docters of the Church occupying their 
accustomed place upon the doors. Another effigy may 
be seen here, an exception to the usual saintly company, 
that of Master John Scliorn, who is represented in the act 
of performing the miracle of conjuring the Evil one into a 
boot. This worthy, though not a saint, appears occasion- 
ally on the Norfolk screens, possibly because he was 
believed in the middle ages to have power to cure the 
ague, which, in a county possessing so much marsh land 
as Norfolk, must have been a malady only too common. 
Master John Scliorn is said to have held the rectory of 
North Marston, Bucks, in 1290, and seems to have been 
at one time a canon in the Augustinian Priory of Dun- 
stable. The well blessed by him at North Marston was an 
object of pilgrimage. There are two periods in the 
figures on this screen ; some of the figures on the south 
side includincy that of the above-mentioned worthv, were 
painted at a later date and in a better style than the old 
ones, on paper or vellum and glued over the older work. 
The later ones may have been executed when the fabric 
received the further adornment of the stamped and gilt 
gesso work which covers the flat surfaces of its main 
divisions. Some of this decoration remains on these more 


recent panels. On the Lessingliani screen the same sort 
of restoration of the panel figures seems to have also been 

The following? facts relatinf? to the Cawston screen are 
extracted from Blomefield : — In 1460 John Barker, of 
Cawston, " o-ave ten marks towards building^ the rood loft 
commonl}' called the candle beam." 

In 150-i Richard Browne, of Cawston, '* fjave four 
marks to paint a pane of the rood loft." 

This inscription was painted on the screen itself. 
" Prey for the Sowlis of William Atereth and Alice his 
Wyff the weche dede these iiii ^ Penys Peynte be the 
Executoris lyff . . ." Unfortunately we have nothing 
further and the date of the painting is therefore lost. 

Not perhaps so interesting as the Cawston screen but 
much better executed, is the one in the chancel at Aylesham. 
Only the lower panels remain and they show the usual 
arrangement of Apostles and Saints, amongst the latter 
being a figure of Moses. Like the one at Cawston it bore 
its date, and happily in this instance the date is preserved. 
The work appears to have been executed in 1507 at the 
charges of Thomas Wymer, Joan and Agnes his wives, 
John Jannys, and others whose names are now lost. This 
same Thomas Wymer was a prosperous worstead weaver 
of Aylesham who, according to an inscription on his brass, 
(he died in 1507) gave largely to the adorning of the 
church during his life, and left the means for continuing 
that good work, after his death. The other donor whose 
name has come down to us, John Jannys, Blomefield tells 
us, was father to the Eobert Jannys, Mayor of Norwich in 
1517 and 1524, whose portrait may still be seen in the 
Council Chamber of the Guildhall of that city, and whose 
fine early Pienaissance tomb adorned with his coat of 
arms, composed of those of the Grocers' Company and his 
merchant's mark, yet exists in the church of St. George, 
Colegate, Norwich. 

Noting only the screens in Tunstead and in Trunch 
churches as pleasing and complete examples, with the 
remark that the latter one carries an inscription giving 
its date as 1502, I must pass on to speak of the two 
screens of Barton Turf and of Randworth. 

J History of Norfolk, vol. vi, pix 264-266. 


At Barton Turf we first come across an exception to 
the usual row of Apostles. The paintmgs are well executed 
and the subjects not common, for the greater number of 
the figures represent the heavenly hierarchies. 

Commencing on the north side we find St. ApoUonia, St. 
Sitha, then comes the display of the Heavenly Host, the 
Powers, Virtues, Dominions, Seraphim ; and on the south 
side, Cherubim, Princedoms, Thrones, Archangels, Angels, 
and in the last panel St. Barbara. 

Unfortunately when we would most v/ish to know it, the 
date of the work is not to be discovered. That it is late 
fifteenth or early sixteenth century however, there can be 
no doubt. 

What gives this screen an exceptional interest, is that 
some of the panels exhibit examples of armour, such ex- 
amples on screens being confined to the warrior saints and 
and archano-els. Two of the fio-ures, the '' Potestates " and 
*' Archangeli" are in complete armour of plate, and seem to 
show a singular mixture of late and early forms in their 

The screen above mentioned is the chancel screen, but 
another exists at the east end of the south aisle, the panels 
of which display three regal saints, St. Edmund, carrying 
an arrow as his emblem, St. Edward the Confessor, with his 
ring, and St. Olave with two cakes or loaves in one hand, 
and a halbert (to represent the Danish battleaxe), in the 
other. A fourth panel is filled with the figure of King 
Henry YI, whose efligy is likewise to be found on other 

Less well executed than those of Barton Turf, the paint- 
ings on the screen at Piandworth have also less interest in 
themselves. But the profusion, the multiplicity and richness 
of every detail, and a certain completeness of arrangement, 
make up a whole onty to be equalled by the great screen 
at Southwold, in Suffolk. The Rand worth screen with 
that at Southwold must be placed at the head of the 
painted screens of East Anglia. 

The usual row of Apostles occupies the panels of the 
chancel screen, the interest, therefore, belongs to the 
retables of the altars on each side of it. The one on the 
north contains figures of St. Etheldreda, St. John the 
Baptist, a repetition of the same saint, and St, Barbara. 


The southern retable has figures of St. Mary Salome, wife 
of Zebedee Avith her two children, St. James Major, and 
St. John the Evangelist, St. Mary the Virgin, St. Mary 
wife of Cleophas with her four children, St. James the 
Less, St. Jnde, St. Simeon, and St. Joseph. The last 
figure on this retable is St. Margaret. The first figure of 
the Baptist in the northern retable is evidently that of a 
female saint altered. The second is only in black outline, 
the usual way of commencing a subject. The reason for 
the alterations here, we shall probably never discover. 

On the fine parclose screens extending 6 ft. into the 
nave are represented St. Felix (?), St. George, and St. 
Stephen on the northern one, on the southern, St. Thomas 
a Becket (?), St. Lawrence, and St. Michael.' 

No date is to be found on this screen and a bequest in 
1419 of Thomas Grym, of Eandworth, of five marks "ad 
fabricam cancelli," must refer to the building of the 
chancel. The paintings, if not the screen itself, may pro- 
bably be of the end of the fifteenth century or even later. 

Leaving the subject of painted screens I now turn to 
note the painted roofs which are still to be found in the 
county of Norfolk. The forms of decoration on these, fall 
into three or four classes. The first consists in the pick- 
ing out only of the prominent features with colour and the 
colouring of the carved detail, leaving tlie greater part of 
the roof untouched, the natural wood forming a back- 

For instance, in the nave roof of North Creake Church, 
the fio'ures of amrels at the ends of the hammer beams are 
painted white with red or black wings, the mouldings of 
the principal beams, and the fine cornice, being coloured 
red, green, white and black. 

The north transept of Outwell Church has a roof simi- 
larly painted, and that over the nave of Mattishall Church, 
a rude example, is thus adorned. Necton Church may 
also be named for traces of colour in the details of the 
nave roof, and that of the porch of Oxburgh is said to have 
been likewise painted. An example where the colouring 
has advanced a step further will be found in the roof of 

' For tliis screen see " Illustrations of Archroological Society, 1867, from ■wbich 
the Rood Screen at Kauclworth," pnb- the identification given above, of the 
h'shed by the Norfolk and Norwich figures upon it, has been taken. 


Knapton. It has received a coat of yellow colour througli- 
out, none of the natural wood being left, and the figures 
and mouldings are touched with red, green and white. 

The second class relies still further on colour, and 
painted ornament is introduced to a great extent. The 
whole surface of the exposed rafters is covered with some 
one colour, the mouldings of the principal divisions of the 
roof are picked out in another, and ornament executed 
either by the stencil or by hand, is spread over every 
available surface. 

Such is the case with the nave roof of Salle Church. 
Here, white is employed for the ground, the main lines 
are of a brilliant red, and the rafters and interspaces are 
' diapered all over with crowned i\is alternating with the 
sacred letters i.h.c. in red and black. A cornice filled 
with anoels holding scrolls on which are texts in black 
letter, now scarcely legible, completes the scheme of deco- 
ration. A fine roof exists over the nave of Palofrave 
Church, Suffolk, precisely similar to this in its colouring, 
but differing from it in the forms of the ornament. 

A variety of this class is to be found in the roof of the 
S. transept of Cawston Church. Here the face of the 
rafters is coloured a madder- brown, and the interspaces 
are white, both rafters and interspaces being enriched 
with stencilled ornament in black and red. The main 
lines of the roof are brilliant in scarlet blue and green, 
and the bosses at their intersections are for the most part 
coloured gold colour and scarlet. 

Much richer in effect than either of these classes is the 
third I have to mention, a system of ornamentation asso- 
ciated only with panelled roofs, which in their divisions 
present a larger surface for display than where the simple 
rafters only are treated with colour, A good but com- 
paratively simple example in this style, may be seen in 
the panelled roof of the chancel of the church appropri- 
ated to the uses of the Great Hospital in Bishopgate 
Street, Norwich, and now called the Eagle Ward. The 
general ground of this roof is gold colour, and each panel 
is occupied by a painting of a fine black eagle, displayed. 
The delicately carved and gilt bosses at the intersections 
of the thin mouldings of the panels, add much to the beauty 
of the composition. 


Of course, panelled roofs ofler an opportunity for an 
infinite variety in their painted ornamentation, but the 
favourite arrangement in the East Anglian roofs is that of 
a wreath enclosing the sacred name, or the initial letter of 
that of some saint. As an example, may be cited the 
panelled roof of the north transept of East Dereham Church. 
Here the general tint of the ground is a very pale green, 
and the panels bear alternately green wreaths encircling 
a crowned letter T in red, and double-headed eagles in 
black. A small chapel on the south side of the same 
church has a panelled ceiling of a far more elaborate 
character. On the same pale greenish ground as in the 
transept roof, green wreaths of a most intricate description 
are painted, each wreath containing a representation of the 
holy lamb. The mouldings forming these panels are 
coloured red, black, and bluish grey, and heightened in 
effect with a good deal of gilding. 

Another panelled roof, with colouring of a much simpler 
description, exists at the end of the north aisle of Mattis- 
hall church. The colours here employed are scarlet 
approaching to orange, madder brown, white and black, 
the ground of the panels being alternately scarlet and 
white with simple wreaths in each, encircling a crowned 
letter T. 

Occasionally, as a variety, the figures of angels are 
combined with the wreaths, alternating with them, or 
other^\ise arranged, as may be seen in the panels of the 
roof of the Lady Chapel in the Church of St . John Madder- 
market, Norwich. The grounds of these panels, originally 
white or pale bufi', are darkened by dirt, damp, and time, 
but the figures and the scheme of ornamentation may still 
be made out. The grounds on which the angels are 
depicted are diapered alternately with a flower and with 
the letters m.r. crowned and forming a monogram, and 
the angels, who wear the most wonderful headdresses, 
bear scrolls having upon them the words of the angelic 

The last panels of the ceiling are ornamented with 
groups of wreaths, a centre one and a small one in each 
corner, bearing within them the letters i.h.c. At the end 
of the north aisle of the same church, formerly existed a 
similar ceiling, wherein, as a pleasing variety in each 


panel of which an angel formed the centre, a little wreath 
filled the corners. 

This roof, I beheve, became so decayed that it was 
found necessary to remove it. The colours employed were 
black, white, and brownish red, or madder brown. 

To find a much more elaborate composition of this 
description, we must travel to the south of the count}'. 
The panelled eastern bay of the nave roof of tlie church 
of St. Mary Magdalen, Pulham, exhibits an elaboration of 
painted ornamentation, scarcely to be surpassed. Wreaths 
of green vine leaves and branches encircling the sacred 
letters, i.H c. and m.r. painted in red, fill the panels together 
with figures of seraphim, arranged in a curiously irreo'u- 
lar way. Some of the seraphim, strangely crowned and 
feathered beings, six winged and brilliant in red and 
purple plumage 

" in burning row 
Their loud uplifted angel-trumpets blow." 

Whilst others are employed in censing. It may be noted 
that the whole of the ground work is white, wh'ilst in the 
cornice for the first time, the use of blue in a mass is to 
be observed, this not being at all a usual colour in East 
Anglian painted roofs. 

The preceding remarks have been confined to examples 
to be found in Norfolk, but the list of painted roofs mioht 
be considerably increased, if I included in it the fine speci- 
mens to be found in Suffolk. A notice of these, how- 
ever, scarcely comes within the scope of this paper. 

But little is known as to the date of the paintino-s of 
these roofs. The roof at Knapton " was erected by one 
John Smytlie in the year 1503^" and we may conjecture 
that it was coloured soon after. In the fabric expenses of 
the College of Mettingham in Suffolk entries occur as to 
the painting of the roof of the church there, some time 
after 1420, by Edmund de Bradwelle " peyntour," who 
received £13 6s. Gd. for his work.- The roof of the nave 
of All Saints' Church, Garboldisham (long since a ruin^ 
was according to Blomefield " boarded and painted all 

1 Norfolk Archccology, vol. iv, p. SOI. lege, Suffolk. Communicated by the 

2 " Origiuiil Documents. Extracts from Rev. C. R. Manning," in Archa^o"lo"-ical 
the ancient accounts of Mettingham Col- Journal, vol. vi, 1840, ji. CT. 



over with the names of Jesus and Mary, and this in the 
midst : — 

Betwex syn yis and 

Ye Rode Loff ye yongiing 

Han payd for yis cost " &c. 

That is to say that between the inscription and rood 
loft, the young men of the parish had paid the cost of the 
work. Unfortunately we have here again no date. 

We may be a little more certain as to the method of 
painting employed for these roofs. This was, without 
doubt, tempera ; size, sometimes made from skins, some- 
times from the sounds of fish, being used to bind the 
colours. In the fabric expenses of the College of Metting- 
ham, already referred to, a certain Henry Barsham, of 
Yarmouth, is entered as supplying in 1418-19, " fifty 
Soundys pissium, 2d." Though occasionally used as glue is 
nowin joinery, these "Soundys" may have also served the 
painters as well. Much of the ornamentation, I am con- 
vinced, was stencilled, tendrils and touches accompanying 
the monograms and wreaths being added by hand, for 
they would be much too troublesome to stencil. Figures 
of course, however rude, -would be painted by hand. 
With respect to the finer and more artistic painted work of 
the screens, it has been confidently asserted that this was 
executed in tempera also, but if we take into consideration 
the lateness of the dates at which many of the finest 
screens were either made or painted, it is far more probable 
that the figures, if not the ornamental details, were executed 
in oil. Of course, such fragments of painted work as may 
exist before the latter half of the fifteenth century are 
probably in tempera. The intercourse between Flanders 
and Norfolk must be considered, where oil painting had 
been a flourishing art since the time of the Van Eycks ; 
and a certain Flemish influence in some of the details of 
the panel paintings shows signs of such intercourse. 

Who were the men who w^orked upon the Norfolk 
screens? Happily to this question these seems a possibility 
of a reply. For the " Illustrations of the rood screen at 
at Barton Turf," published by the Norfolk and Norwich 
Archa3ological Society, Mr. L'Estrange was able to supply 
the following list of painters, stainers and glaziers, extending 
from Edward III to Henry YIII, all from Norwich itself. 


48. Edw. III. Johannes de ifrenge Peyntour. 

Johannes de Bradewelle Peyntour. 

2. Eich. II. Johannes Leizc^ard Peyntour. 
10 & 11. Ric. II. Stephanus firenge Peynto". 

Eobertus ffrenge Peynto''. 
Thomas de Ocle Peynto"". 
9. Hen. IV. Eobertus Ocle Peynto^ 

3. Hen. V. Eobertus Syluerne Peytour. 

4. Hen. V. Eobertus Grey Peyntour. 
8. Hen. V. George Knot Steynour. 
7. Hen. VI. John Stonhale Steynor. 

John Pery Steynor. 
13. Hen. VI. John Garner Peynto"". 
21. Hen. VI, Thomas Hervy Peyntor 

proved the liberty of Wm. Hervy, 

Graver, his father. 
24 & 25 Hen. VI. John Maughtild Peyntour 

Willelmus Castleacre stenyo'" & Peynto" 

E(~)bertus Mayhew Steynour 

Thomas Chapel Steyno" 

John Eoo Steyno'' 
31 Hen. VI. John Longys Pe3'ntor 

33 Hen. VI. Eob. Hykelyng Peyntor 

8 Edw. IV. W^ Warner Steynor app John Stonhawe 

22 Edw. IV. Nicholas Peyntor Glasier 

W^ Skynner Steynor 
3 Hen. VII. Eobert Hervy Steynor son of Thos. Hervy. 

14 Hen. VII. John Terry Steynor 
1 Hy. VIII. Eich Euxston Paynto 

31 Hy. VIII. W^ Moton Steyno^^ 

^ I am enabled through the kiuJiiess Giles le Fleming of Bruges, 

of the Rev. W. Hudson, Vicar of St. Peter John le p. 

Permountergate, Norwich, to give here, Richard pictor. 

another and earlier list of painters, living Olyve le peyntur. 

in Norwich in the thirteenth century. Alan pictor. 

This list is extracted from deeds of con- The names of other painters at a 

veyance, called Court Rolls, dating from slightly earlier date still, are preserved 

1285 to 1298, preserved in the Municipal in tlie Sacrists' Rolls of Norwich Priory, 

Archives of that city. It runs as follows. under the year 1277. the principal artist 

Under the head of Pictor or le Peyntur in which group seems to h.ave been .i 

we find, certain Master William. Under the date 

Thomas de Lint. 1288 we have an entry of sums paid to 

Lawrence de Kirkstede, the painters William and Henry. See 

Ralph de Attleburgh. " Extracts from the account rolls of 

Roger le peyntur, of Norwich. Norwich Priory." Proceed, of Arclucol. 

Peter le pictor, sou of W™ de Racheya Inst-, Norwich, Vol. 1817 pp 207-208. 

le peyntur. 


With this list is printed an extract from the will of 
Margaret, widow of Sir Eobert de Berneye, Kt,, dated 
1416, in which mention is made of a certain table, or panel, 
painted with the history of St. Katherine, for doing which 
Eobert Okyll of Norwich had received 34s. 4d. This, it 
will be observed, is one of the names (with slightly different 
spelling) of the painters in the list given above, under date 
of Henry IV (1407-8). I find another trace of this painter. 
In the accounts of the College of Mettingham, is an entry 
under the year 1413-14, of 66s. 8d. given in part payment 
to him for making and painting a table or panel for the 
high altar of the chapel there, and three years after, he 
receives the balance of his account. In these same 
accounts another painter's name occurs, this time not a 
Norwich man. In 1416-17, Thomas of Yarmouth receives 
£6 10s. in part payment for making and painting two 
imao'es. In the following!' year he receives £8 10s. for the 
two imag:es with their tabernacles, as also for makinj? a 
table or panel for the altar, and the same entry with the 
sum of 100s. paid to this painter, occurs in the following 

Possibly the paintings of different dates, preserved in 
the Church of St. Michael at Plea, Norwich, may be from 
the hands of Norwich men, and I am fain to see their 
handiwork also in the beautiful retable, one of the treasures 
of the cathedral church of the capital of East Anglia, a 
work of earlier date and greater merit than any I have 
previously noticed. 

An authority on painting. Dr. Waagen, in his " Trea- 
sures of Art in Great Britain," considers that this latter is 
executed in tempera and that the date of its execution 
lies between 1380 and 1400. He says of it, "Both the 
figures and the raised elegant patterns of the gold ground 
entirel}' resemble the indubitable English miniatures of the 
same period, so that there is no question in my mind as 
to the English origin of this picture." 

Thus while tlie Van Eycks and their followers were 
working in the Netherlands, we had here, in East Anglia, 
the beginnings of a school of painting which might have 
rendered Eastern England famous in the records of art. 

^ See extracts from ancieut aiicounts of Vol, vi, 1819, pp. Qi-dij. 
Mettingham College, &c. Archxol. Journ., 


The great political and religious changes, however, of the 
sixteenth century gave a blow to that school from which it 
never recovered. It was not until the early part of the 
last century that the art of painting rose again in this part 
of England, but in a different form, with Gainsborough, a 
Suffolk man, and at a somewhat later period was practised 
successfully by Crome and his contemporaries, now known 
to fame as 'Hhs Norwich School." 


Some ten years ago, it became clear that the outlme of 
the Camp or Bury constructed by Ha^sten or Hastings at 
Shoeburyness, was rapidly becoming obliterated. So in 
September and October of 1879, I made a plan of it and 
cut a section through the only small piece of the wall and 
ditch, which remained whole. But I teas able to trace 
out the wall and ditch the whole distance, with one small 
exception, where a gravel pit had interfered with it. A 
large part of the ditch, too, had been recently levelled for 
tennis grounds, but luckily for me so recently, that the 
settlement due to the former existence of the ditch enabled 
it to be distinctly traced. The Government has built a 
wall along the bank of the northern half, and beyond the 
ditch runs Eampart Street. 

On the southern part, a powder store and an enclosure 
runs along the wall. I was able to get the exact width 
of tlie centre of the wall and the outer edge of the ditch 
where these were cut by the cliff, and in the centre of the 
western side was able to get a good measurement by 
digging, &c. The wall was here preserved by a thick 
underwood and some trees, and seemed to have sullered 
remarkably little. 

Certainly, the Camp was not very strong work and 
probably was occupied for a very short period, as will be 
seen by the following account taken from the Saxon 

A.D. 894. "Hasten had come to Beamfleet, with the 
band, which before sat at Middleton (Milton next Sitting- 
bourn) and the great army was also come there which 
before sat at Apuldre, near Limenemonth (Appledore, 
Kent). The fortress at Beamfleet (now Benfleet) had 

1 Reud at the Monthly Meeting of the lustitute, December 6tli, 1888. 


before this been constructed by Haesten, and he was at 
that tune gone out to phmder " when a very strong body 
of the English people who were sent eastward by Kiug 
Alfred, too'ether with the townsmen of London, and also 
aid from the west, marched to Bemfleet. 

Hsestens' " Great Army " was at home in the camp. 
Then came the army from London and put Hasten's army 
to flight and stormed the fortress, and took all that was 
within it, as well the property as the women and the 
children, and carried the whole to London ; and all the 
ships, they either broke in pieces or carried to London, 
or Eochester. 

And they brought the wife of Hasten and his two sons 
to the king, and he afterwards gave them back again, 
because, one was his godson and one Ethered's the Earl- 
dorman. But as soon as the wife and sons were given 
back, Hasten repaired the Shoebury fortress. The armies 
of Haesten after the flisfht from Bemfleet, drew toa-ether 
again, at Shoebury in Essex, and there constructed a 
fortress. After which they went up the Thames, to 
the Severn ; where, having been beaten and dispersed 
again, they returned to Essex. It is not clear where 
they went, apparently to Mersey Island, though, probably 
Shoebury was not quite abandoned. 

At the time mentioned, in 894, the coast was difterent 
to what it now is. The camp by its own shewing w^as an 
inland camp. I mean that the ditch did not then impinge 
upon the sea. Had such been the case it could not but 
have happened that the muddy sea water would have 
invaded it, the bottom being only now about 3 ft. above 
high water mark which would certainly have been 
washed by high tides and in stormy weather, but there 
is no evidence of this in the section by the sea or in my 
excavation ; and, moreover, the muddy water would 
have left a sediment, and none of the well-known mud of 
that coast was found, nor shells. 

Besides this, in accordance with the general mode of 
fortification at that time both by Danes and Saxons, the 
camp was an irregular kind of square in form, and it will 
be seen by the plan that if the present lines be carried 
round, enclosing about as much more land or sea as 
remains still ; the coast must have considerably extended 


eastward. The waste of the coast here during the last 
thousand years cannot have heen less, and was probably 
more than half-a-mile. I should feel within reason if I 
said a mile full. Again, there is a road here along the 
sands from Foulness to Wakering Stairs which probably 
represents an ancient coast road now gone to sea. This 
road which runs about a mile from the present land, 
some sixty or seventy years ago appears to have extended 
to Shoebury, though it is now obliterated. This is some- 
what interesting though no proof of date, for the road 
may have been a road situated well inshore at the time 
of the Romans' occupation of the site of the camp. But 
the wear of the coast here must have been much greater 
tlian there is any need to doubt will allow of the assump- 
tion that the camp was well inland. 

The outline is irregular, seemingly constructed in short 
stretches of nearly straight lines joined by angles which 
are very obtuse ; an evidence of haste, though of method, 
in construction. The dimensions of the camp wall are, a 
ditch 40 ft. wide and 8 to 9 ft. deep, of which at least in 
one place about 2 ft. have to be subtracted for a kind of 
step on the inner side, and one third the width of the 
ditch (vide section). The ditch was half filled with 
earth, part of which must have fallen from the bank. 
The land which is very level, had been raised for a bank 
to the hight of 12ft. ; on the inner side, the ground was 
3 ft. higher than outside the ditch — gradually sloping 
away — some of this may have been the result of degradation 
of the bank, but some may be considered as intentional. 

The area enclosed by the camp was apparently about 
one-third of a square mile, perhaps more ; from the in- 
clination of the walls, which are away from each other at 
the intersection of the beach, the widest part has gone to 
sea, it may be inferred. 

The top of the cliffs here is about 12 to 13 ft. above 
high water mark. They are of quaternary sand and very 
loose, so that the ditch could not have held water, as the 
whole area is much of the same as to level and quality. 

Eoman remains have been found in the district, outside 
and inside the camp graves have been found at the 
southern extremity close to the sea, from which a gold 
coin of Probus got into the possession of a man who still 


\^ . . ■-". ui^,,^^^^^ 


it ten years ago still. I was told, also, a ring was found. 
Pottery and bones of the same age are not scarce. Just 
outside the camp a stone faced well of hexagonal foim 
was discovered of Eoman make. 

Great quantities of bones were found, more especially 
near the sea, which was once the middle of the area ; 
nothing of Teutonic art has been found I believe, which is 
well in accordance with the story told by the Saxon 

The outlook from these parts is dreary and is only now 
noted for long range practice, and the site of the deposit 
cf Metropolitan Sewage. Formerly, according to tales 
and tradition, a city stood somewhere on the Maplin 
sands ; but the name of Maplin is without a meaning or 
history now. Shoebury has been suggested to mean a 
horse-shoe shaped burg, but this, though applicable now- 
a-days was not so at its foundation, and no plausible 
suggestion is novr possible. The area of the camp is 
covered with Government buildings and ranges, and for 
some distance around it. Since the railway has been 
carried there, great changes have hajDpened, and the 
place is populous to a surprising extent, for a spot so out 
of the world. 

In making this plan I was very kindly assisted by the 
officer commanding the station. In the little sketch 
appended to the plan shewing the probable shore line in 
A.D. 894, the scale may approximately be seen by com- 
paring the small outline of the camp with the larger one. 


d^riginal Docummt. 

Communicated by J. BAIN, F.S.A.. (Scot) 

The following paper is in the handwriting of the Earl of Hertford 
(afterwards the Protector Somerset.) Thougli without date, it was 
evidently drawn up by him at Alnwick jnst before his return from the 
Border at the end of November or beginning of December, 1542, 
when he was succeeded as lord warden by John Dudh\y, Yiscount 
Lisle (afterwards Duke of Northumberland.) Hertford had been 
ordered by the Privy Council to bring back with him a memorandum 
of the state of affairs on the Borders for the information of Henry 
YIII., and this paper is the residt of his labour. Among other notes 
of interest in it may be remarked those as to digging coal at Alnwick, 
and appropriating the timber of the " abbay besid Anwik," to repair 
the castle. The Percys were then under forfeiture, their castle was in 
Henry's hands, and for a long period was the head cjuarters of the 
Warden of the Marches. There is an abbreviate of this paper drawn 
up bj- a clerk from Hertford's rougli draft. Both of these documents 
are in the collections of the Marquis of Bath at Longleat, by whose 
kind ]iermission the former is now printed for the first time. 

r^E^iO^-'^'^^ ^'^ THE BoiiDERS liY THE EaRL OF HERTFORD. [ 

For the pencioners to be dischargit. 

For the intellyens betwene them men of Northumb*" and Skots. 

For the comyng in of the Skots for pouarti and what shal be don 

with them — and to show tlio causes whey tlie proclimacion is 

Item Tyndall and Eidesdal suferith the Skots to cum throw them 

and rob the Kyngs subiets and summe tyiwe cumme with them. 
Item rich mens goodo beth on toiuhid and onspoylyd and the pore 
men that dweUyth w4ne them robid and sjioilyd. 
Item the facion of the takyng of mj' prill. 
Item that yf the Skotf liaue no lether owght of Ingelaud they shall 

haue a gret lake. 
Item cart whelis was wont to be bowght her for v'* wliich now be 

sould for xvj* and all for that the borderarc sell them into Skotland. 
Item that lether be reflrainid to be sould in Skotland. 
Item timbar and mile (tones lykwis to be restrained. 
Item tlie Shreve of Northumbarland ys not acuutabull, and bi rcsun 

that they be not amersid and pay tlie amorsementc tharof, and 

allso that stelyng is on ponishid ys a gret cause of the decay of 

the cuntri. 


" My lorde tailebusshe to kepo Eidesdalo from wulf aud tlieifp.^ 
Item the favar and intelligens betwene them of Nortliumb'land and 

Cukdall and Glendall which is bi rosun the moft part of ther 

frendes and kyn be takyn bi the Skotf and othorwis. 
Item the numbar of Skotf in this cuntri and wher it be nesesari 

to advoid them. 
Item the intelligens betwene the borderars and Skotf . 
Item the delj'veri of presenars doth mich hurt. 
Item the Tindalf and Eidisdalf er sufering the Skotf to cum 

throw them and robe the kynge subietf . 
Item the kj-ngf subietf of Beaucallell dalle dotli mari dayly with 

the Skotf of Lythersdalle. 
Item yf ordar be not taken for the diging of see colle here, the 

kyngf wodf will be distroido within a yeire and for lak of feuell 

the inabitans of this towne of Anwik shall be dreven to forsak 

hit, which will be not only a gret losse to the kyngf ma*® reueneus 

but all so lose to the centre. 
Item to spek w*' the shanselar of the agmentacion for to give streyght 
commaudement to the oficarf that those somatf (?) and hemes which 
be att the abbay besid Anwik to be safli kept and housid for the 
reparacion of the kyngf ma**-' castell of Anwike. 
The state of Wark w*^" the captenes. 
Item for not carieng owght of Ingeland woiid timb' and millellouc 

shall hinclar Skotland. 
Item the Skotf did fere that the navi sliould have mad a belwark 

hon the roke or iland caulid the Linch,- which should be the 

distruccion of Edunborow and Light, for that no shep shuld cum 

in nor owght. 
Item in Northumbarland ther be mani jentellmen of small land and 

otherf that faverith Tindalf and Eidesdalf so that they robe the 

good subject^ hoo darnot for fere of ther lyves lay cni thing to 

ther cliarg and all sich robris ys leyd that it ys the Skotf . 
Item ther is likewis mich intelliens betwene them and the Skotf soo 

that no entrepris can be donne withowgh knowleg. 
Item the hedf men of the cuntre will have his shepard and hirdman 

to be a Skot, bi reasuu ther of ther good goith in safto and por 

mens everi day stolen. 
Item those shopardes aud hirdis men both good spies to the Skott" 

which doth mich hurt. 
Item bi reason that the 8kotes coren is soo burnid and consmnid and 

they bi resun thereof in sich misori that yf spedi romcdi be 

ministerid and some terrar showeed unto them that shal cum in to 

this reme I think or it be long ther will be mani Skotc^ cumme 

into this reme. 
Item the nimiber of Skotc dwelling here and what the cuntres 

answer is to it. 
Item to declar the facion of the overthrow of the Skotf .^ 
^Item the workes of Hull and the departure of the ships. 
Item of confei'ence with the Lorde Maxwell. 

In Sir John Thynne's handwriting. ■' i.e., at SoUvay Moss. 

* Inch Keith, opposite the port of Lcith. ■* In Sir J. Tliynne'.s \i\\iva\. 

Iprocfftiingsi at ilertingsi of tlje EaL)al ^rcljtTOlogtcal 


November 7, 1889. 
T. H. Baylis, Esq., Q.C, in the Chair. 

Mrs. TiEAKD read a paper on " The Great Sphinx of Egypt, Ideas of 
the Sphinx in the ancient workl." The Chairman, Mr. R. S. Poole 
and others took part in the discussion which followed. Mrs. Tiraed's 
paper is printed at p. 28. 

Mr. F. C. J. SprERELL read a paper, by the Eev, G. I. Chester, ou 
" Sculptures of Oriental design at Bradwardine and Moccas, Hereford- 
shire." Professor AVestwood, Mr. J. T. Mickletiiwaite, and Mr. 
C. E. Keyser took part, with others, in the discussion that followed, 
and by which it appeared that the Oriental character of sculptures in 
Herefordshire and Gloucestershire was recognised. Mr. Chester's 
paper will appear in a future Journal. 

The Eev. J. Hirst read a paper ou " The Location and Treatment of 
the Blessed Eucharist in Mediaeval Churches." We are indebted to 
Mr. Hirst for the following abstract of bis paper : — 

"On the recent visit of the Institute to Tunstead Church, Norfolk, 
many of the members were puzzled by the stone platform, some three 
feet wide, running right across tlie chancel, immediately behind the 
altar, and approached, moreover, by massive stone stairs. The opinion 
was hazarded by some members that this stone platform may have been 
used for the exhibition of the consecrated Host to the people for adoration. 
The present writer expressed his opinion that such a rite of exposition of 
the Blessed Eucharist, though of comparatively modern institution, might 
perhaps have taken place in England during the period when the 
Perpendicular style of architecture Avas in vogue, but he scarcely thought 
that it could have become common in this country prior to the Reformation. 
He has therefore been led to inquire into the probable date of the introduc- 
tion of this rite into the Church services of Western Christendom, and 
the paper now offered is the result. 

" That it was not held to be inherently unbecoming to look with the 
naked eye on the consecrated Host could easily be argued from the 
custom common amongst the early Christians of carrying the Blessed 
Eucharist with them to their homes, as also from the immemorial rite of 
the elevation of the Host in the Mass, as prescribed in the most ancient 
Grecian liturgies. 


" The reservation of the Sacred Species in golden doves and towers, 
placed upon the altar in churches, which can be traced right away from 
the time of St. Basil in the fourth century, must easily have led to a 
desire so natural to believers of doing honour to the consecrated Host, 
and suggested to them the idea of having recourse to it as to a palladium 
in time of distress and danger. Hence arose the custom of carrying the 
Sacred Host with them on a journey, suspended from the neck of man 
or horse, or hung in a box on the mast of a ship. This custom of 
carrying the Blessed Eucharist on a journey is as old as the time of 
St. Ambrose, and is mentioned in the dialogues of St. Gregory, and in 
Surius's Life of St. Birinus, first Bishop of Dorchester. 

" The Blessed Eucharist, however, does not appear to have been carried 
in solemn procession, at least in this country, before the Xorman Conquest; 
for though a procession took place on Palm Sunday, as j)artof the Church 
service introduced into England from Rome by St Augustine, neither St. 
Aldhelm or Alcuin, who mention this ceremony, say anything of the 
consecrated Host being carried in it. This latter custom is first recorded 
in the directory drawn up by Lanfranc for the Abbey of Bee, which, says 
Matthew Paris, soon became adopted in the larger Benedictine abbeys in 
England. But when, iii the thirteenth century, the Feast of Corpus 
Christi was instituted for the express purpose of doing special honour to 
the Blessed Sacrament, it is very probable together with the solemn pro- 
cession which then became common on that day and throughout the 
Octave, was introduced the rite of praying or adoring before the Sacred 
Host exposed amid lights and flowers upon the altar, which is, in 
substance, the rite of Exposition. From this rite to that of the modern 
Benediction, which appears to have been first made a popular evening 
devotion by ]M. Olier, founder of St, Sulpice, in Paris, the transition was 
simple and natural, especially as we find in the old Hereford Missal a 
prayer for blessing the people with the empty chalice on the principal 
feasts and doubles of the year. Moreover, as has been suggested by 
the Rev. T. E. Bridgett, what more natural than that on the priest's 
bringing back the Holy Eucliarist from a sick call, or on carrying it to 
the sick, when asked for a blessing, he should have given it with the 
Pyx. Thus the rise of Benediction may have had a spontaneous and 
gradual growth, unnoticed at the time, but strongly commending itself to 
public favour. That the rite of Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament was 
known in medireval times, whether temporarily in procession, or more 
permanently upon the altar, is proved by the undoubted existence of 
monstrances that even at that early date must have been used for the 
purpose. Such Eucharistic monstrances are found depicted in miniature 
initials in graduals and missals as early as ISTi ; and monstrances in 
which the Host was seen through an aperture at the side are mentioned as 
having existed in various places in the course of the fifteenth century. 
Examples of monstrances 'to ber in Godde's Body with cristall,' are 
enumerated by Father Bridgett as found in ancient English inventories of 
1427, 1447, etc.; and in 1.375, Loid Dospenser is recorded to have left 
by will to Tewkesbury Abbey a vessel wherein to put the Body of Christ on 
Corpus Christi Day, which was given him by the King of France. 
(' History of the Holy Eucharist in Great Britain,' vol. ii,,pp. 98-102.) 
Thus can be traced from the earliest known rites, the gradual and natural 
development of the latest ritual practices." 


Mr. Hirst's paper was illustrated by an engraving fi'om Allatius of a 
Greek deacon carrying the Host for the Mass of the Presanctitied in 
Lent, from the so-called altar of Proposition to the high altar, in a dish 
covered ^vith a veil upon his head : and of a remarkable miniature 
forming the initial letter D, one inch in height, to be found in the Mass 
of the Blessed Sacrament, in a MS. vellum Missal, known to have been 
\vritten in 1374, and presented to a Benedictine monastery in France by 
John, Duke of Berry, in l-iOS. In this latter engraving is represented 
a bishop, accompanied by two acolytes, who is carrying the Blessed 
Sacrament in a golden tower, surmounted by a spire and pierced by a 
quatrefoil aperture occupying the full width of the circular tower, 
through which the Sacred Host is visible. From the fact of this 
representation appearing in the Mass for Corpus Christi it is evident 
that there was here a design to show the way in which the Blessed 
Sacrament was carried in procession in that day. 

Votes of thanks were retiirned to authors of these papers. 

Jlntiquitics ;ini5 cBovke oi Jlvt (^xhifaitcb. 

By Mrs. Tieaed. — A large collection of diagrams. 
By Mr. Spueeell. — A photograph of a Eoman coffin, found at 

December 5, 1889. 

The Eev. F. Spueeell in the chair. 

Ml'. Fli>'dees Peteie sent some notes which were read by Mr. 
F. C. J. SriTEEELL, on Stone Implements lately brought by him from 
Kahiin, Egypt. 

The derivation of the symbols of hieroglyphs from these implements 
was described, showing that very little change from the earliest known 
symbolic forms to the implements in use 2600 b.c. had occurred. 
Special notice was made of the sickle, tracing its development from 
the jaw of an animal, whose teeth had been removed and replaced by 
flint flakes, to an instrument made of wood, with improvements in 
shape and more regular arrangement of the stone cutting edge, 
through the bronze forms, to iron. 

Mr. J. E. Bale communicated a paper on the ancient Norman font 
in Toftrees Church, Norfolk. The font in plan is sc^uare ; the bowl is 
supported by five short pillars, the centre one containing the drain 
pipe. The panels of the bowl are all elaborately carved with different 
designs At three of the upper corners are sculptures representing 
lambs' heads, and at the fourth the head of a wolf in sheep's clothing. 
Mr. Bale contended that the Anglo-Celtic identity of the work was 
obvious. This paper will appear in a future Journal. 

Votes of thanks were returned to Mi*. Petrie and Mr. Bale. 

<3lntiqiutic'5 aub ilillovhs of Jlrt 0:.\'lubitcii. 

By Mx, Peteie. — Stone Implements from Egj-pt. 
By Mr. Bale. — Drawings of font at Toftrees. 

£ioims of Jli-chitcolcrgtritl JJubliCiittous;. 

A HISTORY OF COGGESHALL, IN ESSEX, with an account of its Church, 
Abbey, Manors, Ancient Houses, &c. By Geo. Fred. Beaumont. Coggeshall : 
E. Potter, Market End, 1S90. 

"We called attention in a former Journal (Vol. xlv., p. 482) to the 
high value of the little chapel at CoggesliaU, and, although the appeal 
which we then supported has not resulted as favourably as could be 
wished, it is satisfactory to know that sufficient interest has been 
awakened, mainly by Mr. Beaumont's efforts, to save, at least for the 
present, this fragment of Coggeshall Abbey. We now gladly welcome 
Mr. Beaumont's little book because we know him to be a capable man, 
and, it having often been our fate to take nj) a popular history of a 
place and not to find at once the very and only thing we wanted, it 
is a satisfaction to have a local history which is arranged in an orderly 
and methodical manner, is well printed, and, above all, capitally 
indexed — an index being the rock upon which so many authors split. 
We may specially mention one chapter — that which treats of ancient 
houses, field names, roads, bridges, &c., as particularly interesting and 
well done, and the same remark applies to that entitled " Fairs, 
Customs, Folk-Lore, and Miscellaneous." 

Among the illustrations the most notable is one of the interior of the 
restored church. This must have been, in the old days, a magnificent 
structure, built solely by the clothworkers, and not as Mr. H. W. 
King supposes, partly bj' them and " the Cistercian fathers," who, in 
fact, are more likely to have pulled it down if they could, and ajDpro- 
priated its tithes. 

No doubt the present restored church is a worthy monument of the 
zeal and generosity of the inhabitants, and it probably is well warmed, 
and serves its purpose better than formerly. But, speaking from an 
antiquarian point of view, and judging from the illustration before us, 
it is now no longer an old church, and a great deal must have been 
taken away and a good deal introduced that in these days someone 
would have fought for or against ; in fact, it was restored too soon, 
and in the ruthless period of 1840-70. The interior is cold and barren, 
there are, of course, no screens, and it is not saved by the inevitable 
reredos, and the very " wooden" seats. We notice the brass jug on 
the base of the font, in its usual truly '-gothie" hideousness. Is 
not this a mere whim of the "art manufacturers" which is neither 
sanctioned or ordered by Eubric, or Constitutions and Canons 
Ecclesiastical ? 


WESTMORLAND CHURCH NOTES being the Henikhy, Epitaphs aud other 
Inscriptions in the thirty two Ancient Parish Churches aud Churchyards of that 
County. Collected aud arranged bv Edward Bella&is, Lauccster Herald, vol. 
II. T. Wilsou, Highgate, Keudal. 'Octavo pages, 340. 

This is the secoud half of this veiy important "svork, and incdudes, 
the parish church and chnrehyards of such places as Kendal, Kirkbj 
Lonsdale, Kirkby Stephen, Lowther and Windermere. Under Lowther 
come a large number of monuments and hatchments of the noble 
family of that name, which give much pedigree and heraldic informa- 
tion. By the way, a scientitic pedigree of this family is much wanted, 
and it is to be hoped that some local genealogist will take the matter 
in hand ; we fancy the editor of the local societies' Transactions would 
have no difficulty in bringing forward a competent person who has 
abeady accumulated considerable material. Tlie monumental inscrip- 
tions at Keudal are numerous, and in some instances record persons of 
more than local distinction. We regret to read that "many stones 
with inscriptions were buried some time since, following a call to owners 
(partially responded to), to help in the task of putting the churchyard 
in order." Can the Chancellor of the diocese have known of, or 
sanctioned such a proceeding ? Mr. Bellasis also records that at Mus- 
grave, "many old tombstones were utilized as " throughs " when the 
clmrcli was rebuilt, in "45." 

The puzzles presented by the heraldry in the famous window at 
Windermere, and on the Wharton tombs at Kirkbj- Stephen are most 
carefully worked out, as indeed it is in every case, a fact which 
makes us regret the book has no heraldic index, which would have 
gone a long way towards forming "an Ordinary of Arms" for the 
count V of Westmorland. 


^rcfjaeolotjical Sournal 

JUNE, 1890. 

By J. L. ANDRE. 

The parish of Burton, in Sussex, is chiefly included 
in the park attached to the manor house, and is so thinly 
populated that in 1821 it contained only one house — the 
mansion, and fourteen inhabitants. Since then the popu- 
lation has much increased, though still, I believe, under 
one hundred souls, and of the thirty parishes in England 
bearing the name of Burton, there is only one with fewer 
inhabitants, that of West Burton, Notts. As in a few 
other Sussex parishes there are some detached portions, 
one of which is as far off as South Bersted, and part 
of the land belonged to the nunnery of Godstow, in 

In Domesday Book the parish is designated Botechi- 
tone, and it is curious to observe that it is spelt in 
precisely the same way in the will of John Goring, 
which was made shortly before his death, in 1521. In 
the eleventh century document mention is made of one 
mill, which is no doubt identical, as to site, with the 
present water mill, and the extensive and beautiful fish- 
ponds are also stated as then existing.' Besides the 
ancient use of the water power in connection with the 
mill, it was likewise applied afterwards to aid the iron 

^ Read at the Monthly Meeting of the uio sunt ij'' et viij villani et ii.i bordarii 

Institute January 9th, 1890. cum ij ] carucirf Ibi ij servi et j moliuus 

- The following is the account of de xj ] solidis. Piscaria de _ cc'''^ 

Burton as recorded in Domesday Book. lxxx<"='^°6''i'"'^ i et iiij acraj prati et silva ij 

" Robertus tenet de comite Botechitone porcorum T. R. E. et post valuit xl 

et Hamelinus de eo. Ulmer | tenuit de solidos, Modo c solidos." Domesday 

rege E. pro ijb"s Maneriis in alodium Book in relation to the County of Sussex. 

Tunc et modo se defendebat pro V p. 64. 
hidis I Terra est V carucarum. In domi- 

VOL. XLVII (No. 186) N 


industry, once so extensive in Sussex, as there is a record 
of the existence of a " fforge or iron mill," at Burton, 
near Petworth, in 1653. 

The manor has descended from the Dawtreys, who 
appear to be the earliest known possessors, successively 
to the families of St. John, Dyke, Goring, and Biddulph, 
each of the changes of ownership having been made 
by marriages with heiresses. By the marriage of Eva 
Dawtrey, who died in 1354, the estate passed to Sir 
Edward St. John, whose daughter Elizabeth, similarly 
carried it to Henry Dyke ; and his daughter Constantia, 
by her union with John Goring, of Burton, conveyed 
it to the Gorings, in whose possession it continued for 
more than two centuries, finally becoming the property 
of the Biddulphs by the marriage of Ann Goring with 
Eichard Biddulph, of Staffordshire. 

The manor house, standing in the midst of the beautiful 
well-wooded park, was re-built in the reign of Elizabeth, 
probably late in the sixteenth century, as the architecture 
of the structure appears to have been the rich semi-classic 
style, of which there were so many examples in Sussex, 
as at Bolnbrook, Brambletye, Slaugham, and elsewhere. 
Horsfield gives an engraving of the principal entrance, 
which comprised a rather insignificant doorway, over 
which was a rich panel with the Goring arms, crest, and 
mantling, and a three light window ; both were flanked 
by pilasters with elaborate corbels and bases, the whole 
being crowned by a decorative frieze." The Elizabethan 
erection was destroyed by fire about the year 1756, when 
it appears " many valuable portraits of the Goring family 
by the early masters " were destroyed.'^ The house was 
again re-built with much splendour by Richard Biddulph, 
but in its turn was ruined in the same manner, and finally 
re-erected in 1826. The present building is a plain un- 
adorned structure, but is said to contain a brass staircase, 
brought from another Sussex mansion, the grand dwelling 
at Michelgrove, when it was pulled down in 1826. 

From Mr. Hussey's Churches of Kent, Sussex, and 
Surrey, we learn that although no church or chapel is 
mentioned in Domesday Book, as existing at Burton, the 

^ See Sussex Arch;oological Collec- - Horsfield, vol. ii, p. 172. 

tions, vol. xviii, p. IC '" Dalliiway, Arundel Rape, vol. ii, 283. 


name occurs in the record of the Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas IV, in 1291, showing that there was an ecclesi- 
astical building at that date, and there is also mention of 
such an edifice in the Nonas Roll compiled about 1341 in 
the reign of Edward III.^ The benefice was consolidated 
with that of Coates, an adjoining parish, in 1520, during 
the episcopate of Bishop Sherburn, of Chichester.^ The 
church was partly rebuilt and repaired by an injunction 
from Archbishop Juxon in 1636. Horsfield, whose 
History of Sussex, was issued in 1835, states that no 
service had then been performed for many years, and 
Hussey, whose book was published in 1852 makes the 
same statement, which, however, will not apply at the 
present time, but the edifice, standing as it does completely 
buried in trees, was so little known in the early part of 
this century as to give rise to a Sussex joke, that, no one 
knew there was a church at Burton till the hounds of a 
hunting party stumbled upon it. Tree-bordered church- 
yards are not common in Sussex, though numerous 
instances may be met with in Essex. Such trees were not 
only planted for ornament, but for use, and there was 
"an act passed temp. Edward I, 1307 (entitled *'iVe 
rector prosternat arbor es in cemeterio ") which decrees 
that such trees were church property^ and do not belong 
to the parishioners, but are under the priest's care, and 
the act further says, " and yet seeing these trees are often 
planted to defend the force of the wind from hurting of 
the church, they are only to be felled when the church 
requires needful reparations when they may be used for 
such a purpose to help the parishioners but are not 
ordered to be so."^ The churchyard is now of very 
limited extent and contains only one or two graves on the 
south side. The dedication of the church is unknown, 
and the one bell bears no inscription. The edifice com- 
prises a nave measuring internally 26 ft. by 14 ft. 6 in., 
and a chancel 13 ft. 8 in. by 11 ft. 8 in. These dimensions 
show how small the entire building is. Over the west 
end is erected a short stone-capped bell-turret carried on 
a circular seventeenth century arch ; there are plain 
hollow chamfered west and south doorways, and the 

' See Hussey, p. 210. "Mr. Robertson Blaine, in "Athe. 

* Dallaway, p. 284. ntcum," No. 1963, June 10, 1865. 


windows are all more or less mutilated Third-Pointed ones 
of two lights each. The interior is equally unattractive 
as reofards the structural features : there is no chancel 
arch, and the nave roof is a plain king-post one ceiled 
between the principals, whilst that of the chancel is 
modern. The font a tub-shaped mass, has a simple roll 
round the upper edge, and as it shows traces of the 
staples by which the lid was fastened, is probably of 
Norman date. There is a very small and perfectly plain 
piscina in the chancel, and some good linen-fold panels, 
worked up into more recent open seats, remain in the 
nave. The Canon of 1603, ordering that every church 
should have a pulpit has been disregarded at Burton, as 
it possesses none whatever.^ All these details offer but 
little that is attractive to the antiquary, but there are 
three features which redeem Burton from bein<j^ a most 
common-place parish church, these are the rood screen 
and loft, a fragment of wall-painting, and the sepulchral 

Chancel-screens are held to be somewhat rare in Sussex, 
though there are many excellent examples, including 
decorated ones at S. Mary's Hospital, Chichester, and 
Etchingham, whilst the whole of the chancel parcloses 
at Eastbourne are of that period. There is also a 
fine perpendicular screen now hidden in the belfry at 
Ardingiy. The example at Burton is a simple Third 
Pointed onf, of late fifteenth centur}^ date, with plain 
fenestrations of five-foiled openings supermullioned. Still 
it is an interesting example as it retains its original 
polychromatic decorations, and very little painted wood- 
work is to be met with in this part of England ; the only 
other Sussex specimen of painting on screen work that I 
have found being at Thakeham, where the panels had 

' In Bishop Ridley's Visitation of wooden boards (which should be 
Articles for the Diocese of London, in strong and of proper work and form) 
1550, one of the enquiries is " Whether should be erected on the Gospel side as 
your church be kept in due and lawful before (i.e. in the case where an ambo 
reparation, and whether theie lie a was practicable) and serve for the purpose 
comely puli)it set up in the same" ; and of reading the Gospel and of religious 
S. Charles Borromeo, who died in 1584, preaching." p. 00. ed. Dolman, 1857. 
in his " Instructions on Ecclesiastical These extracts show that even before the 
Building," drawn up for the Church of seventeenth century, the pulpit was con- 
Milan, says that in every parochial church sidered a necessary fitting in many 
"where an ambo cannot be erected for churches, not only in England but on the 
the recital of the Gosjiel, or for roligi(nis Continent, 
preacliing, a pulpit constructed altogether 


a powdering of roses. Doubtless the Sussex screens once 
glowed with gilding and colours, as was the case at 
Brighton, and at Horsham, where the rood-screen re- 
mained till 1826. Brioiiton still has the loft over the 
screen, and there is a modern restoration of one at 
Fletching. Both of these have the gallery carried on 
fan-groining, but at Burton the construction is the same 
as that shown at Sherringham, Norfolk, the floor in each 
case being supported equally by the cornice of the screen, 
and by a girder at some distance to the west of it ; the 
latter beam having curved and spandrelled braces at the 
ends, though at Burton only one of these remains, that on 
the north side.^ Eood- lofts, constructed as at Burton 
and Sherringham, appear to be much less numerous than 
those where the gallery is erected over fan-groining, the 
reason probably being that when the roods and lofts, but 
not the screens, were ordered to be destroyed at the 
Eeformation, the destruction of a groined rood-loft would 
have involved the demolition of the entire upper part of 
the enclosure itself; whilst in the other case the floor and 
its wooden supports could be removed without neces- 
sitating the mutilation of the screen. 

In the north wall of the nave has been a square-headed 
Third Pointed window, of which the double chamfered 
jambs and moulded labels remain, though the tracery has 
gone, there being now only a plain upright mullion, 
dividing the window-way into two lights. Inside, on the 
east splay of the window recess, is a remarkable example 
of painted work ; it has faded very much, but still shows 
clearly a female figure, tied head-downwards to a saltire 
cross ragulee, a mass of deep red hair hangs from the 
head, and the countenance is that of a round-faced young 
woman. Some lines of colour and other portions of the 
design are too indistinct for identification. The absence 
of a nimbus from the efBgy might be considered to imply 
that no saintly martydom was here intended to be repre- 
sented and I am unaware of any record of the death of a 
female saint by this singular method of crucifixion. Yet 
that the effigy is of a martyr seems certain from the letter 
S. below the figure followed by another capital and other 

^ A piece uf battlemeuted coruicc- cliurcli, may liave been part of the 
work uow fixed to the west end of the rood-beam. 


characters too faded to be deciphered, but evidently the 
name of the female depicted.^ There is no mention of 
this very remarkable picture in the S. Kensington List of 
Buildings, (j-c, nor have I met with any notice of it 
elsewhere. Below the figure is a band of diaper work 
much resembling the so-called " box pattern," which 
was a great favourite for patchwork, and Berlin wool 
embroidery some forty years ago. 

At the time of the repairs in 163B the walls of the 
nave were decorated with several texts in ornamental 
borders, and at the same date a large and elaborate 
representation of the Eoyal Arms was placed over the 
south doorway ; it bears the words '■ Christo auspice 
regno " beneath the scutcheon ; a motto which appears 
frequently on the coins of Charles I. 

In the south wall of the chancel is a recessed and 
canopied tomb of fifteenth century date, the opening 
having a four-centred arch over which is an ogee canopy 
enclosing a plain shield ; the label is somewhat coarsely 
crocketted and finialled, but there are flanking pinnacles 
of better execution. The arch is only 3 ft. 11 in. wide, 
and covers the mutilated effigy of a lady, who wears a 
kind of mitred head-dress, the liripipe, or tippet of which 
is seen folded up on the cushion supporting the head of 
the figure. The gown is open in front and has wide 
lappets at the neck, whilst at the lady's feet has been the 
representation of a dog. The statuette is only 3 ft. 6 in. 
in length and 11 in. in width and I conjecture that the 
smallness of the tomb and its effigy was occasioned by the 

^ A rough analysis of the " pas- Enphronia, Flavia, Julitta, Theo, anci 

sions " of the female martyr saints Valentiua ; S. Victoria was suspended 

recorded in Alban Btitler's " Lives," over a fire. 

furnishes the following results ; though Crucified. — On the rack, &c. S. S. 

in many cases the tortui-es endured by Eulalia (of Barcelona), and Julia ; torn 

the martyrs were so numerous and linger- on rack, Justa and Theodosia ; torn with 

ing, that it is difficult to fix upon the hooks S. Engratis. 

precise cause of death. Drowned. — S. S. Martha (of Persia), 

Beheaded. — S. S. Agnes, Basilisa, Symphorosa, Theodora and companions ; 

Cantiuilla, Catharine, Cecilia, Crispina, S. Potansiana smothered in a cauldron of 

Denysa, Faith, Felicitas, Flora and Mary, melted pitch. 

Januana, Juliana, Justina, Margaret (of Stabbed. — S. S. Anysia and Victoria. 

Antioch), Manila and Alodia, Osyth, Stoned. — S. Theodota. 

Piegina and her companions Kufina and Strangled.— S.S.Beatrice, and Kufina. 

Secunda,Soteris, Theodora, and Winif ride. Torn by Beasts. — S. S. Blandiua, 

Burnt Alive. — S. S. Agape and com- Marciana, Thecla. 

panions, Afra and Digna, Anastania, WuirrED TO Death, S. Bibiaua. 
Domitilla, Eunonia, Eutropia, Eulalia, 


diminutive size of the chancel in which they are placed. 
Sussex is somewhat remarkable for its small sepulchral 
memorials, there is the well-known cross-legged effigy of 
a knight at Horstead Keynes, and at Fletching is a singular 
cross slab only 2 ft. 6 in. long by 7^ in. in its widest 
part, whilst at Cocking, not far from Burton, is a recessed 
tomb of nearly the same size as at the latter place ; it has 
an ogee shaped, and trefoiled arch with label and finial, 
it has also had side pinnacles as in the Burton example, 
but only one of which remains. 

In the south wall of the nave is another recessed 
monument, it is of late Perpendicular work, and has a 
flat canopy over a plain high tomb ; the inscription has 
perished, but at the back of the recess remains the kneel- 
ing figure of a man in plate armour, from which proceeds 
a label inscribed " Delicta juventiit{is) mee et ignorancias 
meas ne memineris dne." Four scutcheons of arms remain 
at Llie ano-les of the slab and the monument is that of 
John Goring, who died in 1521, and by his will directed 
that a tomb should be made for him with the sentence 
from the Psalms which I have just quoted, written upon 
it. He bequeathed to the priory of Hardhara, a religious 
house in the neighbourhood, 40s. for sixty masses and 
solemn dirge, and he directed his " evidences " to be kept 
in that priory until his son, then a minor, should come of 
age. He left 40s. to the prior of Durford, likewise a 
religious house in the vicinity of Burton, and to the 
monastery of Sion 60s. To the church at Botechitone he 
bequeathed a chalice worth 26s., a banner cloth of 10s. 
value, and two kine to maintain a light before the rood. 
To his four daughters a legacy of £400. John Goring, 
the above testator, by his marriage with Constantia Dyke, 
brought the manor of Burton into the possession of the 
Gorings, as previously mentioned. 

Opposite the last described tomb is another, which pro- 
jects into the nave ; it has a canopy of rich but debased 
character, and designed in the half-Classic, half-Gothic 
style, of which Sussex has so many examples, the most 
elaborate one, probably, being the chantry of the De La 
Warr's at Boxgrove, At the back of the monument have 
been kneeling figures of a knight and lady, both of whom 
were habited in tabards ; the male effigy has gone, but 


fortunately the other remams, and is probably unique 
amono-st our Eno-lish brasses, as it shows a female in an 
armorial garment belonging to the male sex, instead of 
being habited in the usual heraldic mantle. Besides the 
arms on the lady's tabard there are four shields displaying 
those of the Gorings and their family alliances, all of which 
retain their colours in a well preserved state. Various 
small effigies now lost, and several inscriptions, fill in the 
rest of the slab at the back of the tomb, and, from the 
irregular manner in which they occur, it is probable that 
they are not in their original places. At the risk of being 
somewhat tedious I propose to quote these writings, and 
then enter upon a few remarks upon each, on the persons 
mentioned therein, and on some of their descendants. 

Immediately above a central shield and the effigy of the 
lady are two plates of unequal size, on the largest of which 
is written — 

God forget my Sj-nne' Impute 
them not to me but forgeue me for tliy 
dere sone Jesus Christe sake & Judge 
me accordinge vnto thy Inscrutable 

mercy for yf we saye yt we have no synne 
we deceaue o'selves and theris no truth in vs. 

In a line with this is another plate, inscribed — 

1 have Geven deligent care vnto the and 
nowe I see the wyth myn eyes Wherfor 
I geue myne owne selfe the blame ; and 
take Eepentance in the duste and Ashes, 

Under the missing figure of the kneeling knight there 
was, till within a few years since, the following, which has 
now disappeared : — 

Syr ^Vyllm Gorynge Knight one of y^ Gen 
tlmen of y^ preuie chamber to kyng Edward 
the Syxte deceassed the xviii daye of March 
An** 1553 and lyeth here Intombed 

Beneath the lady is a plate bearing these words — 
Elizabeth goringe wife of y^ same S*" Willim 
& daught of John Couert of Slaugham dyed y'^ 
xvi. of Novebe 1558 and lyeth here itombed. 

Another plate bears the following — 

Henry Goringe sonne & heyre of y** same S"^ 
Willim & Elisabeth nowe lyuing & maried 
to dorctho one of y^ daught & lieyros of 
AVillim Everad Esquire dyed & liatli Issue by 
her lyuing Willim Edward : barbare & Elizabeth. 


Beneath the epitaph to Dame Goring is a plate with — 

Anne delalind daughter of y® same syr WiUini & 
Elizabeth late the wyfe of syr George delalind 
of y'' Contye of dorset and nowe wife to Fraunc'''* 
browne Esquir brother to y*^ Viscount Montague. 

A plate placed perpendicularly is inscribed — 

Robert Goringe deceassed one other soile of 
Sy^' Willim and Elizabeth latly maried to 
mary daughter of Thomas Onley Esquire ha 
vynge Issue by her now lyving Elizabeth. 

And lastly there is an inscription as follows — 

Thomas Edward & Custance : childre of the 

same : Willim & EHzabeth depted in ther infancy & 

one other dyed afore it had Eeceved christedom. 

The two religious inscriptions, written at a time when 
the Reformation was in progress, but the result as yet 
uncertain, would suggest from the Scriptural phraseology 
employed, that they were placed upon the tomb to ensure 
its respect by either of the two contending parties, the 
Protestant or the Catholic, as the sentiments conveyed in 
them would not offend the opinions of either body.^ 

The Sir William Goring commemorated in the inscrip- 
tion now missinoj, was the son and heir of John Gorino- 
whose monument has just been described. At the dis- 
solution of the monasteries the lands at Burton held by 
Godstow Nunnery were given to him, and likewise the 
landed property belonging to Hardham Priory " as heir to 
the founder."^ The Dawtreys are believed to have founded 
the house at Hardham, and to which their successors at 
Burton, the St. Johns and Gorings, were considerable 

^ The expression "take Repen- states that Abbot Robert, " received the 

tance," for becoming penitent, was a day of the making hereof. Rt. Hon. John 

sixteenth century phrase, thus Fabian Lord Scrope of Bolton as our veray 

tells us that Chilperic on one occasion truee and undoubted founder of our said 

"toke great repentance," Fabian's Chroui- Monasterye, with procession and all other 

cle, p. 89., ed. Ellis, 1811. solemn priuitie and ceremonie as doth 

- Sir William Goring was '' heir apperteyne and belong thereunto, ac- 

to the founder" of Hai-dham Priory cording as oi.r predecessors haveheretofore 

from having inherited the estates of at all times receyvede his noble ances- 

Sir William Dawtrey, who made the to^'ors as founders of the say me." The 

foundation of that monastery in the reign document proceeds to say that Lord 

of Henry H. A good instance of the Scrope was entitled to the share in their 

practice of considering the successors of prayers and good works, which " appen- 

a founder as entitled to all the honour teyne and belonge unto the just title and 

due to the original benefactor, is shown right of a founder and as haith bene 

iu the following extract from a document accustomede and done by our predeces- 

bearing date 1533, and to which the sours unto his auncestors our founders 

Abbot and his brethren at Eaaby Abbey, heretofore." Quoted iu Ass. Arch. Soc, 

Yorkshire, put their common seal. It Rep. vol. ii (1852 — 1853), p. 326. 


Henry Goring, recorded in the next inscription as son 
and heir of Sir William, was born in 1521, and died 15th 
December, 1594. He was high sheriff in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and in 1577, when that monarch contemplated 
visits to the country seats of Lord Montague, Lord Buck- 
hurst, and Lord Arundel, she proposed to honour Mr. 
Henry Goring at Burton with a short stay at his house. 
The project was stopped by the plague,^ and its abandon- 
ment was probably little regretted by Henry Goring, as 
he wrote a letter on the 7th of July, in the above year, 
to Sir William More, of Loseley, near Godalming, Surrey, 
as an old friend, and " hearing that the Queen has laid 
two nights at his house in Sussex," he asks how he is to 
entertain her, and "whether she brings her own stuff, 
beer, and other provisions or whether Sir William pro- 
vided every part."' Henry Goring contributed one 
hundred pounds towards the fund raised in aid of the 
opposition to the Spanish Armada,^ and in the hands of 
his descendants Burton continued till it passed to the 
Biddulphs, as before mentioned ; from him are also 
descended the Gorings of Wiston, who still own that 
manor. The inscription states that he married Dorothy, 
daughter of William Everard ; his brother George, of 
whom I shall now speak, wedded Mary the eldest 
daughter of the same gentleman. 

George, the second son of Sir William Goring, is 
not noticed in any of the inscriptions remaining, but 
he was destined to be the progenitor of two men who 
played important parts in the days of Charles I. This 
George Goring bore a son of the same name, who like- 
wise had a son George, whom Charles created Lord 
Goring of Hurstpierpoint, in 1626, and afterwards Earl 
of Norwich. He appears to have been in the main a 
staunch Eoyalist, and the records of his daring and 
fortitude are such matters of history that no more need 
be said here respecting him, except to note the fact that 
by his precipitate action at Portsmouth, he caused the 
outbreak of the Civil war. He died in 1662. 

The eldest son of the above-mentioned Earl of Norwich 

' S. A. C, V. p. 192. of this country at the time of the Spanish 

2 S. A. C, V, p. 193. Invasion in 1538." Quoted S. A- 0. I., 

•^ of "Names of nobiHty and 32. 
gentry who contributed to the defence 


was named George, the fourth in direct succession. Like 
his father, he was a zealous supporter of Charles I, and 
resembled his sire in bravery, but was rash, unscrupulous, 
and dissolute. After a turbulent existence he died in the 
lifetime of his father, leaving no issue, and the earldom of 
Norwich, on the decease of the latter, passed to his son 
Charles, who died childless and the title became extinct,' 

Robert Goringe, " one other sone of Syr William," is 
stated in the inscription to have married a daughter of 
Thomas Onley, or Olney, Esq., and it is, perhaps, worth 
noting that the families of Goring and Onley have repre- 
sentatives in Sussex at the present day.'*^ 

The last writing on the tomb states that one other child 
" died afore it had Eeceved christedom," which is an 
unusual piece of information. Inscriptions in memory of 
chrysom children are fairly numerous, but hitherto I have 
not met with one recording that a child died without 

The Gorings originally came from the place of the same 
designation on the coast of Sussex, and the name occurs 
for the first time in a list of sheriffs in the reign of 
Edward IV. The patronymic has been spelt Goring, 
Goringe, or Gorringe ; and the arms of the family, a red 
chevron and three annulets, or rings, on a white field, are 
said to contain a pun on the word Go -ring ; the crest is a 
lion rampant regardant. 

The house of Stuart was powerfully supported by many 
of the Sussex gentry, conspicuously so by the Ashburn- 
hams, Carylls, Gages, and Gorings, though the fidelity of 
some members of the last-named family was occasionally 
of rather a doubtful character. A Sir William Goring of 
Burton was among the prisoners taken by Sir William 

^ A portrait of George Lord Goring, nnd the disadvantage lay on the side of 

from a picture by Vandyke, is given the son." Lodge's Portraits vol. iv. p.p. 

in " Lodge's Portraits," it is 'accom- 313; 314. 

panied by a Memoir in which the - See Standard Jan. 14th, 1690. 

Author states that, "almost all writers Law Rejiort. 

who have mentioned either " — the Earl ^ To " receive Christendom," was a 

of Norwich, or his son George, have sixteenth century variation of " being 

been betrayed "jinto error and confusion." christened." Fabian for instance tells 

" These Mistakes were," he continues, us that Augustine required of the 

" perhaps easy, Both bore the same names Welsh Bishops that they should " geue 

and title, flourished at the same time cliristendome to the children in yf^ manner 

and in similar chai'acters ; both were y^ is vsed in yo chyrchc of Rome." 

courtiers, wits, warriors, and loyalists. Chronicle, p. 96, cd. Ellis. 
It was in morals only that they differed 


Waller at the sieo-e of Arundel (Castle in 1644, and also 
*' Ensign Goringe, and gentleman Henry Goringe 
Colonel George Goring is mentioned in the catalogue of 
Eoyalist Compositions, published in 1655, as having com- 
pounded for his estates for a sum of £400, Henry Goring 
of Burton, Gentleman, for £250, and Henry Goring of 
Sulhno-ton for £40.^ After the Eestoration of Charles II 
the name of Henry Goringe occurs amongst those of the 
Sussex gentlemen intended to be knights of the proposed 
order of the Eoyal Oak, projected by that King, and he is 
stated therein to have had an estate of £2,000 per annum. 
Lorn? after the second downfall of the Stuarts the Gorino-s 
were suspected of being their partisans, for in the diary of 
Thomas Marchant, published in the Vol. xxv of the Sussex 
Archceological Collections, it is recorded under the date of 
June 26th, 1715, that " About this time there was a great 
talk that the Duke of Ormond, the great supporter of the 
Chevalier St. George, commonly called the Pretender, 
went off at Shoreham with Sir Henry Goring, Mr. Middle- 
ton, and one or two others." The Sir Henry Goring here 
mentioned was one of the Wiston branch of the family ; 
he died in 1752, and was buried at Billingshurst, in 
Sussex, where he has a tomb inside the church, and where 
many members of the Goring family are interred. 

A ledger in the chancel at Burton commemorates Sir 
William Goring, who died on February 29th5 1723, in his 
65th year, and appears to have been the last of the 
Gorincrg buried in this church. 

The Burrell MSS. mention an inscription in memory of 
Mary Goring, " the most deservedly beloved wife " of Sir 
Henry Goring, Bart., who died September l2tli 1694 ; and 
also one for Ann Biddulph, " the most deservedly beloved 
wife " of Richard Biddulph, who changed this life for a 
better on 25th of October, 1679, tetatis 27. Eequiescat 
in Pace."^ 

Probably a more unpretending little edifice than Burton 
Church does not exist, but I think that the internal 
features here described, the sepulchral monuments, and 
the associations connected with them, redeem it from being 
altogether devoid of interest, and that such interest is 
more than local. 

1 S. A. C, is. 53, aud V. 63 note. '^ Cuncll, Add. MSS. 5699. 

= S, A. C.,xix. 91. 


By the late REV. PREBENl^ARY SOARTH, M.A. 

At the recent Meeting of the Archaeological Institute, 
at Norwich, I exhibited plans on a large scale, and also a 
perspective drawing of the arrangements of the Eoman 
Baths at Bath, a large portion of which have been lately 
laid open to view, but are now to some extent covered 
over with recent buildings. I explained the circumstances 
under which recent discoveries had taken place, and 
pointed out what had been previously laid open, giving 
details of wdiat remains had been found in following the 
course of the ancient Eoman drain, which led to the find- 
ing of the Great Eeservoir that had supplied the Eoman 
baths. Having fully explained the plans and drawing I 
passed on to the probable date when the erection of 
these baths took place, inferring from the style of the 
masonry, and the size of the stones of which the large 
rectangular bath is constructed, that it mio-lit be fixed at 
an early period of the Eoman occupation. The western 
portion of Britain had been brought under the Eoman 
power in the days of the Emperor Claudius. A pig of lead 
found on the Mendip hills, at Blagdon, bears the stamp of 
Britannicus, the adopted son of that Emperor ; and other 
pigs of an early date have been found — as one of the 
Emperor Vespasian (a.d. 70), before his son Titus was 
associated with him in the Empire. About this date 
Sextus Julius Frontinus was made legate of Britain under 
Vespasian, and succeeded Petilius Cerealis. He is noted 
by the historian Tacitus as " Vir Marpius" (Agric : c, 17). 
We know from the work that Frontinus has left behind 


him in the " Aqueducts of Eome " that he was a man of 
no mean abiUty, and well skilled in " water works," having 
had the oversight of the water supply of the Imperial city. 
He was also an able military commander, and wrote a 
work entitled " Stratagemata." How long his govern- 
ment of Britain lasted is uncertain, but he was succeeded 
by Agricola, who very probably caused the works of col- 
lecting the Thermal waters at Aquae Solis to be carried out 
on the grand scale, of which the recent discoveries bear 
witness. The system of the Roman Baths seem to have 
occupied one side of the Roman Forum, reaching from the 
site of the present Pump Room as far as the Abbey 
Church, and extending to a considerable depth south-west. 
Much more, probably, remains to be discovered, but what 
has been laid open serves to show the size and complete- 
ness of the buildings, and quite justifies the description 
of Solinus (Polyhistor), who, speaking of Britain, says : — 
" In quo spatio magna et multa flumina, fontes calidi 
oPiPARo ExcuLTi APPARATU ad usus Mortalium," These 
baths, then, at the time he wrote his history, must have 
been well known, and much in use, if we may judge from 
the remains of dedicatory altars and other offerings found 
around the hot springs. He mentions, also, that Minerva 
was the presiding goddess, and we find her name, as well 
as that of " Sul. Minerva,'' inscribed on these altars and 
votive offerings. At the meeting of the Archasological 
Institute at Carlisle, in 1882, an account was given of the 
discoveries up to that time, and a further statement was 
made at the monthly meeting of the Society in November, 
1884, both of which accounts will be found in the 
published proceedings ; but further researches liave 
brought to light another large bath, and have added much 
to the plan of the whole. 

In vol. xlii. p. II, and following, are given the dimen- 
sions of the large rectangular bath, but the one which 
has been uncovered since, though not so large, is not less 
interesting, being circular in form, and the platform 
surrounding it being equally well preserved, and the walls 
to a certain height. This lias unfortunately been built 
over, the space being required for modern baths, but the 
Roman work has not been interfered with, and the walls 
of the original structure are preserved, and can be 


distinguished from the modern additions. The buildings 
which stood above the large rectangular bath have been 
removed, and the whole of this bath laid open to view. 
If this could have been the case with the circular bath 
adjoining, and the whole arrangement seen at one view, 
it would have been one of the most interesting and in- 
structive sights to be seen in any county. 

A smaller bath was also found and a hypocaust. All 
these have been carefully planned and described, and can 
be seen under guidance, but the effect of the whole is 
much lessened by being built over. A detailed account 
of the discoveries up to last year, will be found in the 
Handbook of Bath, prepared for the Meeting of the British 
Association, in 1888. 

The portions of sculpture discovered in the course of 
excavation, are at present arranged on the platform sur- 
rounding the large bath, but insiDj fragments of a much 
later period were found with them. 

The dimensions of the hall containing the circular bath 
is 39ft. Gin. by 35ft. wide. In these two large portions of 
the Thermal arrangements we probably have the separate 
baths for males and females, and appended to these appear 
to have been single baths, more of which may be eventually 

It seems from the large masses of roofing, composed of 
hollow wedged shaped tiles found in the baths, and on the 
ambulatory surrounding them, that they had been roofed 
over, or, if the bath itself was left open, the walks around 
were certainly roofed. The supports which carried the 
roof remain to a certain height, and appear to have been 
strengthened at a later period of the Roman occupation. 

The sculptured portions discovered of Eoman date have 
been few, but there is one of considerable interest, bearini!" 
traces of elegant work, and of a good period of Eoman 
Art, an account of which will be found in the proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries (Uth March, 1886). The 
subject seems to represent ^sculapius and Hygeia, the 
god of healing and the goddess of health. The male figure 
is offering a saint or a kid, and between the two figures is 
a cup, round which is a serpent which may symbolize the 
health-giving waters. On the back of the stone is a dog 
and a tree, the dog may symbolize Caniculus or the dog 


star, emblematic of health, and the whole may have refer- 
ence to the health and healing derived from the use of the 
waters. A metal plate was also discovered inscribed with 
Eoman capital letters, and which has been differently read 
by different authorities ; a fao-simile of this will be found 
in the Journal of the Archaeological Association for 1 886, 
it is supposed to be a " defixio " or anathema. Many 
coins were also found, which are at present to be seen in 
the cases placed in the pump room. These begin with the 
Emperor Augustus and reach to the reign of Phillipus II. 

It is hoped that the Bath Corporation who are the 
owners of this interesting collection and in whom the 
property of the mineral water baths is vested, will see to 
the careful arrangement and classification of these objects, 
and to their preservation. At present they can hardly be 
said to be arranged at all, having been placed just as they 
were discovered under glass cases. 

The remains found previous to recent discoveries are 
lodged in the museum of the Literary and Scientific 

It is much to be regretted that a city like Bath, so rich 
in Eoman remains, should not possess a building entirely 
dedicated to their preservation, like the museum at York, 
in the grounds of St. Mary's Abbey. 

The discoveries to be made are not yet exhausted, as 
indications of another bath have been come upon, and only 
wait further investigation to reveal another portion of 
these grand Thermal arrangements. 

When we reflect that no other city in Britain, and it 
may, perhaps, be said on the Continent — exclusive of 
Eome — has yielded such remains of Eoman refinement and 
luxury we may well be proud of these discoveries and 
labour for their preservation, especially as they give us an 
idea of the importance of Britain as a province of the 
Eoman Empire, and the estimation in which it was held in 
Eoman times. If the Northumbrian wall, and the walled 
defences on the east and south coast of Britain, as well as 
the network of roads in the interior, indicate the value put 
upon the possession of the island, the remains of refine- 
ment and civilization, such as the Eoman villas and baths, 
point to the civilization and physical condition of the 
people under Eoman rule. 



MlUILME Fmi®l 

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By W. H. St. JOHN HOPE, M.A., 

About three miles from Alnwick, on rising ground 
overlooking the river Alne, are the remains of a house of 
Whitefriars or Carmelites called Hulne Priory. 

These remains have been described a number of times 
notably by Grose, in his Antiquities of England and Wales, 
published in 1775, and by the Eev. C. H. Hartshorne in 
Feudal and Military Antiquities of Northumberland^ other- 
wise known as Vol. ii of the Memoirs illustrative of the 
History and Antiquities of Northumberland^ of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute. Since the publication of these and other 
accounts much new matter has come to light, and as but 
little is known of the arrangements of friars' houses, a 
careful examination of the remains of Hulne will probably 
be found useful in elucidating the ruins of other houses, 
not only of Carmelites, but of other orders of friars. 

The Order of the Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel was 
founded not very long before its introduction into England 
in or about 1240, and it is a matter of dispute whether 
the first English house was established at Hulne or at 

Hulne is supposed to have been founded by Williaiu de 
Vesci, but its earliest charter is an undated one granted 
by John de Vesci, the son, between 1265 and 1288, recit- 
ing that he has given and confirmed to the brethren of 
the order of St. Mary of Mount Carmel in his forest of 

totam aream suam qiife vocatiir Holn, cum oratorio et edificiis ir. eadem 
constructis sen construGndis sicut in longitudine et latitudine clausura per 
rectas divisas suas circumquaque jacet munita, 

^ Grose, Antiquities of England and Wales, London, 1775, vol. iif. 



which area his father, lord William de Vesci, first per- 
mitted them to dwell in, and appointed for their possession. 
He also grants to the brethren timber for building pur- 
poses, with many other concessions and privileges. These 
and later charters, contained in a small chartulary of the 
priory now in the British Museum,^ are all given at length 
in the appendix to the Northumberland volume. 

The remains of Hulne Priory deserve special attention 
for three reasons. In the first place the ruins are more 
complete, at any rate as regards plan, than those of any 
other house of the order in England. 

In the second place we are able to identify all the 
different parts of the buildings from a minute and exhaus- 
tive survey made very shortly after the suppression, when 
the house still remained nearly perfect. So very few 
surveys of this character have been discovered, that every 
one is of the utmost value and interest , 

In the third place, the noble owner, the Duke of North- 
umberland, has recently had the remains thoroughly 
excavated and planned, bringing to light many features 
mentioned in the survey which had disappeared from 

The survey I have referred to forms part of a more 
extensive one, begun in 1567 by a person named Eichard 
Clarkson, for Thomas, seventh Earl of Northumberland. 
Besides Hulne, it includes surveys of the castles of 
Alnwick, Prudhoe, and AVarkworth, as well as other minor 

A good deal of the survey is printed in the appendix to 
the Northumberland volume, but on collating the portion 
relating to Hulne, which by the Duke's kindness I was 
able to do with the original at Alnwick Castle, I found it 
advisable to make an entirely new transcript, which has 
enabled me to clear up several doubtful passages that had 
not been quite correctly printed. 

The survey is, unfortunately, incomplete in one respect. 
It was clearly Clarkson's intention to give the dimensions 
of the various buildings, spaces having been left for them 
in the manuscript; but in no case have the figures been 
filled in. Another curious feature is that the points of 
the compass are wrongly given, Clarkson's east and west 

^ Hurl MS. 3897. 


being really the north and south. Until quite recently 
I flattered myself this was my own discovery, but on 
reference the other day to the account of Hulne given by 
Grose, I found a copy of Clarkson's survey prefaced by 
the remark : " It may be necessary to observe, that, on 
comparing this survey with an accurate plan lately taken, 
it appears that Clarkson has made several mistakes as to 
the situation of the building, with respect to the points 
of the compass " ; and on the plan Grose also notes that 
Clarkson " has committed great Mistakes with Eegard to 
the Points of the Compass." In the following transcript 
of the survey I have added the true points of the compass 
in brackets : 

" And as it were in the myddes of the saide two pkes 
called hulne and west parke is situate the laite dissolved 
monasterye of hulne lait in the tenure of the said S"" Eobarte 
Ellerker Knighte by the graunte of the laite Kinge of 
faihous memorye henrye the eighte fo'' the tearme of his 
lyffe onlye and without payment of any Eent and nowe 
his lordships Inheritance fo'' that he did purches the same 
of Anthonye Eohe audito'' and Mr Eichard Ashtone the 
queries ma"^^ receyver who did obteyne by purches of the 
prince the saide scite and howse of hulne with closingf 
and other medowe gronds lyinge w*hin the saide pke and 
appteaninge unto the same, it haith bene inclosed with a 
drye stone walle the circuite wherof conteaneth in it selfe 
roode w^hin w4ie circuite the'" be thre closses vidz 
one closse lyinge one the west (south) parte of the sayde 
howse conteyneth in it self (roodes erased) acres 

the seconde closse liynge on the south (east) parte therof 
conteyneth in it self and the thride closse 

w'^he lyeth upone the east (north) syde of the garding 
conteaneth in it self the howse is environed 

with a curtaine walle maide of lyme and stone with a 
smale battlement and quadrant the entrie therunto is a 
towre called the gait howse and is of thre howse height 
coverede with sklaite and guttered with leade and w4iin 
the same is a smale curtaine halfe quadrant conteyninge in 
length yerdes in breadth yerdes on the east 

(north) syde of the saide curtaine is buylded the halle 
CO verede with sklaite whiche would be reparede aswell in 
the tymber as in the sklaite worke it conteaneth in length 


and in breadth and in the west (south) end of 

the same halle is the pantrie maid all of waynscotte and 
pannell worke and at the south (east) ende of the said hall 
is a lytle wall maid of Lyme and stone betwixte the halle 
and the garding walle it conteanethe in length yerdes 

and in the same litle walle is a dore maide of stone and 
lyme to serve for a passaidge into the cloyster chappell 
and other howses of offices and chambers which are aboute 
the saide cloystere. And from the saide stone walle to 
the said litle square towre called the gaithowse towre is a 
nother stone wall havinge also a stone doore hewen worke 
for the passaidge into the gardinge the same wall contean- 
eth in length yerdes frome the said litle towre 

towardes the north (west) is a curtaine walle conteanynge 
in length yerdf wherin is the lyke doore for pas- 

saidge into twoo generall stables whiche are betwixte the 
said walle and the said curtaine wall, And joyninge to the 
ende of the saide litle walle is buylded a howse covered 
wyth sklaite w'^'' is in length yerdes and in breadth 

yerdes the neather part of the saide howse is called 
the farmerye the over parte serveth for a gardner for corne 
the lofte maye be helped with smalle reparacons the 
sklaitf are in decaye and must furthw*^ be reparede the 
irone barres w* were in the wyndowes of this howse are 
taken awaye sence my lordes purches by suche as were 
remaners in his howse ; And at the end of this howse is a 
passaidge of sixe foote broade to the brewhowse standinge 
betwixe the said farmerye and the saide curtaine walle 
and to a nother litle curtaine w'^'' is behinde the kvtchinge 
And overwhorte the northe (west) end of the said first 
curtaine ther is a howse buyldede of two house height 
covered with sklaite and in good reparations it is in length 
foote and in bread foote the neather parte 

therof serveth for the passaidge or entrie into the kytchinge 
whiche kytchinge is buylded most lyke unto the facione 
of a square towre with a rounde roofe covered w"' sklaite 
w%e woulde be reparede, and in the same kytchinge is 
two chj^mleyes with faire raindges one overi a dresser and 
a litle howse for the paistrie, and the west (south) end of 
the saide Lower parte of the saide crosse howse is a 
ceasterne of stone set in the grounde whiche receyveth 
the water be pypes of leade from the condyte for servinge 


the said kytchinge the over parte of the saide howse is a 
faire chamber with one chymleye, and joyninge therunto 
is a nothe' litle Chamber right over the said paistrie howse 
in the north (west) ende of the hall is the butterye fo"" the 
most parte square and betwixte the buttery and the halle 
is a passaidge to the said cloister and also by a broade 
staire of woode. to the said two chambers nighe aboue the 
entrie of the hitching as is aforesaid a lofte which is over 
the saide butterye pantrie and passaidge nighe the halle 
aforesaid nowe used for a gardner and before tyme fo*" the 
lorde o'" priors walke to se throughe trelleses the use of 
the SVaritf in the halle and also it serveth for a passaidge 
to the lordes great chamber and towre. The said cloyste*" 
is square in the myddest therof groweth a tree of ewe it 
conteaneth in length yerdes and in breade 

yerdes it is well paved with stone a boute the said cloyste'' 
the windowes haith bene all glasyned and nowe fo'' the 
most parte are in decaye the east (north) and west (south) 
sydes of the saide cloyster was covered with lead the" was 
of it foure foothe'' by estimatione whiche was taken and 
caryed all away by witlm ellerker and his bretheren sence 
his P^ said purches the south (east) syde is the dorter 
wherin is chambers And joyninge ther unto also 

upone the grounde under the weste (south) end of the 
said dorter is one howse called the women howse wherin 
is two chambers with one chimley in the myddle of this 
end of the said cloyster is the chapell wherin is nothinge 
left but seatf and stalles and ther was one lytle ambre 
which served for the keapinge of the bookes and orna- 
mentf of the said chapell the same was taken away by 
Johiie Eecubye one of the Indwellers of the parke, And 
at the east (north) end of the said south (east) Syde ther 
is a passaidge to the saide dorter it is to be noted that in 
the tyme of the frears the chapell y* now is was ther 
chapiter howse the churche is all downe and laid into the 
gardinge the said Dorter Chapell and womenhowse is 
covered all with sklaite in great ruyne and would be 
reparede the windowes w4i before tyme were all glasined 
are lykwyse in greate decaye would be repared most 
specyallye the windowe of the chapell, Ande enlonge the 
north (west) syde of the sayd Cloyster is one house of two 
howse heighte conteaninge in length foote and in 


breade foote in the neather part tlierof is two 

sellers the over parte therof the Lordes great chamber 
beinge iiowe all roven and the tymbre therof in great 
decaj^e the irone staynshels taken furth of the windowes. 
Sence his Lordsliipe purchessed the said liowse And in the 
north east (north-west) nooke of the sayd Cloyster is one 
entrance into one liowse of twoo liowse heii>'ht havingfe in 
the neather parte twoo chambers with one chj-mley in 
the whiche the^" was a faire bed of framede work closse 
and all of wainscotte it was worth fortie shillingfes and a 
boue it was maide by the Laite Eiile of nortlmmbreland 
my lordes uncle tayken in peaces and caryed awaye by 
Johne ellerker And in the over parte of the said liowse is 
also a Chamber with one chymley this liowse is is (sic) 
covered with sklaite and would be poynted with lyme In 
the weste (south) nooke of the sayde north (west) parte of 
the saide cloyster is a condyte of tryme freshe water 
whiche water coiiieth frome one place of the saide parke 
callede the frearewells in pypes of lead whiche are in 
length yerdes and Rynneth into a ceasterne of leads 

conteyninge in length foote and in breadth 

ynches whiche staindeth of stone properlie set in the walle 
and frome theire runneth in pypes of lead not onlye into 
the saide ceasterne of stone fo^ the S'vice of the sayde 
kytchinge but unto the brewhowse also the said pypes of 

lead woulde also be rep Upon the backsyde 

of the saide farmerye is a litle curtaine and also joyninge 
upone the curtaine walle is (buylded erased) a howse of 
foote in length and foote in breade covered 

withe sklaite ande in goode reparations in the une end 
therof is a ptitione fo' the boultinge howse and in the 
myddste a faire Chimley with a for n ace and a lytle oven 
And upone the backe of the said Chimleye stode ther two 
litle smale brewe leades in two furnacf w''^ were tayken 
downe by Roberte Ellerker and yet remaneth in the howse 
the'" is also in that end of this howse whiche serveth for 
the brewhowse certaine vessell unto the same appertayn- 
inge as coolefatte and guylefatte with other such lyke 
ImplementC whiche are lykewj^se stayed unto his JJ^ 
pleasure be further knowen And at the north (west) ende 
of the sayd brewhowse and behinde the said kytchinge 
Butterye and great Chamber is a notlier Curtaine whiche 


is ill length yerdes and in breade foote the 

west (south) end therof is the curtaine walle one the north 
(west) syde joyninge and upone the saide curtaine walle 
is buylded two howses the one called the byer w*"^ is in 
length foote and in breade foote it haitli a 

dore through the said Curtaine walle fo"" the cattell to 
passe in & through the over parte of the sayde b}'er will 
S^'ve fo a haye lofte the other howsse is a barne conteyn- 
inge in length foote and the lyke breade as byer is 

they are both covered with thatch and in good reparacon 
and the barne haith also a doore through the walle for 
taykinge in corne into the same and in the east (north) 
end of the saide curtaine is the saide towre called the 
Lordes towre which is in length foote and in bread 

foote and is of thre howsse height covered with 
leade the neather part ther of is a voult the other two 
howses are two faire chambers in eyther of theme one 
chymley and upon the top ther of aboue the leades one 
the south (east) syde therof is raysed as it were a garrett 
wyth lyke battlement as the towre haith endlong all the 
south (east) syde of the saide towre whiche is also covered 
withe lead in length foote and in bread foote 

and in the same is a howse w*he a Chymley called the 
studye howse the leades are esteamed to be of fy ve fother 
and a half it rayneth in foure severall places of the same 
whiche fo"" valewe of ten shilling^ woulde be mended and 
much requysyte it were fo"" to be helped the glasse of the 
windowes be all gone and broken and at the foote of the 
towre besyde the voulte is also a doore fo'* the passaidge 
into the gardinge the entrance into the gardinge the 
entrance into the towre is through the lordes great cham- 
bre as before is mentionede And one the east (north) syde 
of the saide towre & Cloyster and within the curtaine 
walle aforesaide is twoo gardinges the one w* is next the 
towre is in length yerdes and in breade yerdes 

havinge a posterne throughe the sayde curtaine walle fo"" 
a passaidge into the sayde closse lyinge one the east 
(north) syde of the saide howse and haith also one grease 
o"" staire fo'' goinge upe to the battlemente of the said walle 
fo"" a walke upone the same walle aboute the saide gardino-f 
and orcharde The other gardinge conteaneth in length 

yerdes and in bread yerdf it was a very 


faire gardinge nowe all fordoone and the herbes waisted 
and destroyed and lykwyse the other gardinge also the 
place where the churche was is nowe full of chery trees 
and iipone the south (east) syde of the said dorter joyninge 
upone the saide gardinge and w4iin the saide curtaine 
walle is a litle orcha'^d conteyninge in it self an half acre 
of grounde by estimatione in the w'^^ groweth one peare 
tree trees all the other be plome trees & bullester 

trees the'' be also graftf of apple trees in the saide two 
gardingf and lykwyse the said litle closse calle the south 
closse Ande withoute the sayde curtaine walle and w%in 
the outmoste walle nighe unto the saide byer dore is one 
barne o'" laitlie covered with thatch and is in length 
foote and in bread foote y* is in goode reparatione 

And right over one the other syde of the waye is a lytle 
do"ckette foure Squared covered with sklaite newe repared 
by his lordship wherin is a good flight off dooves. 

And joyninge nigh the said scite of hulne towardf the 
west (south) is one closse called the calf closse conteyninge 
acres of ground it is laitlye maide arable by 

the sayd S'" Eoberte ellerker Knighte and suche places 
therof as will not be corne is kepte fo*' medowe grounde 
the wood that groweth therin is oke and aller ther is 
sawen this yere by willfiie Ellerker bowels of wheat 

in this said closse sence his fathers deatlie whiche is sup- 
posed to be my lordes and not pteyninge to the executors 
of the said Williii Ellerker it were therfore expedyent 
that the dykes were maide that the corne were note 
destroyed and eaten and lykwyse the howse vewed by 
certen men of good experience and knowledge that his 
jje j^[g\-^i determen whether he would alter facione of the 
buyldinge of the said howse or not and yf he dyd what 
sorte it should then be buylded and what chardges should 
be unto his lordshipe and yf not what howsses his JJ"" will 
have presently repared the other taken downe or stayed 
fo"" fallinge and unto whome he will appoynte the custodye 
of the said howsse what his Lordshipe will appoynte to 
appteyne unto the same eyther in cattell gaitf or other- 
wayes it is neadfuU that fyer were contynuallye kept in 
the said howse and the gardinges and closinge repared 
and kepte in maner that the"" were no trees growinge about 
the saide howse cutt downe no' yet no other^woode 


growinge nighe the same howse for no maner of use for 
divars good considerations. 

The scite of this howse of huhie standeth in a verye 
tryme ayre and upone the water of alne in the myddle of 
the parkes as before is mentioned w*hin one myell off 
alnewycke and not foure myells frome the Sea syde so 
that yf the howse were well repared his L^^ parkes and 
groiindes in that order as is before recyted it were a tryme 
place for his L^'' to lye at yf he dyd lye in the countrie 
duringe the tyme of the Somer quarter aswell for his L^^ 
pleasure and coihoditie as the ease of his ten^ntffurnyshinge 
of his L^^ Castells alnewicke and workeworth with provi- 
sione for his L^^ lyinge therin the other thre quarters of 
the yere yf all his S^'vantf and geldingf could not be 
placed ther then were alnewicke castell nighe anough for 
that purpose Wherfore it were muche requisyte his L^*^ 
well considered to whome he should appoynte the keapinge 
the said howse fo"" when it was in the handes of S"" Eoberte 
EUerker it was no lesse hurtfull unto his game then 
destructione of his woodes his parkes kepte therby in 
dysorde"" through his Cattell w'''' he hadd goinge therin and 
great resorte he hadde coiiiynge to hime and in the end 
displesure because his Lordshipe dyde enter into his 

Let us now examine the buildings themselves in detail. 
For convenience we will begin with the church. This, 
Clarkson tells us, was in his time " all downe and laid 
into the gardinge," and "the place where the churche 
was is nowe full of chery trees." That the church is " all 
downe " is fortunately not quite true, for although the 
east and north walls are destroyed, and the area " laid 
into the gardinge," the south and west walls are still 
almost perfect, and the area is no longer " full of chery 

In plan the church was a simple aisleless parallelogram, 
119ft. long and 19ft. Gin. broad, without any dividing- 
arch. The east wall is apparently standing to a height 
of five or six feet ; but on examination it will be found to 
be a bit of sham ruin of eighteenth century date, 
with a pseudo-window-sill made up of the old plinth. Of 
the real east wall only the foundations are left. The north 
wall is also entirely broken down, but enough remains to 



shew that tliere was a door in the middle of its length, and 
that the western half had a stone bench along it. Of the 
south wall the first few feet from the east are broken 
down, but the remainder is standing to its full height. 
On the east one side of the piscina is left, with an octofoil 
drain and one of the jambshafts that carried the arch. 
Above the piscina are traces of a window. Next to this 
are three stepped sedilia, under molded pointed arches 
once carried by detached shafts. The width of the 
stone bench is 16 in., and the seats measure 3 ft. 3 in., 
3 ft. Ijin., and 2 ft. 8 in. in length respectively. On the 
wall between the sedilia and piscina are two pin-holes, a 
foot apart, one above the other, the lower about 5 ft. 
above the floor line. To the west of the sedilia is a plain 
pointed door with continuous chamfered jambs, which led 
into the vestry. Between the sedilia and the vestry door, 
about 4 ft. up, the stump of an iron fastening is leaded 
into the wall, probably for a hook or pulley for the 
Lenten veil. Beyond the vestry door are two large 
windows, each of two wide and plain pointed lights 
with an uncusped circle in the head ; the monials and 
central stones have unfortunately gone. These windows 
are rebated on the outside for the wooden glass-frames, 
but have had iron stay-bars added later ; they gave light 
on the south to the choir of the brethren, whose stalls 
extended westward from the vestry door and were returned 
against a screen across the church at almost exactly the 
middle of its lensfth. The wall beneath the windows is 
left rough on account of its being covered by the stalls. 
In the floor in the middle of the choir there still lies 
a stone with a square socket for supporting the lec- 
tern or desk on which the service books lay for the 
rulers of the choir. There were probably two corres- 
ponding windows in the north wall, with two, if not three, 
others to the east of them to light the presbytery. Owing 
to the overlapping of the vestry, the presbytery had only 
one window on the south. 

Though no signs of the screen at the west end of the 
choir are visible, there can be no doubt not only that it 
existed, but also that there was a second screen a few 
feet further west ; the intervening space being a passage 
or choir entry with a door from the cloister on the south, 




Sca/e of^ 

Hulrie Priory, Northumberland.— Elevation and Plan of the south side of the Vestry. 


"Hill O.Jt*lTT,^i»ItJ 

Hulne Priory, Northumberland. Windows in Cliurch. 


and another opposite it on the north. The western 
screen had a central doorway between, on the nave side, 
two altars. The choir entry was ceiled over to form a 
loft or pulpitum above, on which stood the great cross. 

The nave was lighted on the south by three small win- 
dows, placed high up to clear the cloister roof. Each con- 
sists of a trefoiled light with a flat cusped rere-arch and 
rebated on the inside for the glass frame. In the west wall 
is a tall single light of the same form, which has been sub- 
sequently grooved for glass. Over it in the gable, which 
is still surmounted by a fragment of the cross, is a small 
pointed oval light, deeply recessed. The north wall had 
probably three windows corresponding to those opposite. 
A stone bench, now nearly all destroyed, ran round the 
nave walls, but one of the chamfered slabs that formed 
the seat remains in situ (though loose) at the west end of 
the north side. In the floor of the nave lies an altar slab 
cut up into several pieces, and a very remarkable slab 
with a tau-cross pierced with three nails. ^ Another slab, 
with the indent of a brass shield and marginal inscription, 
has recently been uncovered on the north side of the 
presbytery. A much decayed slab, now fixed to the west 
side of the west wall of the nave, has been removed here 
from the ruins of the chapel at Alnmouth. 

Before leaving the church I should say a few words 
about monuments now set up in the sedilia. The first of 
these is a slab 4 ft. 5 in. long, with the effigy of a 
lady in wimple headdress, holding a heart in her hands. 
Her head rests on a cushion, and from her mouth issues 
towards the sinister an uninscribed scroll. On either side 
of her are two kneeling figures, and on each side of the 
feet is a couching dog. The date appears to be early 
fourteenth century. In the next compartment is the 
lower part of a seated figure of the Blessed Virgin and 
Child. The Virgin's left foot, but not the right, has two 
holes drilled in it as if for fixing some ornament. The 
robes are also drilled with small holes in various parts as 
if for fixing something, but the holes are too capriciously 
placed to enable us to conjecture their real object. A 
broken slab, bearing a cross with a sword beside the 
stem, is also preserved in the ruins. 

' See ArchcEological Journal, x. 171. 


On the south side of the presbytery is the vestry. It 
was originally a lofty gabled room, 20 ft. 6 in. long, by 
13 ft, 9 in. wide, and of unusually interesting character. 
In the east wall are two square-headed windows ; the 
northernmost has plain chamfered jambs, but the other 
has the jambs worked into two hollow chamfers with an 
intermediate re-entering angle. There is no apparent 
reason for this difference. Above these two windows 
there is a third but pointed light, with shouldered rere- 
arch. Beneath the two lower lights are two large corbels 
for supporting the altar slab, and on the left a square 
recess in the wall. In the south wall is a plain pointed 
piscina, and two square -headed lights. Between the latter 
is a most interesting arrangement. It consists of a recess 
with segmental head, 3 ft. wide, 5 ft. high, and about 18 in. 
deep, with a stone shelf about 18 in. above the sill. The 
central portion of the bottom is cut down to a depth of 
7 J in., leaving a broad shelf on each side, and has a 
circular sinking with sloping bottom and a drain to 
the outside. Above the shelf, which is unfortunately 
mutilated, is a chimney carried up in the wall, which is 
thickened externally and carried on a buttress. I think 
there can be no doubt that the lower portion of the recess 
was used in some way by the sacrist when mixing the flour 
and water for the altar breads, and that on the upper 
shelf was a brazier of lighted charcoal for heating the irons 
for pressing the wafers. The cliarcoal for the censers 
could also have been kept here. The west wall is quite 
plain, but has a door in its south end, which, though 
modern, takes the place of an original entrance. After 
the suppression the vestry was divided into two floors. 
The upper, which was reached by a wooden stair, was 
made habitable by breaking a fireplace through into the 
chimney on the south, and making a window by the side 
of it ; a two-light window with a transom was also inserted 
in the north wall after the church had been dismantled 
and "laid into the gardinge." All the floors and roofs 
have now disappeared. 

In the chartulary of Hulne already mentioned is a 
very interesting inventory of the contents of the library 
ami the ornaments of the church nuidc3 in lo54. It has 
already been printed by Mr. Hartshorne, but no notice is 


taken of added or inserted entries, and in the list of 
church ornaments a number of most valuable marginal 
headings have been omitted. The inventory does not 
throw much light on the arrangements of the church, 
but it mentions ornaments pro summo altar e, pro retro 
altare, and pro alio retro altare, and further on " six white 
cloths marked with red crosses and lined with new canvas 
for the three altars in Lent." The three altars, I take it, 
are the high altar and the two in the nave, but the term 
" retro altare " is unusual as applied to the latter. A 
reference to cloths jyro pulpito shews that there was a loft 
or pulpitum on top of the screen. 

On the south side of the nave, and extending a few 
feet beyond the west wall of the church, is the cloister. 
This was a rectangular area about 78 feet square with 
covered alleys all round. The foundations of the garth 
wall have recently been uncovered, shewing that the east, 
north, and west alleys were each 8 ft. wide, but the south 
alley was a foot narrower. Each side contained five 
windows with intermediate buttresses ; and in the two 
eastern angles of the garth are the remains of the drains 
for carrying off the rain-water from the roofs. Clarkson 
says the cloister was well paved with stone, and that 
'• the windowes haith bene all glasyned and no we fo'^ the 
most parte are in decaye " ; the north and south alleys 
he also states to have been covered with lead. Why 
Clarkson says nothing about the roofing of the other sides 
will be seen presently. In the middle of the garth, he 
affirms, "groweth a tree of ewe." Nothing remains to 
shew how the cloister was fitted up. Along the church 
wall in the north alley runs a bold plinth, but there 
are no cuts in it indicative of furniture or fittinf^s 
having been placed against the wall. Beneath the nave 
windows is a molded string course, and immediately 
below this is an upper row of hooked corbels and an 
inserted lower row of plain corbels, to carry the 
cloister roof. At each end of the north alley is a 
door : that on the east, a plain pointed one, opening 
into the church ; that^^ on the west into a chamber 
built against the west wall of the nave, presently to be 
described. On the east alley were five, if not six door- 
ways, leading into a court or passage, and sundry chambers 


forming the ground story of the eastern range of buildings, 
but now all thrown into one. The first door (now 
blocked) led into a small open yard or court on the south 
of the choir, between the cloister and the vestry. This 
court is 22 ft. long and 14 ft, wide, and besides the door 
into it from the cloister four other doorways opened out 
of it. One of these led into the vestry, another opened 
into a yard on the south of the vestry, the third was the 
door of the dorter stairs, and the fourth led into a 
chamber under the north end of the dorter, and was 
fitted with a draw-bar. All these five doorways opened 
into a corridor along the south side of the yard, thus 
forming what Clarkson terms " a passaidge to the saide 
dorter." The second of the doors in the east alley 
opened into the chamber just mentioned as under the 
north end of the dorter. This was a comfortable apart- 
ment, about 19 ft. long by 12 ft. wide, with a fire-place 
and a two-light window on the east. It was, perhaps, 
the prior's chamber. Next to it on the south was a 
lobby about 12 ft. square, entered from the cloister by 
a wide archway, in which, in early-Decorated times, 
another archway, with hollow-chamfered continuous 
moldings, has been inserted. The side walls of the lobby 
have now disappeared, but they are shewn on Grose's 
plan made in 1776, and their junctions with the other 
walls may be seen. The lobby was probably used as the 
parlour, or place where the brethren, by leave of a 
superior, might talk to one another. On the east side of 
the lobby a wide archway with plainly chamfered jambs 
opens into a large room, 38 ft. long by 1 7 ft. wide. This was 
the chapter- house. It had a large east window of five-lights 
and on the south four large trefoiled lancets of similar 
character to the nave windows, but with pointed rere- 
arclies. The jambs are rebated on the inside, and grooves 
are cut in the sills to drain away condensed moisture from 
the glass. The north wall has only one window, towards 
the east, and at the west, a gap which may indicate a 
door into a narrow passage between the chapter-house 
and the yard on' the south of the vestry. The roof of the 
chapter-house was of wood covered with slates. It 
appears from Clarkson that after the suppression, the 
church ^vas demolished and the rest of the priory used as 


a dwelling-house, the chapter-house being converted into 
a chapel for the use of the inmates. He thus describes its 
condition in 1567: "in the myddle of this end of the 
said cloyster is the chapell wherin is nothinge left but 
seatf and stalles and ther was one lytle ambre which 
served for the keapinge of the bookes and ornamentf of 
the said chapell the same was taken away by Johhe 
Eecubye one of the Indwellers of the parke," and he 
adds, " it is to be noted that in the tyme of the frears the 
chapell y* now is was ther chapiter howse." 

South of the chapter-house lobby was another large 
apartment. It had at least one door from the cloister, 
and on the east a window and a large fire-place. The 
present three-light window is another bit of sham ruin. 
At the southern end of this room are three doorwaj^s, 
one from the cloister (now blocked), another opposite to it 
from the outside, and a third opening into a large chamber 
on the south. In this end is also a large two light trans- 
omed window with straining-arch over, apparently of 
Elizabethan date.^ It is probable that the south end of 
this apartment was partitioned olF originally to form a 
passage from the cloister to what was doubtless the ceme- 
tery on the east. 

Over the range of chambers just described and extend- 
ing northward as far as the little court was the friars' 
dorter. It also extended over the east alley of the 
cloister, and hence the non-mention by Clarkson of the 
covering of the cloister roof on this side. Its dimensions 
were 61ft. long by 22 ft. wide. There are traces of the 
arch which was thrown across the south alley to carry the 
dorter wall up to the south gable. The dorter was 
reached by a staircase at the north end, the lower part of 
which remains, with a door from the little court. One of 
the steps is made out of an incised slab with a cross. 
Clarkson unfortunately tells us nothing about the dorter 
except that it was divided into chambers, the number of 
which he has not inserted in the survey. Nothino- 
remains of the structure itself, except the south gable, 
which contains a large two-light transomed window and 
a door into the upper floor of a long building running 
eastwards. The gable appears to have been entirely re- 

' Over the window and the door is a row of joist holes for the upper floor. 


built in the Elizabethan period. The roof was covered 
with slates. 

At right angles to the eastern range of buildings, at its 
southern end, are the remains of a two-storied building, 
44 ft. long and 9J ft. wide. On the ground floor it was 
divided by a cross wall into two chambers. The western- 
most was 28 ft. long, and has in the west wall a door to 
the outside and a locker or cupboard. On the south are 
(1) a square-headed single light; (2) a two-light window, 
also square-headed ; (3) a large fire-place with flat lintel ; 
and (4) another square-headed light. The north wall is 
nearly all removed ; at its west end is the doorway alreadj'" 
described. The easternmost chamber has along the south 
wall a stone drain with battering sides and a groove for 
water running into it at the west end. At the east end is 
a square-headed opening for ventilation, and the drain is 
continued through the wall below it and underground 
to outside the curtain wall, as shown on the plan. In the 
south-east corner is a vertical chase for a pipe from the 
upper floor. This upper floor was entered from the 
dorter at the north-west corner, and had a window oppo- 
site the door. From the existence of the drain below, 
the eastern part was the rere-dorter, but all that remains 
of the arrangements are two very short loops in the south 
wall for ventilation. The western part may have been 
an extension of the dorter. The roof was covered with 

With regard to this part of the buildings Clarkson 
says, "joyninge ther unto also upone the grounde under 
the weste {i.e., south) end of the said dorter is one howse 
called the woiiien howse wherin is two chambers with 
one chimley." If by " woihen " we may read " wormen," 
the fire-place would indicate that this was the cale- 
factorium or warming house of the brethren ; it is, how- 
ever, uncertain whether the name would be retained 
nearly thirty years afier the suppression, and it is equally 
possible that before 1567 these rooms had been assigned 
to the female servants of the lord, who evidently was in 
the habit of using the place as a dwelling-house. 

The south wall of the south alley of the cloister was 
entirely rebuilt in the Elizabethan period, as may be seen 
from the lower parts of three windows, and hence all the 


old features have been obliterated. At the east end is a 
doorway, now blocked, which was the principal entrance to 
the cloister from without. It appears to have been covered 
by a little porch. The rest of the alley was flanked by 
the frater and its appendages, of which more presently. 

The western alley has been completely destroyed. The 
building originally flanking this side, of which only a 
fragment remains, was very narrow, being only 9 ft. 
wide. It is described by Clarkson as " one house of 
two liowse heighte ... in the neather part tlierof 
is two sellers the over parte therof the Lordes great 
chamber being nowe all roven and the tymbre therof in 
great decaye." The upper floor was built over the west 
alley of the cloister as well as over the two cellars, and 
was^.hus 20 ft. wide, by 77 ft. long. Whatever remained 
of the northern half of this building, and of the west alley 
of the cloister, was demolished towards the end of the 
last century, by the first Duke of Northumberland, 
who built on the site a two-storied summer house, still 
standing, though now unoccupied. In the remaining 
fragment of the southern half of the old building may be 
seen a blocked fire-place on the first floor, perhaps that 
of " the Lordes great chamber." On the ground floor is 
a blocked square-headed loop. The recent excavations 
have also disclosed a small chamber, 9 ft. long and about 
6 ft. wide, in the southern end, where probably stood the 
conduit described by Clarkson : "In the west (south) 
nooke of the sayde north (west) parte of the saide cloyster 
is a condyte of tryme freslie water whiclie water coiiieth 
frome one place of the saide parke callede the freare wells 
in pypes of lead." 

Mention has already been made of a door at the 
west end of the north cloister alley leading into a build- 
ing west of the nave. The survey thus refers to it : 
" In the north east (north-west) nooke of the sayd 
Cloyster is one entrance into one howse of twoo howse 
height havinge in the neather parte twoo chambers with 
one chymley . . . And in the over parte of the said 
howse is also a Chamber with one chymley this howse 
is covered with sklaite." The remains of this building 
consist simply of a fragment of the chimney, and of a 
piece of wall acljoining the church on each side 



containing a door with a two-light window over 
it. There are no traces of the abutment of the roof 
against the chnrch wall. In any case it must have partly 
blocked the nave west window. On plan, as disclosed by 
the late excavations, the " howse of twoo howse height " 
appears to be separated from the church by a passage 
with a door in each end. As the " neather parte " had 
only " one chymley " to two chambers, this passage and 
the single large room shown on the plan may have 
formed the " twoo chambers," while the whole of the 
floor above formed one chamber, as described in the 
survey. I think the large room on the ground floor 
had not a separate door from the cloister, but was 
entered from the passage, which thus formed the 
" entrance " of the survey. Both the western range and 
this building were probably guest chambers in the time of 
the friars, with the cellarer's store places on the ground 
floor of the former. 

"We will now pass to the consideration of the frater and 
its appendages. 

The late excavations have disclosed on the south of the 
cloister the foundations of a Ijuilding 8G ft. long by 20 J ft. 
wide ; this was the frater. Nothing is left above ground 
but a fragment of the east wall with the jamb of a window. 
The north wall, as I have said, was re-built during the 
Elizabethan period. No traces of divisions or fittings 
have been found, but in the middle of the south wall is a 
projection for the pulpit and east of it another for a fire- 
place. The survey tells us that in the west end of the 
frater, or hall as it is called, was " the butterye fo'' the 
most parte scjuare and betwixte the buttery and the lialle 
is a passaidge to the said cloister," forming in fact the 
usual arrangement with screens ; and on the south of 
the hall, Clarkson says, was " the pantrie maid all of 
waynscotte and pannell worke." There also seems to have 
been beside the buttery a broad stair of wood to certain 
upper chamljers presently to be referred to. Close to the 
south- west angle of the frater, from which it is separated by 
a passage a little over 3 ft. wide, is a room recently traced, 
perhaps " the " litle howse for the paistrie." It appears 
to have been 25 ft. long and 1 2 ft. wide. 

Extending from the frater southwards was a " howse 
buyldede of two howse height covered with sklaite. 


. . . the neatlier parte tlierof serveth for the 
passaidge or entrie into the kytchinge." This passage 
was about 75 ft. long altogether, by some 12 ft. in 
width. In the southern part of it was " a ceast- 
erne of stone set in the grounde wliiche receyveth the 
water be pypes of leade from the condyte for servinge 
the said kytchinge." Elsewhere we are told that the 
water from the conduit in the cloister " Rynneth into a 
ceasterne of leade .... whiche staindeth of stone 
properlie set in the walle and frome theire runneth in 
pypes of lead not onlye into the saide ceasterne of stone 
fo' the S'vice of the sayde kytchinge but unto the brew- 
house also." The site of this cistern is clearly indicated 
by the lead pipes found leading to it (see plan) and by a 
stone drain against the wall, leadino- to the brewhouse. 

On the west side of the building just mentioned was 
the kitchen, which according to Clarkson was " buylded 
most lyke unto the facione of a square towre with a 
rounde roofe covered w"' sklaite . . . and in the same 
kytchinge is two chymleyes with faire raindges one ovefi 
a dresser and a litle howse for the paistrie." These 
arrangements can only be made out generally on the plan 
of the excavations, from which the kitchen appears to 
have been about 18 ft. square. The paistry-house was 
clearly outside the kitchen on the north, for the survey 
states that over the kitchen entry was " a faire chamber 
with one chymleye, and joyninge therunto is a notlie*" 
litle Chamber right over the said paistrie howse." The 
broad stair next the buttery led " to the said two chambers 
nighe aboue the entrie of the kitching as is aforesaid " 
and also to a " lofte " over the buttery, screens, and 
pantry used in 1567 " for a gardner^ and before tyme fo' 
the lorde o"" priors walke to se through trelleses the use 
of the S'varltf in the halle and also it serveth for a 
passaidge to the lordes great chamber and towre." 

On the east side of the kitchen entry and separated 
from it by "a passaidge of sixe foote broade to the brew- 
house " is a detached building described by Clarkson as 
" a howse covered with sklaite . . . the neatlier parte 
of the saide howse is called the farmery the over parte 
serveth for a gardner for corne " ; he also speaks of " the 
lofte." There can be no doubt that not only the "neather 

^ i.e. garner. 


parte," but the " over parte " both originally formed the 
infirmitorium or " farmery." The former being the farmery 
hall and the latter its chapel. The building is now con- 
verted into a dwelling-house, and has lost its original roof, 
but most of the windows remain, though the entrances 
have been modernised. The chapel has a plain two-light 
window formed of two lancets with a quatrefoil above. 
On the north are no windows ; and the south wall is 
modern. The hall has two plain two-light windows on 
each side, and a west window of three lancet lights under 
a pointed head. It is not possible to say which is the 
original entrance ; there is now one on each side of the 
hall. Clarkson's " lofte " was probably constructed after 
the suppression in the roof of the hall. 

On the west side of the cloister is a lofty building 
called by Clarkson " the Lordes towre." He describes it 
as " of thre howsse heio'ht covered with leade the neather 
part ther of is a voult the other two howses are two faire 
chambers in eytlier of theme one chymley and upon the 
top Therof above the leades one the south {i.e. east) syde 
tlierof is raysed as it were a garrett wyth lyke battlement 
at the towre haith endlong all the south (east) syde of the 

saide towre whiche is also covered wtli lead 

and in the same is a howse w4ie a Chymley called the 

studye howse the entrance into the towre is 

through the lordes great chambre as before is mentionede." 
The ground floor of the tower now consists of two cellars, 
covered with plain wagon vaults, but Grose's plan (1776) 
shews the two cellars as being in one, as mentioned in the 
survey. Just within the door, which is on the north side, 
is a straight stair ascending eastwards in the thickness of 
the wall to the first floor, where there is a landing and a 
modern bridG;e to the buildimr or summer house on the 
west of the cloister. From the landing a door opens into 
the principal chamber, a lofty apartment constructed by 
the first Duke of Northumberland at the beginning of the 
century by throwing into one the " two faire chamljers " 
of the survey, which were one above the other. The 
present room exhibits nothing of interest except a much 
decayed slab over the fireplace recording the building of 
the tower by the fourth Earl of Northumberland in 1488. 
A copy of this inscription is fixed in the curtain wall at 


the base of the tower, and marks the place of the old in- 
scription before its removal into the tower by the present 
Dake of Northumberland. It is also printed in full by Mr. 
Hartshorne, who was so fortunate as to fmd part of the 
actual account for the building of the tower, amounting 
to £27 19s. 8d. From the first floor another staircase 
ascends southwards in the thickness of the east wall to a 
doorway now blocked by which access was gained to the 
destroyed upper chamber. From thence a circular stair 
or vice is continued upward to the leads and to the 
" garrett." This is a narrow room with an oriel 
window on the east, now used as a pigeon house, and 
destitute of any ancient fittings. From the leads of the 
tower is a beautiful view of the surrounding country and 
the Cheviots. The present bridge from the first floor 
apparently takes the place of an old one, for Clarkson says 
" the entrance into the towre is through the lordes great 
chambre " and the account quoted by Mr. Hartshome 
mentions " the arch between the great chamber and the 
tower." The size of the " great chambre " in question is 
uncertain. I have described it as occupying the upper 
floor of the western range of buildings, but against the 
east face of the tower is the mark of a high roof which 
may indicate that the great chamber stood east and west 
and abutted against the tower. This building was pro- 
bably carried on an arch, for the survey says : " at the 
foote of the towre besyde the voulte is also a doore fo"" the 
passaidge into the gardinge," which was on the north. 
' The tower is not now used for any purpose. 

We now come to the consideration of the precinct wall 
and oflTices. 

The priory is still, as in Clarkson's day " environed 
with a curtaine walle maide of lyme and stone," enclosing 
the " quadrant," as he terms the area, but the " smale 
battlement" is everywhere broken down. In other 
respects the wall remains pretty much in its original 
condition, except that two pretentious "Gothic" entrances 
have been made on the east and south-west. These 
entrances are part of the works done at Ilulne by the first 
Duke. Grose's plan made in 1776 only shews a small 
door on the east, and no entrance at all at the south-west 
angle. The precinct, owing to the contour of the site, is 
an irregular polygon in plan, roughly resembling a square 


with one corner cut off. On the south-east angle is the 
base of a small circular wall-turret. The orighial entrance 
is in the middle of the south side, and is built in an angle 
purposely made for it, and overlooking a steep bank ; 
probably for defensive reasons rendered necessary by the 
nearness of the Scottish border. Clarkson says the 
" en trie " into the " quadrant " " is a towre called the gait 
howse and is of tlire howse height coverede with sklaite 
and guttered with leade." The gatehouse is now a plain 
square tower, with a low round-headed entrance door 4 
feet 8 inches wide. This opens into a passage with a simple 
barrel vault, out of which a door opens on the right into 
a small barrel-vaulted cell for the porter, witli a fireplace 
on the east and a single loop on the north. On the east 
side of the gate, in the inner angle formed by it with the 
curtain- wall is a vice to the first floor. The latter is much 
ruined but retains part of the springing of a wagon-vault. 
The second floor has been utterly destroyed. Immediately 
to the east of the gateway are indicated on the plan the 
foundations of a house. This is shewn in Grose's plan of 
1776, where it is lettered: "Modern House." It was 
probably removed by the first Duke and the curtain wall 
rebuilt on the old ]ine. After describing the gatehouse 
the survey continues : " w*hin the same is a smale curtaine 
halfe quadrant .... on the east (north) syde of 
the saide curtaine is buylded the halle . . . and in 
the west (south) end of the same halle is the pan trie." 
There can be no doubt that " curtaine halfe quadrant " 
means the oblong (i.e. half-square) court between the 
farmery and the frater, but the words that follow are not 
quite so easy to understand : " at the south (east) ende of 
the said hall is a lytic wall maid of Lyme and stone betwixte 
the hall and the gardinge wall . . . and in the same 
litle walle is a dore maide of stone and lyme to serve for 
a passaidge into the cloyster," etc. ..." And frome 
the saide stone walle to the .... gaithowse towre 
is a nother stone wall havinge also a stone doore hewefi 
worke for the passaidge into the gardinge." The question 
is made more difficult because we are also told that 
*' joyninge to the ende of the saide litle walle is buylded " 
the farmery. We should of course expect that the gate- 
house passage would open into the court, in which case 
the farmery could join on to the little wall. If on the other 


hand the " litle walle " extended from the porch east of 
the frater to the farmery, the gatehouse would be shut out 
from the court. From the mention of the little wall being 
in close connection with the farmery I am inclined, on the 
whole, to take the latter as the correct view, and to look 
upon the reference to the gatehouse as merely indicative 
of the direction of the wall. No trace of the wall has 
been found by excavation, and neither the gatehouse 
nor the farmery shew any signs of its junction with 

Extending along the curtain wall westwards from the 
gatehouse are fragments of a number of buildings, which 
the survey fortunately helps us to identify. The first of 
these consisted of " twoo generall stables," and according 
to Grose's plan, when it was more perfect than now, its 
length was 38 feet and its breadth about IG feet. The 
next building was the brewhouse, measuring about 50 feet 
long by 15 feet wide. In Clarkson's time it was " covered 
with sklaite ande in goode reparations in the une end 
therof is a ptitione fo'" the boultinge howse and in the 
myddste a faire Chimley with a fornace and a lytle oven 
And upone the backe of the said Chimleye stode ther two 
litle smale brewe leades in two furnacf .... the"' is 
also in that end of this howse whiche serveth for the brew- 
house certaine vessell" enumerated. The position of the 
chimney, furnace, etc., is still traceable, as described in 
the survey, and three sides of the building are remainino- 
more or less perfect, particularly on the south and 
west. The east end has disappeared and also a cross 
wall shewn by Grose as dividing the building into two 
chambers. " At the north (west) ende of the sayd 
l^rewhouse," says Clarkson, " and behinde the said kyt- 
chinge Butterye and great Chamber is a notlier Cur- 
taine " which he states extends from the curtain wall 
on the south to the lord's tower on the north. On the 
west side of this " curtaine " were built "joyninge and 
upone the saide curtaine walle '' two houses covered with 
thatch : *' the one called the byer .... it liaith a 
dore through the said Curtaine walle for the cattell to 
passe in & through the over parte of the sayde byer will 
S've for a haye lofte the other howsse is a barne" 
which " haith also a doore through the walle for taykinge 


in corne into the same." The byre door still remains in 
the curtain wall, though now blocked. It is 4 feet wide 
and has over it four corbels, as if it were covered 
l)y some defensive work on the top of the wall. The 
barn door " for taykinge in corne " is not now visible, 
perhaps it was where the present door is. The only 
remains of the byre and barn are a fragment of the east 
wall with a loop in it, and what appears to be an imposing 
and ornate north gable. The latter, however, is a sham 
ruin of the end of the last century, constructed of old 
materials. Besides these remains, foundations of divers 
other walls and rooms have been laid bare in this part of 
the precinct by the excavations. No buildings in this 
position are alluded to by Clarkson, and they are almost 
certainly of later date and of no account. 

Within the precinct wall on the north, the survey says 
there were two gardens, the western one " havinge a 

posterne throughe the sayde curtaine walle 

and haith also one grease o*" staire fo'" goinge upe to the 
battlemente of the said walle fo'' a walke upone the same 
walle aboute the saide cjardinoff and orcharde." The 
blocked postern may yet be seen, and in the angle of the 
wall still remains the " grease o'' staire fo"" goinge upe to 
the battlemente." This north-west angle of the wall 
was surmounted by a small round turret or watch-box, as 
T have already described the opposite south-east angle to 
have been. The other, or eastern garden appears from 
the foundation uncovered to have been divided from the 
western garden by a wall. Clarkson says '* it was a very 
faire gardinge nowe all fordoone and the herbes waisted and 
destroyed and lykwyse the other gardinge." The ground 
on the east side within the precinct was " a litle 
orcha'd conteyninge in it self an half acre of grounde by 
estimatione in the w* groweth one peare tree trees 

all the other be plome trees & bullester trees the"" be 
also graftf of apple trees in the saide two gardingf and 
lykwyse the said litle closse calle the south closse." Where 
the friars' cemetery was is not stated. Several skeletons 
were found during the late excavations in the ground on 
the north side of the church. One was also found in the 
little yard between the vestry and chapter house. 

In the Puljlic Kecord Office is the following description 
f the site of the priory, which though undated is long 


anterior to Clarkson's survey, and of great interest as 
giving the old names of the gardens, etc. : 

" ffirste The Scite of the late howse with oon Towre 
within the same with Byez and howse of office, oon 
Gardyne called Kirke garthe. a gardyn called prio"" garthe 
oon Gardyn called Kitchyn Garthe/ all which conteyn in 
quantite oon Acre as it is Inclosed w*in a stone walland 
is worth by the yere ou' all chargez v^ "' 

The precinct of the priory was enclosed by an outer 
" drye stone walle "^ within which were three closes ; one 
on the south, a second on the east, and a third on the 
north. On the west side " withoute the sayde curtaine 
walle and w'hin the outmoste walle nighe unto the saide 
byer dore " Clarkson says there was " one barne o'" laithe 
covered with thatch .... And right over one the 
other syde of the waye is a lytle do"ckette foure Squared 
covered with sklaite . . . wherin is a good flight off 
dooves." No traces are now to be seen of either barn or 

Although the late excavations have not brought to light 
so much as might have been expected, they have cleared 
up a number of doubtful points, and antiquaries owe a debt 
of gratitude to the Duke of Northumberland for the liberal 
manner in which the work has been carried out at his 
expense under the direction of Mr. Eeavell, the obliging 
clerk of the works at Alnwick, to whom we owe the 
accompanying plan. Very little of interest other than the 
remains of buildings has been found, the most noteworthy 
discovery being a piece of the shaft of an early cross with 
interlaced ornament. How it got to Hulne, it is impossible 
to say. Careful search was made for further fragments, 
but without success. 

P.S. Lord Percy has called my attention to a passage in a letter from 
Lord Hundson to Lord Burgliley in April 1572, quoted in Annals of 
the House of Percy (ii. 65) which seems to shew that instead of acting 
upon Clarkson's Survey the Earl of Northumberland himself further 
destroyed the building at Hulne : " And for the Abbey that standes in 
Hulne Parke he hathe left neyther lede, glasse, irrne, nor so much as 
the jjypes of lede that convej'ed the water to the howse, but ho hatho 
browght yt to hys owne howse." It is possible, however, that Alnwick 
Abbey is here referred to. 

^ P.R.O. Augmentation Office Misc. ^ Parts of this remain, principally ou 

Bk. 399, p. 318. the east. 




I propose, in the following paper, to consider only- 
wrought iron-work that is connected with buildings, and 
to illustrate it, as far as possible, by references to existing 
examples, supported by illuminated MSS. and by records. 
The iron-work of armour and weapons is a subject re- 
quiring special knowledge, such as the late Mr. Burges 
possessed in an eminent degree, but we are not concerned 
with work of this kind now, and cast iron, though of 
much interest, is comparatively modern, and does not fall 
within the scope of the present paper. 

The use of wrought iron-work for purposes of security- 
was fully developed earlier than the thirteenth century, 
and in the illuminations in one of the Cottonian MS., about 
1125, fine hinges and lock plates are shown on doors. 
The hinges are of the strap form, richly worked out at the 
ends into scrolls and finishing in leaves. Hinges with what 
is called the C scrolls are very characteristic of this 
period. The iron-work was much spread over the doors 
to protect and strengthen the wood of which the doors 
were made, and no doubt the usefulness of these wide- 
spreading hinges had much to do with their general 
adoption in buildings of importance. The work appears 
to have been done at the place and during the time the 
structure was being erected. The artificers in all trades 
connected with a building gathered together while one 
of importance was being erected, and stayed there as 

Read in thn Architectural Sectiou at the Annual Meeting of the Institute 
Norw-ich, August 10th, 1889. 


long as there was work for them ; this might be for 
years in the cases of the great castles and churches which 
were being set up in all parts of the country. Good 
examples of the work of the twelfth century are to be 
found on the doors of the hall of Merton College, Oxford, 
or on those in the Cloisters of Durham Cathedral. 
Sometimes this early work has been altered, having 
apparently been moved from its original position, and 
adapted to a new place ; but the character of the iron- 
work of this time is unmistakeable. 

In the thirteenth century the same kind of iron-work 
prevailed, but it became richer and more elaborate, until 
it may be said to have culminated in such work as the 
grille over Queen Eleanor's tomb in Westminster Abbey. 
A peculiar treatment of flowers and leaves sprang up in 
this century, in imitation of the ornaments which were 
being carved in wood or stone, or painted on walls, or in 
stained windows. Swages, or dies made of iron, were 
carved out, into which the hot iron was beaten, thus 
taking the impress of the carved flower or leaf by the 
same kind of process as that by which a seal is made, 
except that the hot iron is laid upon the swage or 
die and beaten into it. This amount of force is neces- 
sary to produce the required impression, as the iron 
is too hard and tough to take the impression without it. 
These flowers and leaves are generally used at the ends of 
scrolls or branches, though sometimes, as at Tunstead 
Church in Norfolk, they are welded upon the main strap 
of the hinge, and turned back to show the modelling of 
the ornament. Any number of these repetitions may be 
made by taking due care, and it might be thought that 
this foreshadowed the modern commercial way of making 
things by the hundred or the thousand. If applied in 
the modern way, this manner of making flowers and 
leaves would be exposed to this reproach, but as the 
quantity made could only be very small, and the efiect 
sought for could only otherwise be got at very great cost in 
carving out the ornaments, we may approve of it. I prefer, 
however, the purely hammered or chiselled work to this, 
as more legitimate smith's work. On the doors of the 
Cathedral Grammar School of Norwich are some fine 
hinges of this kind. 


Other fine specimens of the work of this century are in 
the crypt of Wells Cathedral. An iron door, which was 
made as a strong door to the Treasury, is there preserved. 
It is made of slabs of iron nailed to an oak frame-work, 
and liberally braced across with hinges and diagonal 
cross-straps, stiffening the door in the best way known at 
the time. This is not an iron-plated door, but an iron 
door, it is in fact, a " safe " door of the time, and is an un- 
common instance. It must be remembered that the slabs 
of which this door is formed were all beaten out of lumps 
of iron, and that iron was not then made as now, in plates, 
bars, or rods, but that whether a thin plate, a square 
bar, or a round rod was needed, the lump of iron had 
to be heated and drawn out on the anvil at great expendi- 
ture of time and labour. Much of the charm of old work 
arises from the irregularity of the shapes, never quite 
round, or square, or flat, which the iron took, and we miss 
this in the neat and mechanically finished work of the 
present time. 

I find that the principal smith who worked at the 
Palace of Westminster in the years 1293 and 1294, in the 
reign of Edward the First, was paid as highly as the 
principal mason, 6d. a day, — while the apparitor or fore- 
man was only paid 3s. 6d. a week, or 7d. a day. From 
this it appears that the skilled smith's labour was as 
highly paid for as any other labour, and nearly as highly 
as the foreman's labour. A painter, Master Walter, had 
14d. a day, and other painters had from 7d. to 3d. a day. 
Master Walter would no doubt design the painted decora- 
tions, which were very elaborate, containing figures, and 
he would paint the most difficult part of them, the other 
painters helping him according to their ability. 

The doors to the Chapter House of York have good 
iron-work of this time. The greater refinement in design 
and workmanship is shown in the smaller matters of 
ironwork. At Tickencote Church, in Rutlandshire, is a 
ring-handle to a door with a shield shaped escutcheon, 
cut out of plate-iron, edged all round with cusped tracery, 
and divided lengthway into five long cusped divisions. 
This, though simple, is as refined in design as any lock- 
plate of later times. 

The domestic work of which we find traces in MS. is 


very plain. In a MS. at the Bodleian in illustration 
of the coronation of Edward the First, in preparation 
for the feasting, a grid-iron stands on four feet over 
a fire on the ground out-of-doors, and the cooks are 
turning the meat upon it with a curious double hook, 
A great iron flesh-pot is boiling over a fire in a 
narrow arched fire-place, and the pot seems to have no 
other support than resting on the fire. These arrange- 
ments are much ruder than we shall find later. 

In the fourteenth century the development of the iron 
hinges continues. The arrangement of the design did not 
change much, but the character of the ornament becomes 
more naturalistic and the work is done principally by the 
hammer and not in swages. At S. Margaret's Church at 
Cley-next-the-Sea in Norfolk, is a specially good example 
of iron-hinges, and, though they are much decayed from 
the effect of the sea-air, I found, on examining them 
recently, traces of the original gilding at the bottom of 
punched star-shaped ornaments in the straps of the hinges. 

Grilles to cover the windows in houses are larger and 
resemble some which may still be seen in Italy and 
Germany. There was one at Yanwath Hall in West- 
moreland, which I found on a recent visit has disappeared, 
and in one of the Bodleian MS. a grill is shown in the form 
of a cage fixed over a window. It is made of horizontal 
bars of round iron with loops carried inward or towards the 
windows, through which upright bars are laced. The ends 
of all the bars, both upright and horizontal, are turned 
inward and leaded into the wall, outside the opening for 
the windows, thus forming a complete cage and protection 
to it. 

In domestic work there was a considerable development. 
In another of the Bodleian MS. two arched stove fire-places 
have dogs in them, which is the earliest date at which I 
find them. These are of simple forms, but they generally 
end in scroll tops, sometimes beaten into leaves. We 
must however remember that the scribe loved a fiourish 
with his pen, or the painter with his brush, and that these 
little flourishes in drawing a utensil so liable to be knocked 
about as a fire-dog, may be chiefly due to the fancy of the 
draughtsman. In the fronts of these dogs are often shown 
hooks for spits, and, in this illumination a fire is shown on 


the ground, out of doors, with a couple of fire-dogs 
acting simply as bearers of standards for the spit, which 
is being turned by a boy, one of "ye laddes of ye kychyn," 
who sits at one end of the spit, and looks quite uncom- 
fortably near the fire. Sometimes in the stone arched 
fire place an iron pot is shown hanging over the fire on a 
rack-hook, to raise or lower the pot, just such as may be 
seen to this day in the fire places in Surrey and Sussex, 
where faggots are still burnt on the hearth and fire-dogs 
used, A tradition of this plan of boiling the pots 
also remains in Yorkshire and the northern counties, 
where great coal fires have long been employed, in a fixed 
bar running from side to side horizontally over the fire, on 
which a sliding rack-hook to hold pots is fixed, so that ihe 
place for the pot can l^e changed both vertically and 

The greater refinement of work in the fourteenth century 
led to much neat and ingenious iron work . I have found 
a note of a bunch of keys which were slung on a ring, 
and fitted closely side by side of one another, varying in 
length, so that when put together they formed almost a 
solid mass of iron and took up the least possible room. 
These belonged at the end of last century to Sir John 
Fenn of East Dereham. Precisely the same things were 
made in Roman times. 

There are very interesting notes in the accounts of the 
ancient Palace of Westminster about the cost of iron and 
of working it, from which I give some extracts. 

1331. 5th Edwakd III. 

Aug. 3. To Eobt. of St. Alban's, for 3 cwt. of Spanish 
iron, for bars and iron-work at the east gable at 4s. 8d. 
per cwt., 13s. 

To Walter de Bury, smith, for making the iron bars at 
4s. per cwt., 12s. 

Aug. 11. To Eobt. of St. Alban's, for 2 cwt. of iron, 
9s. 4d. 

To W. de Bury, for working the said iron, almost one 
half of which was wasted in the fire, 8s. 

Aug. 31. To Eobt. of St. Alban's for 3 cwt. of iron, 
15s. 2d. 


To Walter the smith, of Bury, for making the iron into 
bars, almost half being wasted, 13s. 

May 17. To Walter de Bury, for an iron bar 12 feet 
long, weighing 3 quarters 10 pounds, at l^d. per lb., 
made out of his own iron, to strengthen a marble column, 
and keep in its place under the great form, 10s. 7Jd. 

Nov. 2. To Walter de Bury, the smith, for making two 
iron bars called " tirauntz," fifteen feet long each, out of 
seven hundred weight of iron de Baton, received by order 
of the Treasurer out of the stores in the Tower ; and for 
work upon the said bars, for the purpose of strengthening 
and keeping in their places the " Moynells " (muUions of 
the window), in the east gable, three-fourths of the iron 
being wasted in the fire because of its weakness, £l 8s. 

1351. June 20. For sixty-one "sondlets" bought of 
Master Andrew the smith, for the east window of the 
Chapel, weight 51 lbs. at 2d. per lb., 8s. 6d. 

July 25. To Simon le smyth for 100 nails to fasten in 
the glass, 9d. 

1358. To Master Andrew, the smith, for two "ridells" 
(possibly curtain rods), for the chapel of S. Mary, and two 
iron bars for the windows in the chancellary, 12s. 

To the same for an iron stand for the image of St. 
Stephen, £1 6s. 8d. 

To the same for 3 pairs of ornaments for the stalls, 3s. 

1365. (Ferret cerur') To Master Stephen Smith " pro 
una cerur' cro' 2 clav' 1 par garnettor 2 ligatior ad 4 bolt 
et 160 clav' gross rivat' et omnib' stannatis','' bought for a 
certain door newly made in the King's garden, " in grosso," 
£3 3s. 4d. 

To the same, for three great iron bars and ten lesser 
bars, for the windows of the chamber of the before- 
mentioned tower, near the King's garden, weight 2,941 lbs., 
£27 8s. 2d. 

To the same for 260 nails, bought to repair the bridge 
of the (wool) staple and palace, " pro emendatione pont' 
stapula3 et palac'," weight, 79ilbs at 2d. per lb., I3s. 3d. 

To the same " pro 2 cass' ferr','' for the glazing of a 
window in the Great Hall, six pair of garnetts " pro 
pr^edict' armorial, infra prasdictum capellam," and two 
iron plates for two doors in the King's Treasury in West- 
minster Abbey, 14s. 4d. 


I find some things worthy of notice in these extracts. 
One as to the quality of the iron. Walter de Bury wasted 
a considerable part of the iron in working it. This shows 
that the iron was badly made, or that he was a careless 
smith, and " burnt " his iron (by which is meant so over- 
heating the iron that its ductility is destroyed), or both, 
there is no note of waste in the work made out of his 
own material. 

'* Spanish " iron seems to have been good, and " iron de 
baton," or rod iron, from the Tower, not to have been so. 
I have sometimes thought that all old iron was good, as 
it was necessarily smelted with charcoal, a process still 
used, at vastly increased cost when the toughest iron 
is needed. But I suppose we must conclude that the old 
iron-work left to us was made of good material, and that 
the bad has decayed. We know that stone work was not 
invariably good, and that there was what we should now 
call " scamping " in building ; so I imagine in the making 
of iron there was good and bad work. 

In the complete set of iron-work for a door, paid for to 
Stephen Smith in 1365, we find " et omnibus stannatis," 
by which it appears that the work was tinned, which is a 
great protection from rust in our damp climate. 

In the fifteenth century iron-work again changed in 
character. The richly panelled and mullioned doors did 
not allow of the same elaboration of hinges. This was 
partly accounted for by the necessity for protection being 
less, and partly by the architectural stjde, which covered 
every part of a building with surface ornament. The 
hinges are often mere straps passing under the tracery 
of the doors, and have sometimes pierced ornaments in 
them, or a little enrichment at the ends, but the simple 
strap form is only slightly departed from. In a sort of 
revenge, the locksmith grew into an important personage, 
in whom was probably merged the smith proper. Beauti- 
ful locks were now made, in which the iron cases were 
covered with rich patterns, pierced out of plate-iron, and 
one laid over the other, of exceedingly elaborate traceried 
designs, which were usually framed, or divided into 
panels by twisted work like rope. As the locksmith 
with his vice and small tools, chisels, drills and files, had 
come into the field, he began sculpture in iron, of which 


we have only few and rude examples up to this century, 
and he produced coats of arms with supporters, flowers, 
and other applied ornaments, done with wonderful spirit 
and finish, and showing what care and skill can do with 
an unsuitable material. There is a fine lock of this kind 
in Beddington Manor, in Surrey, and there are door 
handles in Lincoln Minster, showing how red velvet, cloth 
or leather, was put underneath the pierced iron-work. 

Railings round tombs were made of square bars, spear 
or lance-pointed, with heads imitating halberds or other 
weapons, with rails either cut out for the upright bars to 
pass through them, or imitating a cable by twisting two 
round rods and putting in the upright bars at regular 
intervals as the twist was made — a needlessly difficult 
thing to do with regularity. Sometimes a rich band of 
plate iron- work with battlements and inscriptions, or with 
raised applied letters, ran round near the top of the rail- 
ing. Eound Bishop Beckington's tomb in Wells Cathedral 
was a fine railing of this character. The Bishop died in 
1464, and the tomb was erected not long after this date. 
In Dugdale's account of Old St. Paul's, with Hollar's 
engravings, is a representation of St. Erkenwald's altar, 
which stood behind the High altar, and this altar, over 
which the Feretory of St. Erkenwald stood, was surrounded 
b}^ a railing very similar to that I have described. 

There are some good iron fire-dogs in the Vicar's Close 
Common-Hall at Wells, which seem to belong to this 
century. They have rather rudely sculptured rams' heads 
at the top, with rings in them, by which the dogs can be 
moved ; the shafts are octagonal, with a finely moulded 
collar in the centre, and the foot is square and rather 
clumsy. Brass had begun to come into use for this kind 
of work, and the smith was gradually being pushed out of 
his place among the workers in the industrial arts. 

In the sixteenth century hinges became quite small, and 
spread up and down the styles of the doors, having 
chamfers of an ingenious kind, which suggested the strap- 
work so much in use then as an ornament. Sheet iron 
was cut out into ornamental forms and used for making 
lanterns, the work of the smith being in full decadence. 

The grates at Haddon Hall, which are simple baskets, 
or, when dogs are used, have the ornamental parts 



applied in brass, are some of the earliest attempts to 
make cfrates for burniiify coal, which has for centuries 
been worked in that part of England. 

The date of the curious iron hinges on the North Porch 
door of Dartmouth Church, consisting of sprays of oak- 
work nearly covering the door, with two great leopards 
stretching right across the door and over the oak-work, is 
disputed, but I am inclined to put them in the sixteenth 

In the seventeenth century came a great revival of 
iron-work in a very characteristic style. Sir Christopher 
Wren used this metal in his buildings, and in St. 
Paul's are some of the best examples of his manner. 
The gates, both outside and inside, the grilles in the 
openings in the stalls, and some railing to the staircase 
in the south-west tower show the great ability and free- 
dom with which Wren used iron. Tijou, a Frenchman, 
directed this work, and other men worked under him, as 
the following note shows from the accounts of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, between March, 1691, and February, 
1692: — "Paid to Mr. Partridge, the London Smith, in 
part for gate and other work ^£80 00. 00. Paid to Mr. 
Partridge in full, for the three iron gates in the Cloyster 
and Iron Railes in the stair case, besides £80 formerly 
paid £320 00. 00." 

From this we see that the modern S3^stem of making 
wrought iron work, away from the building for which it is 
intended, had become established, and that Wren's great 
works at St Paul's, and his other buildings, had established 
a school of iron-workers in London. Good work was, 
however, made elsewhere, but it gathered to centres, and 
the travelling or nomad smith has disappeared. 

The famous screens at Hampton Court are said to have 
been made by Huntington Shaw of Nottingham, and we 
have seen in our excursions from various centres iron- 
work in All Saints' Church, Derby, a cu;:ious iron temple 
in Melbourne Hall grounds, the gates of Chirk Castle, 
fine gates and screens in Wrexham Church, and the rich 
hanging pieces to the two fine brass candelabra in Melton 
Mowbray Church, " Tlie gift of Pich. Gregory of Burton 
Lnzars in this parish, Gentleman, 1746." 

This brings us almost to our own time. At the end of 


the last century ornamental smith's work died down again, 
and the development of iron-founding — which is an ex- 
cellent thing in its place, and has an interesting history — 
for the time checked the smith's art. 

It is as a part of the great revival of the arts, in con- 
nection with architecture in our times, that iron-work has 
been revived, and in this, as in so many of the art 
industries, we owe a deep debt of gratitude to Augustus 
Welby Pugin. 

It is often said that old work is better than new. 
This is not true if the latter is set about in the old 
way, and after study of the reasons for the excellence in 
the former. The ordinary needs of agriculture and of 
manufacture have kept alive the race of smiths, and there 
are among them many skilful men, with a love for their 
art, who, if they are shown the reason of the excellence 
of the old work by anyone who enters into it, will set 
themselves to rival it, or, if possible, to surpass it. The 
northern nations of Europe are smiths by instinct, and we 
have not lost the instincts of our forefathers in this par- 
ticular any more than in other ways. Let due oppor- 
tunities be given and I will answer for a response being 
made to them. 



Two years ago, when visiting the beautifully situated 
Norman church at Bredwardine, Herefordshire, my atten- 
tion was attracted by a remarkable design sculptured over 
the Norman north door. The doorway is of the usual 
Norman character, semicircular, with plain chevron 
mouldings. In the centre of the arch are two roundels 
containing sculptured subjects,the right-hand one of which, 
being familiar with the forms of ancient Egyptian my- 
thology, I at once recognised as an unmistakable repre- 
sentation of Bes or Besa, the Typhon of the Greeks, who 
is usually pourtrayed as a deformed and nude male figure 
with bandy legs, tongue lolling out of the mouth, pendant 
beard, and protruding eyes. A lion's skin with the tail 
hanging down behind is thrown over the otherwise naked 
body. The Bredwardine sculpture reproduces with very 
tolerable fidelity most of these characteristics, and close 
examination reveals that there is even an attempt to 
represent the set of ostrich plumes with which Bes is 
almost invariably crowned. 

Altogether, the resemblance of this sculpture to a 
statuette or amulet of Bes, whereof many specimens may 
be seen in the ]3ritish Museum, is so great that it is plainly 
evident that the Bredwardine sculptor had either seen or 
been possessed of a veritable specimen, which had been 
brought either by himself or some pilgrim friend from 
Egypt, and which he copied as an appropriate design for 
the north side of a church. 

The neighbouring figure in the roundel to the left is of 
inferior execution, and has suffered more from the ravages 

^Kcad at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, November 7, 1889. 


of time than the one already described. On the occasion 
of my first visit I was puzzled as to its proper appro- 
priation, but, having recently inspected it a second time 
I have now little doubt that it represents a Cynocephalus 
ape, the well-known emblem of the lunar gods Khonsu or 
Khons, and Thoth, to whom he was held sacred. The 
curious fact has, therefore, come to light that an English 
church of the twelfth century was adorned with sculptures 
representing, certainly one and probably two, Egyptian 
religious subjects. 

This, however, is not all. Proceeding from Bredwardine 
to the still more curious and unaltered church in the 
neighbouring parish of Moccas, I found further evidence 
of the influence of ancient Oriental art. 

The Tympanum of the Norman south door at Moccas 
is occupied by a very curious and unusual design. In 
the centre rises a conventional tree, in the centre of whose 
stem a cross is formed by the addition of a well defined 
and carefully executed cross bar. Above this crop out 
branches, right and left, which terminate in spiral orna- 
ments, which with other detached branches, if such they 
may be called, fill up the portion of the design. On the 
side of the stem below are two beasts, disposed heraldically, 
whose divers tails show that they are intended to indicate 
different species, perhaps a lion and a bull. Each of these 
monsters is engaged in devouring the draped figure of a 
man, of whom each protrudes his arm and hand from the 
very jaws of his devourer and clutches at the central 
cross for safety. 

I have no doubt that this design was copied from some 
Babylonian or Assyrian cylinder, which also was in the 
collection of this twelfth century Herefordshire sculptor. 
The central tree. Christianized by the introduction of the 
central cross bar, and probably connected in the sculptor's 
mind with the Tree of Life, bears strong resemblance to 
trees on both Assyrian sculptures and Babylonian cylinders 
in the British Museum. For example, offerings are being 
carried to a very similar tree on a slab of the time of King 
Assur-Nasir Pal, B.C. 580, Hitherto little seems to have 
been, known of the meaning of these many branched trees 
which are of such frequent occurrence in Mesopotamian 
art. Dr. E. Tylor, of Oxford, however, in an interesting 


letter in the " Academy," ' claims to have discovered their 
meaning, and identifies the objects like fir-cones which 
winged deities bear in baskets to conventional palm trees, 
with the efflorence of the male trees, when divested of its 
sheath, and ready to dust the pollen over the female 
flowers. This operation was of course one of vital im- 
portance in a country like Assyria, whose inhabitants 
depended so much upon dates for their daily food. I may 
add that the work upon the doorways of Moccas and 
Bredwardine are manifestly by the same hand. 

And here I might stop, but I cannot help calling atten- 
tion to another point, which may be only a co-incidence, 
or may not. 

Upon the lintel stone which supports the tympanum 
of the south doorway at Moccas, are several roundels 
containing conventional designs of a star-like shape. I 
believe I have seen similar designs upon other Norman 
doorways, and of Norman origin they perhaps are in this 
instance, but I cannot refrain from pointing out that these 
star shaped ornaments most closely resemble those found 
on stone sarcophagi discovered near Jerusalem, and of 
which, if I mistake not, some specimens are engraved in 
" The Eecovery of Jerusalem," published by the Palestine 
Exploration Fund ; and roundels of similar type have, I 
believe, been found cut upon rock-tombs in other localities 
in the Holy Land. If this resemblance be not accidental, 
another indication is afforded that the Herefordshire 
carver or his friend had visited Palestine as a pilgrim, had 
jotted down what he saw in his rude vellum note book, 
and had reproduced the designs that pleased him on the 
banks of the eddying Wye. 

1 June 8, 1890. 



Forty-six years ago Mr. Thomas Wright drew attention 
to the importance attaching to the architectural details in 
ilkiminated Saxon manuscripts ; first, as shewing that 
squared stone was in use in England long before the 
Norman Conquest, and, next, because numerous details in 
pre-Norman MSS. so closely resembled distinctive features 
in existing Churches, that there could be little doubt 
that they were either of contemporary date, or copied from 
earlier work that was so. He more particularly alluded 
to the evidence that the miniatures afforded reo-ardinsf 
the style now admitted to be Saxon ; but whilst referring 
to Churches like Deerhurst and Sompting as examples 
of the better type of pre-Norman buildings, Mr. Wright 
expressed a strong opinion that much remained to be 
learnt from more extended research.' 

Following, though tardily, this suggestion, a close 
examination has now been made of all the architectural 
features and ornaments in the three illuminated MSS. 
referred to by Mr. Wright, viz : ^thel wold's Benedic- 
tional, ^Ifric's Pentateuch, and Ctedmon's Paraphrase, 
besides others of about the same date and English origin, 
in the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries, and the 
admirable reproductions of Saxon miniatures and details 
in MSS. less accessible, in Professor Westwood's " Fac- 

Before stating results, it will be well to repeat what 
was said on the subject of pre-Norman Churches in 
England in a note communicated to the Institute in 

^ Journal, British Archaeological Association, Vol. I, p. 1. 


1883, viz : that in addition to the style now accepted 
as Anglo-Saxon, which appears to have been derived from 
wooden structures, there was another, a development 
perhaps of an earlier one which Professor Freeman some 
time back proposed should be called English Eomanesque. 
It is this style that is principally illustrated in the 
illuminated MSS. of the tenth and earlier years of the 
eleventh century, to which, with one or two exceptions, 
search has been confined. 

The more important churches founded by Kings of 
England and heads of the great Monastic orders, which 
were probably erected in the latter style, would have 
been the first to be rebuilt on a larger scale after the 
Conquest. A careful search, however, has in more than 
one instance resulted in the discovery of earlier work 
in buildings even of this description. 

The indent! fication of such work in Anglo-Norman 
buildings may prove to be a less difficult task than might 
at first be supposed, seeing that the style of architecture 
that existed in Normandy at the time of the Conquest, as 
ascertained by MM. Bouet and De Caumont, of Caen, 
in concert with Mr. J. H. Parker, was severely plain. Its 
Eomanesque capitals were in fact the only ornament.' 

M. Bouet, in his excellent work on the architecture of 
St. Stephen's Church, mentions that the " chapiteau 
cubique," or cushion capital," in its various forms, appeared 
suddenly in Normandy, as if introduced from abroad, and 
presumably from England, in the twelfth century, at 
about the same period as the embattled fret and triple 
arrangement of clear-storj' arches. In the thirteenth 
century, also, the rare capital with inverted volutes 
appears in the apse of St. Stephen's Church, and M. Bouet 

^ The following extract is from a of English historians and amateurs, 

paper by Mr. Parker on this subject. When he came to examine these churches 

"The great Abbey Churches at Caen in detail, with the careful observation 

had long been considered the starting re(iuired by the system of Professor 

point for the history of architecture in '\\'illis, he found that in the Church of 

England.and the connecting link between St. Stephen there was such a difference 

the architectures, and at the same time of construction in different parts, as to 

it had been taken for granted that these mark the work of three distinct periods." 

Churches, as they now stand, were fair Proceedings of the Oxford Architectural 

examples of the style of building in use and Historical Society, vol. 1, New Series, 
in Normandy at the time of the Conquest. - See p. 49, Analyse Architecturale de 

A careful examination, however, shewed L'Abbaye de Saint-Etienne de Caen, 

that this was almost entirely a delusion, Par G. Bouet, in the library of the 

which had greatly misled the generality Institute, 


states that it was previously used in Sherborne Chapel, 
Durham, by Bishop Pudsey, in the twelfth century. Now 
this capital occurs in the Saxon church of Merton, Lin- 
colnshire, and in three distinct illuminated MSS. of tenth 
century date. [Nos. ii, xii, and xiii in the list]. 

The architectural details in the MSS. above referred to 
are as follows : — 

I. Psalter. B.M. 603, 11th century. 


Square turrets. 


Tall narrow doorways. 


Church with clear-story. 

Twisted column. 

Cushion capitals. 

Picture of a mason making use of a pointed 
[_Note. Most of the miniatures in this MS. are copies of 
those in the Utrecht Psalter, which was of much earlier 

II. Gospels in Latin. Bod. Laud, 102, 9th century. 

Arcades of four arches over calendars. 
Foliated capitals. 
Ornamented pillars. 
Inverted volutes. 

III. Psalter of King Athelstan. B.M. end of 9 th century. 

Two round arches, indicating a building with an 

Mouldings, or chamfers. (?) 
Cushion-shaped capitals. 
Sloping bases. 
Holy cradle, in form of a church, with an arcade 

in lower stage, three round windows and 

clear-story. [PL III, fig 5.] 

IV. Latin Psalter. Salisbury Cathedral. 9th or lOth 

Pound arches. 

Foliated capitals. 

Lines indicating mouldings. 

Shafts at corners of piers (?) 



V. ^thelwold's Benedictional.^ Eaton Hall, c. 1000. 

Intersectino- arches. 

Double arches under an embracmg arch. 

Square turrets. 

Piers with panels, or corner shafts. (?) 

Twisted pillars (on a throne). 

Foliated capitals. 

Eoraanesque bases. 

Intertwining stalks. 

Ashlar, in courses of different heights. 

Acanthus foliage. 

Holy cradle, in form of a church, with aisles and 

Balustered shafts. 

VI. ^Ifric's Anglo-Saxon Pentateuch. 

B.M. Claudius B. IV, c. 1000. 
High arches. 

Sub-arches, springing from attached shafts. 
Square turrets. [PL HI, fig 4.] 
Tall narrow doorways. 
Ashlar, in courses of unequal height. 
Small arcades. 
BeU-shaped capitals. 
Cushion capitals. 
Foliated capital. [PL IL fig 7.] 
Capitals with pointed leaves. PL IL fig. 10.] 
Capitals with volutes. 
Sloping bases. 
Doorway with tympanum. 
Twining stalks and leaves. 
Acanthus leaves. 

Star-shaped diaper, (on a throne.) 
Zigzag border. [PL III, fig 12.] 
Cable moulding. [PL IH, fig 10.] 

Vn. Casdmon's Paraphrase.'^ Bod. Junius, 2, c. 1000. 
Diaper work. [PI III, fig 1.] 
Arches springing from half capitals. 
Triple clear-story arches. 

* Reproduced in Archscologia, Vol. xxiv. ^ See Archscologia, Vol. xxiv. 


Turrets, with two-light windows. 

Tall narrow doorways. 

Small arcades. 

Piers with panels (?), or corner shafts. (?) 

Ashlar, in unequal courses. 

Bounded, or cushion capitals. 

Capitals with volutes. 

Capitals with interlacing stalks. 

Bounded bases. 

Acanthus foliage. 


VIII. Latin Psalter. Bod. Junius, 27, 10th century. 

[Initial letters only.] 
Acanthus foliage. 

Stalks issuing from tubes or pipes. [PI. II, fig 2.] 
Eagles' heads in involved foliage. 

IX. Prudentius. Bod. early 11th century. 

Acanthus foliage. 

X. Bunstan. B.M. Claudius, A, 3, 10th century. 

Tall narrow doorways. 

Two square turrets. 

Shafts ornamented with chevrons. 

Label decorated with minute arches. [PI. II, fig 1.] 

Twining stalks and leaves. 

Female head, with leaf head-dress. [Pl^ H^ fig 1 J 

Acanthus leaves. 

XL Litany.* Bod. 775, late 10th century, 
[Two initial letters only.] 
Interlacing bands. [PI. II, fig. 4.] 
Twining foliage. 

XII. Gospels. B.M., Cal. vii„ early 11th century. 

Inverted volutes. 

XIII. Psalter. B.M. Tiberius, C. VI, early 11th century. 

[Ideal Holy Sepulchre.^] 
Arcades of small arches. 
Circular windows. 

Twisted piUar with foliated capitals. 
Steps ornamented with zigzags. [PL III, fig 11.] 

' This Litany contains a prayer for King ^ Reproduced in Westwood's " Fac- 

Ethelred and the English Army. similes," 


Line of pellets. 

Well proportioned round-headed windows. 
Bands of bead ornament. [PI. Ill, fig 9.] 
Inverted volutes. [Plate II, fig 9.] 

XIV. Hymnal. B.M. Caligula XV, 11th century. 

Arcade of small arches. 

Square turrets. 

Church with aisles and clear-story. 

Apse at end of an aisle (?) 

Tall portals. 

Moulded arches. 


XV. Psalter. B.M. Ear. 2904. 

Acanthus leaves. 

XVI. Missal of Bishop Leofric. Bod. c. lOOO. 

Acanthus foliage. 
Most of the features in this list occur in the Church of 
the Holy Trinity, St. Mary and all Saints,^ now the 
Cathedral of Christ in Oxford, namely: (1) square 
turrets ; (2) intersecting arches ; (3) couplets under em- 
bracing arches : (4) clear-story windows flanked by small 
arches; (5) arcades; (6) sub-arches springing from half- 
teapitals inserted in main columns ; (7) cylindrical pillars 
of unusual height ; (8) arches with roll mouldings; (9) 
doorways and windows with side shafts ; (10) circular 
window; (11) tall narrow doorways; (12) cushion cap- 
itals ; (13) capitals ornamented with intertwining stalks: in 
some cases issuing from pipes ; (13) capitals formed of three 
pointed leaves ; (14) capitals ornamented with acanthus 
leaves ; (15) scolloped capitals ; (16) capitals with inverted 
volutes; (17) cornices or imposts ornamented with five- 
petalled leaves ; (18) bead ornament ; (19) ashlar in 
unequal courses ; (20) leaf head-dress ; (21) sloping bases ; 
(22) shghtly projecting rounded bases ; (23) bases formed 
of two rolls with a straight line between them (in the 
clear-stories) ; (24) foundations of apses. Besides frag- 
ments of string courses ornamented with zigzags, &c., 
found built into walling of post-Norman date. 

' This was tlie ancient Dedication of St. the addition of the name of St. Frides- 
Frideswide's Church, and it was adopted wide, see engi-aving of Seal in Dugdale, 
by Wolsey for hia intended College ; with vol. Ad fin : 


Though the features enumerated correspond with 
miniatures and ornamental details in pre-Norman MSS. 
this does not, of course, in itself, show that any of the 
work at Christ Church Cathedral is pre-Norman ; for 
earlier Saxon work may have been copied. Close 
examination, however, has led to the discovery of a 
" break of joint '' between the choir and the transepts, 
and a difference of size in the capitals at the junction, 
which prove that there was no continuity in the work 
such as has been supposed ; and that the choir is much 
older than the rest of the Church, though greatly altered 
in appearance, in the twelfth century, by the addition 
of the new presbytery, the chancel-arch and tower 
shafts, and the reconstruction of the tower arches, which 
appear once to have sprung from imposts^ ; and still 
more by the introduction of vaulting, and vaulting shafts 
in the aisles, not contemplated in the original plan. 

This, however, is not all. The arrangement of arches 
springing from half capitals, inserted in main pillars, is 
clearly represented in a miniature in Caedmon ; (see 
plate III, fig 2), and is not found in any other church except 
Oxford Cathedral.^ A reason might perhaps be given for 
this unusual plan, if, as history seems to imply, ^thelred's 
Church, which was added on to an older building with 
low walls was never taken down. 

That several of the choir capitals, which also correspond 
with patterns in Csedmon and other pre-Norman MSS., are 
older than any in the nave or transepts, is evident from 
their weathered condition ; due either to exposure for 
some time to the open air, perhaps from decay of the roof, 
indicated by the non-acceptance of the Church on account 
of its state of repair, when offered by the Conqueror to 
the Prior of Abingdon ; or, from the length of time thf 
capitals have been subjected to the ordinary softening 
effects of the atmosphere. 

Ten capitals in different parts of the Cathedral have 
inverted volutes. The earliest perhaps are in the north 
arcade inside the Tower and the south triforium of the 
choir ; and then the one in the south east corner of the 

_ ^ This seems evident from the mutila- - At Romsey there are sub-arches which 

tion of the rows of leaves occasioned spring from attached shafts, not half caps, 

by the insertion of the twelfth century At Jedburgh sub-arches spring from 

capitals. corbels. 


south transept. [Plate I, fig 3.] The latest is in the nave 
on the south side. 

An early example exists at the west end of the arcade 
in the north aisle of the nave of Peterborough Cathedral, 
where there is other work, that, it can scarcely be doubted, 
is copied from features in an earlier church. 

The twining stalks in four of the choir capitals at 
Oxford, with pipes, out of which the stalks issue, 
correspond very closely with designs in late 10th century 
MSS. [Plate II, fig 2.] 

Also in two other capitals the arrangement of acanthus 
leaves is very similar to that in borders round miniatures 
in some of the beautiful Winchester MSS. of tenth centurj^ 
date, when, as Prof. Westwood informs us, there was a 
remarkable revival of such foliage. [Plate II, figs 5 and 6.] 

It has already been stated in a former paper^ that por- 
tions of the walls and foundations of apses of the ancient 
church of the Holy Trinity, which was renovated 
and enlarged by ^Hj^thelred II in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, are still in existence. The jambs of a 
doorway belonging to the original church go down 
2 ft. 8 in. below the pavement of the north aisle of the 
choir in which it is situated. The doorway would clearly 
have been tall and narrow, and its arch is very straight 

There are other features found in the illuminated MSS. 
and, also, at Christ Church, which it is important to 
note, viz : square and round turrets : [Plate III, figs. 4, 
6, 7,] and clear-story triplets. 

A mistake regarding the date of the choir of the 
Cathedral seems to have arisen from the circumstance 
that, when the remains of St. Frideswide were placed 
in a feretrum in the north aisle in 1189, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury took part in the ceremonies. 
From this it has been concluded that the church was 
consecrated on the same occasion.' It was not, however, 
the practice to postpone consecration until the comple- 
tion of a church. The translation of St. Frideswide^s 
remains in all probability took place when the alterations 
in the north choir aisle were finished, which would 
have been about 1189. There is no documentary evi- 

^ "Recent Discoveries in Oxford Cnthedral," Arch. Jour., 1888. 


dence pointing to any consecration but that of -^thelred's 
church ; and, as Dr. Ingram pointed out, there is not a 
tittle of evidence to show that it was ever pulled down : 
however much it may have been altered.^ 

As regards other Anglo-Norman Cathedrals, though 
Britton's view, that the Normans when rebuilding 
English churches adhered both from policy and choice to 
the severe style of architecture they brought with them, 
may be accepted as generally correct, there are instances 
of the adoption of ornamental features from Anglian 
churches soon after the Conquest, e.g.^ at Lincoln 
and Winchester. At Lincoln Eemigius built the three 
great portals at the west end of the Cathedral in 
identically the same style as that of the Conqueror's 
Church at Caen, at that date ; that is to say, with square 
soffites to the arches, and debased Homano-Corinthian 
capitals. In the narrow apsided recesses, however, on 
either side (if, as seems to have been the case, they were 
erected at the same time), though the two lower orders 
are without mouldings, the outer rims are ornamented 
with a roll and decorated label, both of which appear to 
have been copied from features in the old Cathedral at 
Stow. The same pattern appears on an arch in the picture 
of Dunstan (so called), in the Cottonian MS., Claudius A., 
3 (No. X. in the List). See Plate II, fig 1. It occurs also 
on a string course round the walls at Stow which were 
rebuilt at the end of the eleventh century.- 

The second instance of early adoption of Saxon ornament 
is the use of the cubic or cushion capital by Walkelyn at 
Winchester. This form of capital, as has already been 
mentioned, was not known, or at any rate was not used, 
at Caen until the twelfth century.3 

^ " There is no proof or record to shew mynster in oxen forde." Ingram : Me- 

that Ethelred's work was destroyed ; * morials of Oxford, vol. 1. 

* * Yet this was, without doubt, a "A careful sketch of the ornamentation 

work of considerable maguitude, for in on the deep imposts of the south doorway 

the Royal Charter, which is still extant, of the Saxon Church of Barholm, near 

the Church is said to have been renovated Stow, which has been sent to me, shows 

by the help of God, through the exer- a double row of the same small round 

tions not only of the king, but of his arches, and under them a line of zigzags, 

people, * * * So great was the and a curious pattern resembling a 

satisfaction which the king derived from row of fish conventionally treated, 

the restoration, that in the half modern- There is a fragment similarly ornament- 

ised orthography of the Langbourn ed in the gallery over the vestry at 

Manuscript, he calls it " myne owne Christ Church. 

"* See p. 1, ante. 


If the size of Oxford Cathedral should be pointed 
to as more considerable than that of other pre-Norman 
churches, it should not be forgotten that Ethelred II 
was brother-in-law of Duke Eichard of Normandy, who, 
according to the annalist of Fontenelle Abbey, was so distin- 
guished for his art -knowledge that bishops and monks, 
both Greek and Armenian, journeyed from the east to 
visit him. He was also the founder of Bernay Abbey and 
the Church of St. Michel's Mount, in both of which there 
are capitals like some in Oxford Cathedral, where, ac- 
cording to Sir G. G. Scott, there is clearly evidence of 
eastern influence. 

In conclusion ; in his last work on ' Gothic architecture,' 
Mr. Parker wrote as follows : 

" The Saxons appear to have been more advanced in 
the fine arts, such as sculpture, than the Normans ; but 
their churches were on comparatively a small scale, and 
were generally swept away by the Normans, as not 
worth preserving." 

And again, "recent observations seem to shew that 
the Saxons were more advanced then the Normans at the 
time of the Conquest ; their work was more highly finished, 
had more ornament, and they used fine jointed masonry, 
while the Normans used wide jointed." 

Further examination of the masonry and ornamental 
features of the Cathedral will be made as opportunity 



Fig 1 . Capital, north side of choir, Oxford Cathedral ; shewing stalks 
issuing from pipes. 

2. Capital ornamented with acanthus leaves. 

3. Quarter-capitals at west end of south aisle of choir ; to illus- 

trate break of joint, and inverted leaves. 


Fig 1. Part of border and apse of church; from M.S. Dunstan in 
B. M. showing head dress formed of foliage, and an orna- 
mented arch. No. x in list. 
2. Initial letter from Vossianus. Bod. Stalks issuing from pipes 



riATE II. 


7- 8. 

1 ^ 





' 15. 











J o 

'Pt(E-y[OT\-MKn Ol^NAME-NT. 


3. Part of Border, x. 

4. Part of illuminated letter. xi. 

5. Border of acanthus leaves, xv. 

6. Ditto ditto ditto. xvi. 

7. Foliated capital, vi. 

8. Cushion do. vi. 

9. Capital with inverted volutes, x. 
10-13. Pre-Norman bases. 

14. Base with two round mouldings, xvii. 



• 1. 


Diaper No. vii. 

Arch springing from half-capital. 

Diaper, vi. 

Square turrets, and tall doorway. 



Sacred cradle in form of church. 



Part of church with round turret. 



Section through church, vi. 


Ornament on arch. x. 


Ditto, x. 


Cable ornament, vi. 


Zigzag pattern, xiii. 
Saw-tooth ornament, vi. 


Chevron ditto. 



The earliest instructions in bell-founding that I can find 
appear to be those contained in the third book of the 
Essay of Theophilus on Various Arts. Mr. Hendrik, who 
edited the work for Mr. Murray in 1847, considers it to 
belong to the early half of the eleventh century. It is 
remarkable that the use of crooks here laid down does 
not appear in the other treatises to which I shall have to 
refer. I have not the book at hand, but I have transcribed 
the part which refers to " crooking," and runs as follows : — 

" Compositurus campanam primum incides tibi lignum 
siccum de quercu, longum secundum quod vis habere 
campanam, ita. ut ex utraque parte extra formam emineat 
longitudine unius palmi, et quadrum in una summitate 
grossius, in aliam gracilius et rotundum, ut possit in 
foramine circumvolvi. Sitque deductim (? deductum) 
grossius et grossius, ut cum opus fuerit perfectum facile 
possit educi. Quod lignum in grossiori parte una palma 
ante summitatem incidatur in circuitu, ut fiat fossa duobus 
digitis lata, sitque lignum ibi rotundum, juxta quam fossam 
summitas ipsius ligni fiat tenuis, ut in aliud lignum curvum 
jungi possit, per quod valeat in modum runcinge circum- 
verti. Fiant etiam duo asseres longitudini et latitudini 
aequales qui altrinsecus conjungantur et confirmentur 
quatuor lignis, ita ut sint ampli (ampla in cod.^ inter se 
secundum longitudinem pr^edicti ligni ; ut in uno assere 
fiat foramen in quo convertatiir rotunda summitas et in 
altero e contra asqualiter fiat incisura duobus digitis 
profunda, in qua volvatur rotunda incisura. Quo facto, 
sume ipsum lignum et circumpone ei argillam fortiter 
maceratam, imprimis duobus digitis spissam, qua diligenter 
siccata, suppone ei alteram, sicque facies donee forma 

^Read, in part, in the Architectural Section at the Norwich Meeting, August 9th,1889, 


compleatur quantam earn habere volueris, et cave ne 
unquam superponas argillam alteri nisi inferior omnino 
sicca fiierit. Deinde coUoca ipsam form am inter asseres 
superscriptos, et sedente puero qui vertat, cum ferris, ad 
hoc opus aptis, tornabis eam sicut volueris et tenens 
pannum in aqua madefactum eam agquabis." 

Next in order come directions found in a treatise by 
Walter of Odyngton, a monk of Evesham, in the time of 
Henry III.^ 

This manuscript, which through Archbishop Parker's 
care escaped the destruction attending oh the Dissolution 
of the Monasteries, is No. 410 in his collection at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. Mr. Lewis considers the copy 
to have been made in the fifteenth century. The Chapter 
on bells, headed in red ink, De symhalis faciendis, contains 
only eleven lines of text, and is to the following effect 
(recto of f. 17): 

" Ad simbola facienda tota vis et difficultas extat in 
appensione cerae ex qua formantur et primo sciendi quod 
quanto densius est tintinnabulum tanto acutius sonat 
tenuius vero gravius. Unam appensam ceram quantam- 
libet ex qua formandum primura cimbelum divides in octo 
partes et octavam partem addes tantse cerse sicut Integra 
fuit, et fiet tibi cera secundi simbali. Et cetera facies ad 
eundem modum a gravioribus inchoando. Sed cave ne 
forma interior argillas cui aptanda est cera alio mutetur, ne 
etiam aliquid de cera appensa addat ad spiramina, proinde 
et ut quint a vel sexta pars metalli sit stannum purificatum 
a plumbo, reliquum de cupra similiter mundato propter 
sonoritatem. Si autem in aliquo deficeris, cum cote vel 
lima potest rectificari." 

He begins by saying that for making bells, the whole 
difficulty consists in estimating the models from which they 
are formed, and first in understanding that the thicker a 
bell is, the higher is its note, and the reverse. From the 
use of the word " cera " for a model, some might be 
inclined to infer that the bells of that time were cast in 
moulds formed by wax models, but no such instances are 
known to exist in England. When a bell is to be made, 
a core or central block is first formed, to which is fitted a 
model, or " thickness " of the bell that is to be. Outside 

^ Summus fratris Walter! monachi Eveshamie musici de speculatione musica. 


the model comes the cope. These models seem to have 
been made at one time from wax. When complete, the 
outer earth, forming a cope, was rammed tightly round 
them. A fire was lighted, and the melted wax allowed to 
escape, the cavity being afterwards filled by the metal 
from the furnace. There was an easy way of ornamenting 
the outer earth, or cope, by laying on the model extra 
strips of wax in the form of letters, &c,, which would 
have their imprint lighted on the cope. We have no 
instances of this kind in England, nor does there seem 
any probability of such a discovery. Mr. Lynam, in his 
Church Bells of Staffordshire (plates 3a and 8b), gives an 
interesting and well-executed drawing of what appears to 
be an inscription thus formed, from a bell at Fontenailles 
in Normandy, dated 1211, but he tells us nothing more 
about it. He also mentions similar lettering at Moissac, 
with the date 1273, recorded by VioUet le Due. Our 
earliest inscriptions are set in separate letters, each in its 
own patera ; and this would be impracticable, save by 
stamping the cope itself. In castings from wax models 
the cope is inaccessible. Hence we conclude that loam 
models were used in England while these instructions 
remained in the letter. 

He proceeds to expound the estimation of the wax 
models of a ring of bells. 

Starting with any given ^^ model,'' for the first hell you take 
nine-eighths of it as a " model " for the second bell, and so on. 
If you start from the heavier bells and loork on to the 
lighter ones you must use a like method, i.e., let each 
" model " be eight-ninths of the previous one. But take 
care lest the core to ichich the " model " is to be fitted be 
changed in a different proportion. Take care also that none 
of your cdlotted ^^ model" get itself into the breathing holes. 
Then he gives directions about the metal — a fifth or sixth 
part of the meted to be tin purified from lead, and the rest 
copper, similarly cleansed, for sonorousness. Lastly, con- 
templating the abominable noise which would be sure to 
arise from these handiworks he says that if you fail in 
any point it can be set right ivith a ivhetstone or a file, of 
which the former would be used for sharpening purposes, 
grinding away the rim of the bell, and the latter for 
llattenuig, filing ofl the inner surface of the sound-bow. 


Let us then imagine Walter of Odyngton attending to 
his own instructions. He starts by allotting a certain 
amount of wax for his first bell, makes his core by rule 
of thumb answerable to it, and then weighs both. By 
weight he gets his wax for the other bells, on the nine- 
eights system. The whole method is so obviously empiric 
that there is no ground for wonder at the necessity for 
burin, whetstone, hard chisel, file or any other tuning 
apparatus. Indeed the free use of these instruments may 
account for the almost total disappearance of bells of the 
Saxon and Norman periods. 

We are next to consider an improved method. Un- 
fortunately no date can be assigned to it. It is a little 
prose tract (c. ii.), appended to an early poem called 
Ars Musica. The poem itself is attributed to Gerbertus 
Scholasticus, afterwards Pope Sylvester II., and if this be 
right we are carried as far as the poem is concerned 
beyond the Norman Conquest. But the chapter in which 
we are interested belongs to a much later time. It seems 
as though the unknown writer had known of Walter of 
Odyngton's method, had seen that his nine-eights made no 
difference between tones and semitones, and to have thus 
supplied a more workable plan : — 

Should any one wish to regulate the sound of bells like that 
of organ-pipes he shoidd knoio that thicker hells, like shorter 
pipes, have a higher note. But one must he careful in the 
weighing of the wax from which they are formed. He then 
proceeds to designate the various bells in a ring by 
letters : — 

The first. 


The second. 

, B. 

The third, ' 


The fourth, 


The fifth, 


The sixth, 

F. and 

The eighth 


It is needless to say that the absence of the mention of 
a seventh is very perplexing, and not at all to be accoun- 
ted for by the first and eighth being in unison. Perhaps 
some master of mediaeval music can solve the mystery. 
I am content to record the instruction as I find it. 


B is formed from A, and C from B on Walter of Odyng- 
ton's nine-eighths system. But to get D, which is a 
" semitonium" from C, you take four-thirds of A. Then 
E is formed from D, and F from E on the nine-eighths 
system, but G from D (there being a " semitonium" be- 
tween G and F) by taking four-thirds. It may be that the 
text requires emendation, but I am not bold enough to 
touch it. 

The MS is Eawlinson c 720, in the Bodleian Library, 
and the passage, as follows, occurs on f. 13, recto and 
verso : — 

" Sonitum Tintinnabulorum si quis rationabiliter juxta 
modum fistularum organicarum facere voluerit scire debet 
quia sicut fistule breviores altiorem sonum habent quam 
longiores, ita et unumquodque tintinnabulum quantum 
superat densitate alterum tantum excellit et sono. Quod 
caute providendum est in appensione cerge qua form antur. 
Ad primum autem quod est A littera quali volueris 
pondere ceram appende, dividesque illam ipsam ceram 
aeque in octo partes, ac recipiat sequens, B videlicet, 
ejusdem appensionis iterum octo partes alias, addita 
insuper nona parte. Illasque novem partes in unum 
coUige, dividesque in octo, recipiat tercium quod est C. 
eadem appensione octo alias partes, addita etiam parte 
nona ejusdem ponderis. Tunc primi appensionem divide 
in tres partes, supereturque a quarto quod est D quarta 
parte, hoc est semitonium. Item divides quartum in octo 
supereturque a quinto quod est E. nona parte, dividesque 
similiter quintum in octo et recipiat sextum quod est F 
nonam partem amplius, Quartum nichilominus in tres 
partes oeque appensum ab octavo quod est G superetur 
quarta parte, hoc est semitonium." 

According to my calculation the models of the seven 
bells would be in this ratio 
















These calculations, though probably derived from 
Theophilus, do not seem altogether his ; and though there 
are apparently no children of the cire perdu method 
remaining in England, and very few on the Continent, it 
is yet possible that a sequence of two or three may be 
found, to be compared practically with these various 
written directions. 


By J. E. BALE. 

The Saxon name indicates what the place then was ; and still it is, only- 
houses situated among trees, with the fine woods of Raynham, adjacent, 
and rich pastures around. The situation is peaceful and beautiful, and its 
houses have been mostly tenanted by the same families of the past four 
or five generations. 

The church dedicated to All Saints, possesses one bell, it is valued as a 
Vicarage at £200 a year, and it is also a Deanery, so says the Directory, 
and little else is locally known. 

The existing fabric has a nave and chancel, and a western tower, minus 
the belfry storey ; the architectural features comprise transition Early 
English, to the Perpendicular period. Its Anglo-Saxon origin is shown 
by the rude " ashlar " stone work, mostly unwrought, of the exterior 
angles of the nave and portions of the lower walling. The present nave 
is probably the extent of the Saxon Church, The stone ashlar is the 
brown kind locally known as " Car Stone," found round about Hillington 
towards Lynn, and there still popular as a building stone ; it was in Saxon 
days easily brought by water down the river Wensum which passes 
Toftrees at Shereford about two miles off", where there is a church with 
a round tower, built like Tofts Church in flint rubble, and ashlar of this 
brown stone, obviously much of it Saxon work also. 

The Norman period is evidenced by its fine well-preserved Baptismal 
Font. The sacred use of the font induced the best art and materials 
obtainable to be bestowed on it, and was a chief reason why the original, 
or old font was not replaced by another when churches were altered or 
rebuilt in succeeding styles. The north door of the nave is round headed 
and of oak, encrusted externally with lichens and moss, the hinges being 
corroded almost to nothing ; it may be a Norman door. The church 
appears never to have been larger than its present small size, and its 
enclosure or burial ground abutted up to the N.E. angle of the boundary 
of a former fortified mansion or castle of considerable extent. The moat, 
of which part still survives as a pond, can be traced from the S.E. 
angle of the churchyard in an approximate square to the S.W. angle of 
the enclosures-. The site of the gate with flanking towers is distinguish- 
able on the west side, the place of the drawbridge being filled in with 
debris to facilitate the carrying out of the building materials, which, from 
traces of extensive foundations must have been of great extent. 

The trees in the meadow to the westward still mark the former avenue 
of approach, though irregular as if grown from seedlings ; the existing 







Elizabethan house near the church is the probable successor of this 
moated mansion, and is an excellent example of the architectural use of 
local materials. It was the manorial residence of the family living there 
before the property was absorbed into the Raynham estate, and a mural 
monument, in the chancel of the church, sets forth in sixteenth century 
Latin, that some of the family rest there. On the chancel floor is a large 
stone slab from which the brasses have been robbed, but the matrix of 
the long foliated arms, and of the inscription round the border of the 
stone are still legible. The church was repaired in the third decade of 
the last century, but as it now is, it is picturesque, having escaped 
modern restoration. Within a radius of two and a half miles are ten 
churches, two in ruins, and the sites cf two ecclesiastical buildings, one 
being the abbey at Hempton by Fakenham on the Wensum, Thus 
Toftrees was within an important ecclesiastical centre. A sketch of the 
west end of Toftrees church nave shews the font as it stood some thirty 
years ago, before it was carefully cleaned of its incrustation of whitewash 
by the late vicar Mr. Barlow ; it is observable the floor of this part of the 
church is lowered from eight inches to a foot by successive modern burials 
therein, which caused displacements of the font and destruction of its 
original base which together with spare debris of various kinds was carried 
out and the floor replaced in economic form, and in one of such burials 
the font seems to have been upset, the lower part of the bowl fractured, 
and other damage done to it ; it was set up again on the floor, but not 
used, for until the late vicar's time a basin only was employed. 

Of the font, its Anglo-Celtic identity is obvious, and the systematic 
way church workmen travelled in co-operation from the earliest times 
makes it probable that other and similar reproductions of Anglo Celtic 
work are still extant in this country. In plan it is a square with a circu- 
lar bowl inside, nearly flat at the bottom ; it stands on five short pillars with 
their respective caps and bases, the centre pillar containing the drain pipe. 
At each angle of the bowl is a three-quarter round pillar with cap and base. 
On each face are square panels ; that to the east has three circles inscribed 
in succession from the centre, interlacing with radial leaves ; on the north 
face are the square and lozenge knots interlaced, boldly relieved. On the 
south is an elaborarate leaf-like pattern — composed of two strands, which 
interlaced with a circle at the centre, and from the vertical and horizontal 
limbs of a Greek cross, and a cross saltaire in intricate interlacements, 
making a rich foliageous pattern, freely executed. On the west is the 
best piece of work in geometric pattern, a circle, of three strands 
and four semi- circles each of three strands are interlaced, successively 
and in detail, the strands or thongs being of equal and regular lengths, 
the ends are twisted round the remaining strands at that part of 
the pattern, and terminate in leafy scrolls forming integral, and graceful 
features in the design, which is rendered with great freedom and 
flexibility of effect. At three of the upper corners of the bowl is a 
lamb's head realistically treated, and at the fourth corner is " the wolf in 
sheep's clothing," an expressively caricatured head. A deep string of 
boldy designed and freely executed, leafy interlacement extends along the 
upper part of the bowl developing from, and emerging into each of the 
heads at the angles, and of different pattern on each face of the bowl. Every 
cap of the columns is varied in design, the Celtic variety predominates 
and blends harmoniously with the recognised Norman details. The 



whole is evidently from the hand of one skilled art workman, who de- 
veloped his power as the work progressed up to the limits of the material, 
and as far as the nature of the tools used would permit. 

Of the tools it is clear the scappling hammer and small axe were the 
chief, perhaps the only ones ; no chisel working is apparent, and such 
tools would cause a stimulus to inventive genius, for a plain surface and 
a straight line is ohviously the more difficult to produce by a monotonous 
slow process, yet the three-fourth round modeling at the base of the bowl 
is exactly true and cleanly cut, showing mechanical skill together with 
artistic excellence in the whole work. 

Extracts from Joseph Anderson^ s ^vorJct " Scotland in Early Christian 
Times: the Art of the Monuments.'^ 

"An extraordinary elaboration and finish of minute details of orna- 
ment ; and a striving after symmetry without mathematical exactitude of 
repetition, is conspicuous in each of the parts of the patterns 
separately, as well as in the composition of the decoration as a whole. 
These also are the prevailing characteristics of the art of the Celtic 
manuscripts and metal work, characteristics which are visible in every 
decorated page, and are so persistent in Celtic decoration of every kind 
that they must be held to be essential qualities of the art. In the 
possession of these qualities, therefore, as well as in the style and 
manner of its composition, the decoration of these monuments is com- 
pletely like that of the Celtic manuscripts and metal work, and totally 
unlike that of all other monuments." 

*'.... Some of the best manuscripts are as early as the close 
of the seventh century, while the best stone and metal work is later, and 
comes close to the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The natural inference 
is, therefore, that the art Avas perfected by the scribes before it was 
adopted generally by the sculptors and jewelers." 

In this connexion it may be well to add the experience of the writer 
in tracing out a pattern or endeavouring to replace missing parts, that is, 
to model or make it in similar material to that suggested on the monu- 
ment, such as cordage or thongs of leather, raw hide preferred, as it is 
readily laid in shape, and dries in permanent form. This process 
especially applies to interlacements, and makes the best model for the 
modern stone carver. 

The date of the Toftrees font is approximated as early Norman 
from its general shape, and the Celtic ornament is an example of early 
transition from the "interlacement" to foliageous Celtic art, admirably 
shown in the west panel of the font. 

Anderson further observes, " Jt was a common form of decorative 
ornament applied to many and various purposes, in different parts of 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, both before and after the time when, in this 
country and in Ireland, it became one of the prevailing and dominant 
characteristics of Celtic art. IJut, while it was thus used by other 
people as an occasional element of decoration, or as a style of ornament 
suitable for special purpose?, it Avas nowhere developed into a systematic 
style of art, applied alike to manuscripts, metal work, and stone work, 
unless in this country and in Ireland. In other words, it never gave a 
distinctive character to any art but Celtic art." 


The wide spread influence of this Celtic feeling in art, is demonstrated 
by the art work of barbaric peoples, such as have probably descended 
from higher forms of civilization, or lost the touch of former civilized 
associations, as was noticed in the gold and metal work, especially of the 
Ashantees, exhibited at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, West 
African section"; and the writer, speaking from a quarter of a century's 
knowledge of these people, and the country, finds the most conclusive 
circumstantial proofs of their former intercourse with the ancient Egypt- 
ians and probably with Carthage. 

In the Gothic architectural ornament the Norman and Early English 
periods are very rich in the Celtic elements of design in its later phases, 
less perceptible through the Decorated period, and scarcely identified (<r 
lost in the Perpendicular, but reappearing in burlesqued profusion in 
the Renaissance of the succeeding period. When men's minds went 
borrowing new ideas, it was not a revival ; hence, not a survival of this 
form of art, but the study of ancient Celtic art is now commending itself 
to decorative artists, and art workmen ; and " the closer the copy the 
better is the result." Jewelers applied to the Commissioner for the West 
African section, at the fo renamed exhibition, to be allowed to copy 
examples of the Ashantee interlaced and spiral gold work. Modern 
monumental sculptors have essayed on a grand scale to reproduce Celtic 
forms of ornament, which, though good in workmanship, signally betray 
a want of knowledge in every detail, and often misconception of the 
design as a whole. Therefore so perfect an example of Celtic art as the 
Toftrees Font may be of practical value, enhanced by being made access- 
ible to a great number of students and workers in Celtic art. At home 
the distance of Scotland or Ireland might be a consideration, besides an 
incentive to antiquaries and archoBologists in seeking for similar examples 
of early ecclesiastical art workmanship that may exist, but hidden, in 
other parts of England. 



I do not think it would be possible to chose a more appropriate place 
in. which to read a paper bearing this title, than the room in which we 
now are, whose owner, though not a professed antiquary, has been to 
extraordinary trouble and expense in collecting here every scrap of 
matter that has been printed or published relating to the county. Never 
since topographers began to collect books relating to the history of any 
one county, has (I venture to think), so complete a local collection been 
got together. After I had bean collecting for some years, in the vanity 
of my heart I thought that my own collection for the county was 
a fairly good one ; but when I saw this library for the first time I was 
fairly ashamed of my own, and I can undertake to say that there is 
hardly a tract, religious or otheiM'ise, bearing, directly or indirectly, 
on this county that cannot be found on these shelves. 

Everything finds a place here, whether the rare and privately printed 
book — the most scurrilous electioneering squib, or the printed brief and 
evidence relating to the most recent city litigation. The value of such a 
(• ijllection to the local antiquary cannot possibly be estimated ; for it 
i i easy enough to find out at all events here what has been published 
relating to any matter or thing belonging to our county. But my 
business here to day is with the documents which we shall not find in 
this library, viz. : the ]\IS. sources for a history of Norfolk. 

The subject of parish Registers is a tender one to approach. We 
Londoners, whose labours are often checkmated for the want of the sight 
of some particular register — whether it is that the parson can't or wont 
search for us — and whose pedigrees have grievous gaps because a former 
careless custodian has lost the only record that would tell us of our folk, 
naturally incline to the opinion that all registers should be sent up to 
London and kept in proper order in a proper fire-proof receptacle, and be 
available in five minutes without fee, instead of having to take a five 
hour journey and pay fees at the end of it. 

Against this view I am often told that the clergy take an intelligent 
interest in the history of their parishes, and that it would be monstrous 
to deprive them of the opportunity they now have of leisurely studying 
their Church Registers. 

' Read at CaiTow Trioi-y, at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, at Norwich, 
August 8th, 1889. 


But I. should like to ask how many of the clergy in this dio:ese do take 
an intelligent interest in this work 1 how many have written a line on 
the history of their parishes 1 Well, I have got the list for Norfolk and 
Norwich written out here and the number is well under a dozen, though 
there are something like 800 incumbents and I don't know how many 

How many of the parish Eegisters of Norfolk have been printed by 
the clergy 1 I will tell you, one, namely that of Elmham, by the Rev. 
A. Legge, and very well indeed has he printed it, with excellent notes 
and admirable indexes, an example many others should follow. ^ The only 
other Norfolk Register printed is that of Bircham Newton, which I 
have just issued. It, the register, was just going the way of most 
registers ; it had gone astray, it was only a poor dirty looking little 
book, though it began in 1562, and was the only record of the place for 
nearly 200 years. It had got mixed up with the private papers of Dr. 
Miles Beevor, one of the well known Norfolk family of that name, who 
•was rector here in 1835. Years and years after it was found by his 
kinsman Sir Hugh Beevor, who not only returned it, but first allowed me 
to have it copied and to print it, so that if it ever got lost again the loss 
■would not so much matter. This I gladly and hastily did, so hastily 
in fact that I forgot to put on the title page the county in which Bircham 
Newton was situated. And so I drew on myself a mildly satirical 
remark from the Athenceum reviewer that I probably never realized the 
possibility that there could be any other county than Norfolk. 

One city parish register [St. George Tombland], is now in the press, 
by Mr. Jay, but the greatest worker at registers is my very good 
correspondent the Rev. F. Procter, of Witton. He has transcribed no 
less than twenty -eight registers relating to the east coast of Norfolk, has 
indexed them, and then (more astonishing and excellent thing of all), 
has freely given them to our local Archasological Society for the use of 
his brother members. 

Let me digress a little from the records to those who have worked at 
them, for there were other good workers before Mr. Procter. As to bye- 
gone workers we have had many and good. 

Three hundred years ago Kemp was working hard in the county taking 
notes of all the heraldic bearings he could find, though (like two or three 
of his successors), he had a fine scorn of all who were not strictly entitled 
to bear arms by having previously paid for them to the College of Arms, 
of which he was so distinguished an ornament and agent, I might almost 
say traveller. Sir Henry Spelman wrote only in a general way ; and the 
first real hard worker I have come across was another Knight, the worthy 
Sir Symonds D'Ewes, who tackled the wills in the Norwich Registry 
and produced a great thick folio vol. of notes from it, all indexed, which 
until quite recently, was the only attempt at a digest of the more import- 
ant wills there. 

But all other workers past and present, must give place to Peter Le 
Neve, who was simply a marvellously industrious and able man ; with him 
there were no half-measures ; he early realized that it was no use doing 
things by halves and whatever he did, he did very thoroughly. 

^ He has since been followed by the Rev. A. Michell who has juat printed tho 
register of Max'sham. 


A native of this county, he worked most at its history, and it is to him 
that Blomefield owed nearly all his material. I have said elsewhere, and 
I adhere to it here, that if everyone had his rights our county history 
would be called Le Neve's and not Blomefield's History of Norfolk, just 
as the Monasticon is really Dodsworth's and not Dugdale's. 

Still one must not deny the just praise due to Blomefield, whose 
industry was very great, whose noble disregard of trouble and expense 
was quite magnificent, and who literally died in harness from a fever he 
caught when coming up to London to see some records. 

But still he was neither as able nor as hard a worker as Le Neve, 
some of whose work I will exhibit presently. 

A mass of work partly by one and partly by the other, was through 
the good offices of Dr. Jessopp, recently secured for our local society, 
and when properly digested and indexed may be of great use to our 
grandchildren. Another portion of the same mass came into my hands 
and is calendared in the descriptive vol. I am now publishing, proofs of 
•which are on the table. ^ Yet another is in the hands of one of the 
leading booksellers of this city, who in a very public spirited way is 
willing to sell it to our local Society for what he gave for it, some £20 
or £30 ; but unhappily, we are ' very poor,' we have only J6300 or £400 
in hand lying idle at the Bank, and the powers that be cannot see their 
way to complete their series, and once more practically bring the three 
lost sheep into one fold. 

Another hard worker was " Honest Tom Martin," who wrote the history 
of Thetford. A mass of church notes, &c., chiefly by him are in the 
Norris collections, now in my library. In one of them are four pages of 
a very amusing diary by Tom Martin, of a short antiquarian tour, 
beginning 29th August, 1756, from Palgrave to Bury, Newmarket, Cam- 
bridge, &c.,e.g., September 12th, " Sunday, din'd at Ixworth Woolpocket, 
and Lay at Stanton Cock that night and ye next. Oh ! how asham'd 
am I of such unaccountable proceedings." — In one of these excursions he 
was accompanied by Mr. Kerrich. 

Then Kirkpatrick (one of whose most valuable MSS. elucidating the 
history of the streets and lanes of this city turned up the other day 
among the Noriis MSS. and is now being printed for our local Society),^ 
Mackerell, and Kerrich (whose grandson, Mr. Hartshorne is here to-day), 
were great collectors, but the greatest of all was Antony Norris whose 
literary executor I am proud to consider myself and whose collections 
were not even known to the most ardent Norfolk collectors till the 
other day. Unluckily he was one of those who spend their lives in 
laborious work and do not publish or print a line and so ail their skilled 
labour is so much waste. 

Some account of them, or rather of such of them as I have been able 
to secure, will be found in the catalogue to which I have before referred. 
He noted the Norwich Wills ; no one ever has noted the wills of any 
county before. Here is an index I have compiled to the surnames in his 
notes and in those of D'Ewes and L'Estrange the very great bulk of 
which being Norris'. This collection by him of Norfolk armories I printed 
a year or two ago. This comph^ted Avork covers a great slice of Eastern 
Norfolk — the Hundred of East and AVest Flegg, Happing, and Tunstead, 

^ It is Biuce isButd privately. ^ Since published. 


and a part of North Erpingham are described most minutely, and never 
in any county history have I seen so much absolutely new matter so care- 
fully worked up. His collections of monumental inscriptions are most 
perfect. By a strange irony of fate his own monument in Barton Turf 
Church is the only monument in the church which is completely covered 
up by the organ ! As compared with Blomefield or rather Parkins 
account of the same Hundreds the bulk of Norris is at least ten times 
as great, and nothing except Carthew's History of Launditch can for a 
moment compare with it. 

Carthew was of a later generation, though older than any present 
worker, and his book — his one child as he rather pathetically describes it 
— is worthy of all praise. He has left no MSS. collections, however, of 
any note, so I need not dwell on him here. 

L'Estrange, whose name is so familiar to many, was in many respects 
a very remarkable man. His industry was prodigious though his means 
and his opportunities were as few as Norris' were great, for Norris was a 
wealthy squire and L'Estrange. a poor clerk. If he had a fault it was 
that he began too many things, and, of course, did not have time to 
finish them, but though I have only some of his MSS. I have eight 
thick folio volumes, of which not the least valuable is the Calendar of 
Norwich Freemen I printed after his death, and his voluminous notes of 
Norwich Wills. 

Until very recently — with a few exceptions like Dr. Bensley and Mr. 
Beloe — both of whom know so much and produce so little, we have been 
very badly off for workers in the county, but since men like our President 
Dr. Jessop have been re-clothing the dry bones of history with flesh, by 
means of brilliant essays, more enthusiasm has been shown. 

We have unearthed men like Mr. Greeny, who has a European 
reputation as an authority on brasses ; Mr. Farrer, whose heraldic 
researches have been so laborious and so useful, Mr. Mark Knights, 
whose speculative history is so plausible and so interesting, Mr. Beecheno, 
Mr. Elwin, whose newly issued Dictionary of Heraldry, is already a 
standard work, and last, though very far from least, our worthy local 
secretary, Mr. Hudson. I don't think I am betraying any confidence 
when I say that six years ago, Mr. Hudson neither knew nor cared 
anything for antiquities. He took his degree per saltum. I never shall 
forget the surprise and delight with which all of us read his paper on the 
Stone Bridge. 

It was so unlike its fellows, so new in its facts and so sparse in its 
quotations from Blomefield that I for one knew we had got a new man, 
who would very soon be at our head. Of his hard work on the early rolls 
and deeds of our city — in the course of which I may say he has discovered 
the only tithing roll in existence — we shall see more when it is printel, 
but I am sure those who are present will agree that if he keeps on as ho 
has begun, we have, in INIr. Hudson, a man of whom the antiquaries of our 
county may justly be proud and whose reputation will out-live those of 
many who have printed more and thought less. 

But I fear I have been very discursive and have been talking more of 
the workers and their collections than the mass of untouched matter 
which really forms material for a history of our County. 

Of tlie parish registers I have spoken before, and even more interesting 
than they are the Subsidy Rolls ; the de Banco Roll ; the Fines ; the 


Inquisitions post-mortcra, are all very interesting to the large class of 
men who are interested in framing the pedigrees of armigerous families, 
and to the smaller class who take a savage pleasure in picking holes in 
other people's pedigrees and detecting fudged work. 

But to the student of history, and the man who honestly wants to 
know who were his forefathers, and does not care a straw whether his 
name was Bugg or Howard (the former being I may say infinitely the 
older surname of the two) the Subsidy Rolls are much more valuable. 

They give us clues to relative sizes and population of towns, the rises 
and falls of commerce in market towns and manufacturing villages — the 
names of the obscure villagers — the nicknames now forgotten or corrup- 
ted and enable us to trace especially in our own county friendly invasions 
of other nations. Except for the Hundred of ]S"ortli Erpingham, some 
collections for the history of which are about to be issued, none of these 
Eolls have ever been printed for our county. 

There is a splendid Roll for the year 1327, which, as I have said 
elsewhere, is a perfect post office directory of the period, containing 
references to 37,000 names, and if there were any public spirit in the 
county it should have been printed long ago. The Yorkshire Association 
has printed its West Riding roll for a later period, so why should not we ? 
Our Flms are practically done. No other County can boast that there 
are complete printed and indexed calendars of its fines from Richard I, 
to Richard III, an elaborate printed analysis of Richard I, and John, and 
indexes nominum to the abohtion of Fines and Reversions of this too, in 
spite of there being vastly more fines for Norfolk, than for any other 

But they should all be gone through for field names, which occur but 
very rarely in Charters of so early a period. 

Scattered all over the county in city safes, in noblemen's muniment 
rooms, and in parish chests are innumerable Charters. They too, should 
be annotated and indexed. No one knows of the interest and value of 
the information they contain. Take for example, two or three charters 
among the Dean and Chapter records, dated from 1257 to 1373, which 
refer to the sweet marsh and the salt marsh, at Rockland. We always 
have believed what geologists have told us — that the river here, in days 
gone by, was an arm of the sea ; but this brings the fact home to us 
very emphatically, and leaves no shadow of a doubt. Then again, 
there is the case of the Monks ot St. Benet, promising a herring rent to 
the Nuns of this very Abbey of Carrow, which, I believe, points to the 
same thing viz., that both rivers were arms of the sea in comparatively 
recent times. 

Talking of St. Benct's, I may also point out, that among the Norris 
collection are views of St. Benet's before the mill was on, of Castle Rising 
with the gatehouse still standing, of stained glass now smashed and 
merchant marks now gone. 

But the object and intent of the few words I have said to-day, is to 
impress on all the necessity of making the vast masses of material 
the existence of which I have pointed out, available for students. 

This can only be done by calendaring and indexing, especially by 

Now, personally, I am an enthusiastic indexer, and really do not know 
any pastime more engrossing, or more amusing. Every one must have 


a hobby, some collect insects and some postage stamps. Both pursuits 
are harmless, but unless a man is a real scientist, it is far better for him 
to spend his time making indexes, which are of use to many, than 
making collections which are of interest only to himself. 

There are many ways of indexing. Tlie old way was to begin by 
making twenty seven divisions on a sheet of paper or in a book, and 
putting the names down in their proper order, which is a very good way if 
you don't mind wasting paper, and (as soon as any one division is full), 
putting the sheet on one side and taking another. The advantage of 
this way is that when you have done your book, you have an alphabetical 
index ready to your hand, and are saved the trouble of sorting out the 
A's, B's, C's, &c. Also you have during the progress of the work an 
Index which you can consult from time to time for what it is worth. 
Yet as a matter of fact I have never been able to satisfy myself whether 
this way is quicker than simply writing out the names one affer the other 
just as they come, as fast as you can, and then cutting them up, sorting 
and pasting them in. Of course anyone whose time is of any value, and 
who can afford it, will nowadays set a type-writer to work to do the 
mechanical work, and sort and paste in himself, and then if of a luxurious 
turn of mind, have the lot uniformly re-typo-written, as in the specimens 
I have here open for inspection. 

You will observe that in having indexes copied I have taken care to 
begin on a fresh page with each letter, so that I can arrange all the A's 
together, all the B's together and so on. These, being kept in a spring 
backed case, can be opened up and any fresh index added. For rapidity 
and convenience of reference this is very convenient. So is the some- 
what barbarous little volume I have here, to form which I have ruthlessly 
mutilated a copy of nearly every book with which I have had to do. All 
their indexes are bound together in one volume, and this too saves an 
immense time usually wasted in taking down book after book. 



In 1878, while excavating the mound for the construction of the 
Albert Dock at North Woolwich on the Thames a boat was found in 
fairly good preservation. Its situation with respect to the soils in which 
it lay and its peculiar shape make it worthy of description In a former 
account, I described the surface of the upper layer of peat, or more 
properly the ancient ground on which trees grew in abundance, as the 
surface of land on which the Romans lived and died ; at this very spot. 

Now, I exhibit a section of the ground shewing that in the peat 
layer a stream (freshwater) had excavated a small channel ; that this stream 
was accustomed to carry boats is evident, because in its own mud and not 
in the peat itself, a boat was found. The surface of the peat was the 
shore of that day, and the existence of the stream must have belonged 
to the later part of the period which was occupied in the accumulation 
of the trees' growth and their debris. Therefore the stream was apparently 
in full run about 1700 years ago. And the boat apparently belongs to 
that age. Since the boat was lost the deposit of tidal mud had almost 
obliterated any sign of the channel. 

The " dug out " or canoe is of oak, in a single piece and free from 
knots. It was carefully worked and no sort of clumsiness can be 
detected in its form. The form is regular and was evidently planned to 
measure. The dimensions I give are probably less than the original 
ones, because they were not taken tintil the boat was nearly dry, and 
considerable shrinkage has since distorted the partially decayed wood, 
the whole being somewhat lessened, and the contraction of the thicker 
masses tearing the thinner parts asunder. All the originally clean lines 
of the carpenter have also suffered considerably. 

The extreme length from bow to bow (for both ends arc, or were, 
exactly alike) was 17 feet, the width outside abeam between 24 and 25 
inches, which was all the same with the exception of the last 12 inches 
of cither end ; these sloped inwards 8 inches, the end being not rounded 
but straight and 8 inches wide. 

The bottom was flat and the sides also, and rectangular. The thinnest 
part of the sides is little more than half an inch above, nearly three 
inches below where it unites with the bottom. The bottom thins to less 
than two inches at the middle. There is a peculiar arrangement at each 
end, perhaps constituting a raised seat. There is no keel, no ribs or 
stretchers at the bottom, and no marks for rowlocks. But no paddles were 
found. The boat is now in the British Museum. 

1 Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, Dec. 6th, 1888. 

Contributed by J. BAIN, F.S.A., Scot, 

I am not aware that any thing of so early a date as the following has 
been printed in any of the books relating to the affairs of the Borders. 
The orders as to watches in Bishop Nicolson's Laws of the Marches and 
Hodgson's Northumberland, are not of earlier date than the reigns of 
Edward VI or Elizabeth. The first of the following documents, though 
without a date, must have been written in the end of N"ovember 1542, 
under these circumstances. The Earl of Hertford, who was Lord Warden 
of the Marches for a short time till relieved by John Dudley Lord Lisle, 
was ordered by Henry VIII to bring back with him a note of the Border 
laws and customs, &c., of which he being a stranger, knew little, and 
therefore wrote to Wriothesley the Secretary of State, doubting if he 
could procure it. 

He had, however, applied for such a thing to Sir William Eure, the 
Captain of Berwick, who on 3rd December, 1542, sent Hertford this very 
document or " book " as he calls it. It is a copy of several earlier orders 
made in the years 1525-6, when Eure himself was Lieutenant of the 
Middle Marches, under Ealph, Earl of Westmoreland the Lord Warden. 
The names of many of the places are far different from those they now 
bear, and a better acquaintance with the district than I possess is requisite 
for their identification. It is written in a good round legal hand, and 
endorsed : " A boke sent by Sir William Eure of the custume of the 

The other document is a list of the watches kept on Tweed in 
Norhamshire, and was evidently made for Hertford's information about 
the same time as the former paper. It is in the handwriting of Brian 
Lay ton, Captaia of Norham Castle, who was killed two years later, at 
Ancrum moor. 

Both of these documents are indorsed by Sir John Thynne. They are 
among his papers at Longleat, and are now printed for the first time by 
the kind permission of his descendant the Marquis of Bath. 

Th'ordour off the Watche to be observed^ kepte, and mainteyned 
in manotje. and forme following. 

The watche "| Fyrst-the larde off Thirwale to kepe from lirthing bryg tyll 
u° on°the fy^ ^^"^^ ^^ Typwall. Tlic larde of Blenkensoppe to kepe from 
Doiighins. J Typwall to Walltowne Crage. 



The barronry off Langloy to kepe fi'oin Knage borneliede to 
the Cairrawe. 

The watch- 1 

mantostond | fhc larde of Walltowne and Nichohis Blenkensopp to kepe 

WalVtTwne ^^^^ WalltoAvnc Crage to Ilaltwissell bornhede. 

Crage. J 

The watch- The townsbipc off Haltwysell and Plenmellour to kepe from 

mantostond Haltwvssell bornhede to the Hare heiigh. 

upon the i 

Caire Crage. / 

The watch- ^ 

mantostond I The Townshipc off Melryg and Hensaugh to kepe from the 

ontheHawe j Hare heiigh to Heleborne hede. 

heugh. J 

The watch- \ 

mantostond I The townshipc off Thorngrafton Myhiohome and Rideley 

upon the V to kepe from the Heleborne hede knage to the Knage 

Kykkyns j bornehede. 

of Bradleis. J 

Two watch- 1 

men, one of 

them to 

stonde upon 

the Kynges V 

hyll, and 


upon Few- 

inglesCrage. j 

Two men toS 

watcheupon I The townshipe off Newburgh with the parishing from 

the Can-awe j Carrawe to the Carraburghe. 

towre hede. J 

Two watch- S 

mentostond I The barrony off Symondeborne to kepe from Carraburghe 

upon the C^^ Tortie. 

Wallwood. J 

Two watch- \ 

mentostond / The townshipe off Haugliton Wallcck and Homeshaulghe to 

at Priest ( j^epe from Tortie to Chollerford myhie. 

Two watch- 
at iSainte 
Two watch- 
fnen to 
stonde at 
Two watch- 
men to 
stonde at 
Two watch- 
men to 
Btonde on 
the Hawle 
Two watch- '\ 

mentostond Xho towneshipe off Newtoun, Newton hall, Weldon and 
Castdl'^'^ Ularlower on the hyll to kepe from Curnaby Crosse to Harlow 
Stedes on on the hyll. 
thcWaUe, ) 

The townshipe off Aycombe and Walle to kepe from Cheller- 
ford Mylne to Saint Oswaldes Kirke, 

The townshipe off Sando, Aynyke, Portyate, and Bcfronl to 
kepe from Saint Oswaldes Kirke to Smyddywcll Crosse. 

The towneshipe off Corbreg to kepe from Smyddywell Crosse 
to Halton parke newke. 

The Lordeshipe off Halton to kepe from Halton parck newke 
to Carnabye Crosse, 


It is further agreed that all thes townshippes that hereafter ensuethe 
shall kepe a watchman in every towne as they shall thyncke by thear 
discressiou, to reyse a blast ofi' an borne when so ever yt shall falle, as 
well upon the days as nyghtes to cum forewarde to maigtayne the fray, 
which way so ever yt goo : — Fyrst, in the township of Knaresdale, Henry 
Walles the pryoress off Lameley tenantes, Syr Edward Musgrav, tenauntes 
of Colyngwood, the larde of Fetherstonehaughe, the lordeship off 
Whytfelld, the lordeshippe off Allwendale in Hexham shire, Hexham 
towne with the lord of Colsey and his tenauntes, Dilstoune township 
Cutbert EadeclyfF, the towneship of Redyng, Bromley, and Bywell, 
the township of Ovington, Ovingham, and Horsley. It ys also 
thought necessary and expedient for thinviolable observacion off the 
premisses, that the Wardane lyvetenauntes or their deputies shall 
every vj wekes kepe a Cowrt by them sellves to see this ordinaunces put 
in full execution, and raise the same fyne of them that shall breake the 
same, under such payne as my lorde off Richmountz grace shall sett upon 
the Wardane lyevetenaunte or their deputies. 

Moreover yt ys agreed by the gentylmen off Northumberlond afore 
my lorde Wardane, that this endentewre and every article off the same 
shall contignew in effect untyll Whytsonday next comyng after the date 
under wrytten. And further yt ys ordaygned by the saide lorde Wardane 
that his cowrt shall be kept at Newburghe and Corbreg within every f ortie 
dales unto the said feast of Whytsontyde for execucion comprised in this 
present indenture. In wytnes wherof as well the saide lorde Wardane as 
the gentylmen being here present have setto their handes. Yoven the 
Monday after Saynt Lucyes day which is the xviij*^ day of Decembre 
anno xvij"''^ Hcnrici Octavi. — [1525.] 

Rawffe Westmerlonde Warden \ Cutbert Eatclyff N 

S'^ Will'm Eure / HcAvghe Rideley ( 

H" Nicholas Rideley t Thomas Eryngton i 

; John Swynborne J 

A watche and ordre devysed by Syr William Euro lyvetenaunt of 
the Myddell Marchies off Englond by thadvyse of dyverse gentyll- 
men of the contre the xx*'^ day of Apryle the xvij^^ yere of Kyn" 
Henry theight. [1526]. 
Fyrste : — a watch to begyn at the Carraw and so to Warckes pyke, from 
Warkes pyke to Warkcs borne mowthe, and so to Prystoppes 
hedde, and so to Fowre lawys and in a bow ray through Arwood 
and to Ealdwell stene at Symondsyde. 

The gentyllmeu that shall kepe this watche — 
S*^ John Heron knyghte Cuthbert Shaftow 

S' Rawfe Fenwyke John Fenwyk of Ryall 

Nycholas Thornton esquycr Georg Fenwyk of Fenwike 

John Fenwyke of Wallyngtpn ISTycoU' off Eryngton of [blank] 
Robert Ramys Robert Eryngton of Wyttyngton 

Robert Aynsley William Swynborn of Capethtou 

Thomas Lawson Rawff Wetheryngton 

John Loren of Kyrkharlle Thomas Eryngton of Fallofeld 

Thomas Fenwyk of Lyttle Harle for Coklaw and Eryngton. 

Also the baylyff of Hexham ys agreed to kepe such lyko order in 
Hexham shire as well watching as folowing as other of the coutro 
do the. 



An ordour taken for watcliis the xiiij day off Decembere the xvij 
yere of the reign of our sovereigne lordo king Henry viij''^, Sir 
William Eure being then lyeutenant of the Myddell Marchies. 

Fyrst : — Secret watches to be leyd by the discression off them that 
shalbc baylyves or kepers of Tyndall — that is to say one upon the west 
syde of the watour off Tyne for in commyng at the Belles and downe 
Shulborne mowre, and an other upon thest syde of Tyne for commyng in 
at Lusborne mowth and downe "Wanehope, and also an other for commyng 
in at the Collercleves and so downe Emlope. Also for Ryddisdale and 
Kowkdale by the discression of them that shalbe kepers of Harbottell, a 
secret watch to be layde at Akynsyd hede for commyng down the wattour 
off Reyd and the Haukeshauke. Also a Avatch at Crokdom pyke for 
commyng in at Camellspeth streate and the hedd of Redles. 

Also a watch at the Wether Law for commyng in at the Howen gate 
and the Slymgate. 

Also a watch upon the Helo ("?) which may kepe the in commyng at 
the Wend goyle and the Kocklaw and the Bownd rode hedde 

Also for the watour of Bremmys and the watour of Aele must be two 
wattches. And thes two watches with the wattches aforesaid may kepe all 
alongst the Borders from the great hyll off Chevoyth to the hedd off the 
watour off Tyne 

(2) Watches in Norhamshire. 
Memorandum : — Watches to be kepyt in the nyght in Norhamshyer 
by my lorde Wardens comandment, as here after foluyth : — 

Inprimis, at Berwyk stremes, - ij men 

Item, at the Nayder belles - ij men 

Item, at the Over belles - ij men 

Item, at Yarfforde - ij men 

Item, at Newwatter - ij men 

Item, at Wylsford - ij men 

Item, at the Darnesford - ij men . Summa 

Item, at Sweffte - ij men ' xxviii men. 

Item, at Damesfordes - ij men 

Item, at Graydensforde - ij men 

Item, at Twysell brege - ij men 

Item, at Fernyhawcsford - ij men 

Item, at Hetonmelnesford - ij men 

Item, at Corssfford - ij men 

Item, day wayche to be sayt in Norhamshyer. 
Fyrst, one Longrege hell 
Item, at Norham 
Item, one Ruffenton 
Item, one Heton Lawe 

Summa iiij men. 

proceetiings at JHectinss of tfje Eopl ^rrfjaDolosical 


February Gth, 1890. 
T. H. Baylis, Esq., Q.O., in the Chair. 

Mr. J. L. Andre read a paper on "Burton Church, Sussex." The 
building has but little to recommend itself from a structural point of 
view, but contains several most interesting features — (1) a rood screen 
and loft ; (2) a wall painting of a female saint crucified head down- 
wards on a cross saltire ; (3) an effigy of a lady 3ft. Gin. in length ; 
and (4) a brass of a Dame Goring clad in a heraldic tabard instead 
of the usual mantle. From this lady were descended the two Grorings 
who played so conspicuous a part in the civil wars of the seventeenth 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Andre, whose paper is printed 
at page 89. 

^nticittitic0 anti Sllorhs of Jlct (Exhtbttcii. 
By the Eev. Dr. Cox. — A vesica-shaped private seal of amber, 
mounted in a j)lain rim of silver, with a suspending loop attached. It 
was found in a stone coffin at Old Malton Priory. The lettering, 
somewhat rude Lombardic, shows it to be of the thirteenth century. 
The emblems engraved on the seal are a fish, a tree, a bird, and a lion. 
The legend runs thus, " Secretum signum fons piscis avis leo lignum." 
The material of the seal makes this example of an ecclesiastical seal 
of peculiar interest, and it is at i^resent believed to be unique. Dr. 
Cox also exhibited various Eomano-British articles of bronze, j)ottery, 
and bone, found in January last in Deepdale Cave, near Buxton, by 
Mr. M. Salt, as well as some relics of earlier inhabitants of this cavern. 

March 6th, 1890. 
Thb Earl Percy, F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. A. Oliver read the following paper on "The Brass of Eoger 
Thornton, in All Saints' Church, Nowcastle-on-Tyne." 

" The brass of Eoger Thornton was originally placed on an altar tomb 
in the Church of All Saints', Newcastle. This church was destroyed 
in the year 1 785. The brass was placed in the porch of the chm-ch when 


it was rebuilt, and it remained there until the year 1851, when it was 
placed in the wall of the vestry, where it is at present. 

" The upper portion of the tomb consisted of a wall finishing in a 
battlement, in front of which was an ogee arch, which terminated in 
a tower instead of a finial. Below the battlement were five niches 
and two figures of angels holding shields of arms. The ogee arch 
was crockoted, and was over the slab on which the brass was laid. 

" Below the brass the front of the tomb was pannelled in five com- 
partments, three of which were foliated arches, with shields of arms 
in the centre of each. The arms of the wife in this case are in the 
centre, and the husband's on either side. 

"Bourne in his 'History of Newcastle '^ gives the following account 
of the position the tomb occupied in the church : — 

"'The chantry of St. Peter is that waste place above the vestry 
opposite the tomb of Eoger Thornton. 

" ' This was founded by the said Eoger de Thornton as appears from 
the license granted to the said Eoger by King Henry IV. It was 
erected about the year 1411 that he might be prayed for while he 
lived, and his soul when he died, by a priest set apart for that purpose, 
together with the souls of his Father, Mother, and Agnes, "^ his wife, 
and also of his ancestors, and his children, and the whole company of 
faithful departed, as is mentioned in the King's grant to him. The 
chantry was of the yearly value of £6. 

"'In the windows towards the porch are some characters, one is 
like an 1 with an S through it, and there are other characters which 
are the iSlerchants' skin marks. It is a token that some Merchant was 
a benefactor to the church. I take it to be the skin mark of Eoger 
Thornton, for the very same is in the chantry of St. Peter over 
against his tomb.' 

" The brass of Eoger Thornton is the only Flemish brass of the fifteenth 
century in this country. The figure of Eoger Thornton is dressed in a 
long gown, which reaches to the feet, with full deep sleeves, buttoned 
at the throat, and a strap, from which a sword is suspended, is buckled 
round the waist. Two dogs arc placed under the feet. The wife's 
figure shows a long sleeveless gown (with a high collar) which covers 
the feet. The sleeves of an underdress, buckled round the waist, may 
be seen at the wrist. On the head is worn a cap with long ends which 
fall below the shoulders, and below the buttoned collar of the gown is 
worn a plaited wimple. The heads of the figures are on cushions 
which are supported by angels. Each of the figures has below the 

• feet seven light arches, each with the figure of a son or daughter xinder. 
The son's dress consists of gown with deep sleeves which reaches below 
the knee. The collar is loose, and a belt is worn round the waist. 

• The daughter's dress is a loose gown with deep sleeves, secured round 
the waist by a belt. The hair is worn in plaits at the sides. A similar 
head-dress may be seen worn by the figure in the Eepresentation of 
the Soul in the super-canopy. Beneath these figures is a running 
pattern similar to that on the outside. Over the principal figures are 
three pointed arches. The centre arch is groined, and instead of 
corbels the arches terminate in small balls. From these arches spring 
canopied compartments in two tiers, the lower centre compartment of 

^ " Histoiy of Newcastle," by Henry '^ She died this year as recorded on the 
Bourne, 1736. brass. 


wbich contains the Eepresentation of the Soul held in a cloth by 
angels, and in the upper compartment the soul is seen placed on the 
lap of the Divine personage ; angels with candles are placed on either 
side. The side compartments are similar in each case. In the lower 
compartment a figure holds a scroll, and angels with candles are on 
either side, and in the upper an angel is placed standing on a pedestal 
and playing a musical instrument, with smaller figures placed below. 
On either side of the principal figure (and also between them) are 
niches containing various Saints with their emblems. On the side next 
to Roger Thornton are the following : An Angel, St. Peter, St. John 
the Evangelist, St. Thomas, St. Matthew, St. Bartholomew, and 
another Saint. On the side next to the wife, an Angel with pot and 
sprinlder — St. Paul, St. James the Grreat, St. James the Less, St. 
Andrew, St. Philip, and St. Matthias. Between the figures and the 
inscription is a row of figures in monks' habits, no doubt having 
reference to Newminster Abbey to which he and his wife were great 
Benefactors. Between the principal figures are the following Saints • 
The Blessed Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, St, Catharine, St. 
Barbara, St. Agnes, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Lawrence. The 
inscription, which wants the usual concluding sentence, is divided by 
small shields bearing the arms singly, at the sides, and quarterl}', at 
the top and bottom of Thornton, and his wife. The Evangelistic 
symbols are at the corners. 

The inscription is as follows : — 

•J< ilM'c jarrt tomicrlla agnrs quoiam uxor rogcri tijonttart que obitt ttt ugclt'a saitrtc 
katcvinc anno Bomini mrcccir proptcirtur Ijtus amrn. 

^ lljic jarrt rojjrrus tiprnton mratu nobt rastrt super tinam qui obiit anno tint 
millrsimo ccrcrrii rt in 'ok janaii, 

"In Dugdale's Monasticon is the following entry, p. 917, vol. 
ii., with reference to benefactors of New Minster : — ' On the Day 
of the Circumcision, as on the brass, died Eoger de Thornton, Burgess 
of Newcastle, and Lord of Witton, wliich same built a wall and gave 
us lead with which is covered the nave of the church. For which 
Roger, his wife and children, we say daily the mass of the Holy 
Virgin and the other mass for the dead, and they lie in the Church of 
All Saints', Newcastle.' 

" On the death of his first wife Roger Thornton married again. 

"In Dugdale, vol. ii, p. 917, it is further stated — 'In the year of 
our Lord, 1440, on the vigil of St. Catharine, died Elizabeth, wife of 
Roger Thornton, who was the daugliter of Lord John Baron do 
Gray stock.' " 

Mr. J. Park Harrison communicated the first part of a paper " On 
Anglo-Norman Ornament compared with Designs in Anglo-Saxon 
Manuscripts." He said that Mr. Thomas Wright, in the first number 
of the Archaological Journal, drew attention to tlie importance of 
studying architectural details in early illuminated manuscripts for tlio 
purpose of identifying Saxon remains. Examples derived from the 
Cottonian MS., Claudius, B. IV., in the British Museum, and 
Cpodmon's "Paraphrase" in the Bodleian Library, both dating from 
about the end of the tenth century, were shown b}'- the above Saxon 
scholar to resemble very closely work in early churches like Deorhurst 
and Stopham. Mr. Harrison had caref ulh' re-examined the above and 
other Saxon manuscripts, illustrated with architectural designs, in the 



two libraries, as well as the admirablo reproductions of pre-Norman 
illuminations and pictures in Prof. AVost wood's groat work, derived 
from sources less accessible. Numerous details were mentioned show- 
ing that there certainly were buildings of a superior type to the 
majority of the churches now styled Saxon. The result, in fact, sup- 
ported the later views of Mr. J. H. Parker regarding Saxon archi- 
tecture, namely, that it was more ornamental and advanced than 
Norman was at the time of the Conquest. The absence of ornament, 
however, which characterized the new work appears to have been for 
many years enforced, though in time the native love of ornament 
reasserted itself, and combining with grander proportions produced 
the style which French archaeologists rightly designate ' ' Anglo- 
Norman." The paper was illustrated by diagrams and numerous 
sketches, showing that English churches in pre-Norman times possessed 
m^iny features which archaeologists in Normandy admit were not 
introduced into the two abbey churches at Caen, or into Normandy 
much before the middle of the twelfth century, and then apparently 
from England. An accurate drawing of a capital in the choir of 
Oxford Cathedral, by Mr. H. Gr. AV. Drink water, was exhibited by 
Mr. Harrison. There were features in it that are met with in 
illuminated manuscripts of the tenth century, and it may, therefore, 
possibly have formed part of Ethelred's church. 

Votes of tlianks were passed to Mr. Oliver, and to Mr. Harrison 
whose paper is printed at page 143. 

.Antiquities nub £,Eoi-Iv0 of Jlrt Qlxhibitcii. 

By Mr. Oliver. — Eubbing of the brass of Eoger Thornton. 

By Mr. Park Harrisox. — Drawings, &c., in illustration of his 

By Earl Percy. — A silver crescent-shaped object, probably of the 
fifteenth century. It was found about a year ago near Newnham 
Station, Northumberland. It was doubtful for what purpose this 
ornament had served, but as the crescent is the Avell-known badge of 
the Perc}' family, it was thought probable it might have been used as 
a badge for some retainer. 


By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th April, at Tangier, where 
he had gone for his health's sake, the familiar form of an old and 
much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry 
Mengden Scarth was born at Staindrop, in Durham, on 11th May, 
1814. In due time he entered at Christ's College, Cambridge, and 
took his B. A. degree in 1837. The same year he was ordained by 
the Bishop of Lichfield to the curacy of Eaton Constantine, Salop, 
from which place he vront to the small neighbouring living of Kenley. 
In 1841, when he had been in orders only four years, he received the 
living of Bathwick, adjoining the city of Bath, and here he spent the 
next thirty years of his life. Some stormy times and uphill work fell 
to his lot, which a quietude, natural and acquired, enabled him to 
meet. Eaton, his first ajopointment, being near the Eonian city of 
Uriconium, his archaeological taste was soon aroused, and hero com- 
menced its development towards this study. Especially, however, 
was he favoured by his new position at Bath; where, as an archcoolo- 
gist he had such good surroundings. During his residence here he 
made Eoman Britain and the city of Bath under the Eomans, his 
special study. In 1871 he gladly welcomed an offer of the Eectory 
of Wrington, Somerset, a place desirable in itself, but where, as a 
rural parish, after so long an experience of town life, he could hope 
to find tranquillity without anxiety, and more time for leisurely study 
and following the now strong bent of his mind. It was a parish also 
pleasing to him as having a fine cliurch with the finest of Somerset 
towers, a parish of some historic interest, and especially associated 
with the names of John Locke and Hannah More, and of more than 
one Eector his predecessors. He became also a Prebendary of Wells 
and a Eural Dean. Mr. Scarth, from his long attention given to 
Eoman England and his constant attendance at Archaeological Meet- 
ings, had acquired a wide reputation extending beyond this country. 
There seemed, however, always with him an apparent feeling of 
caution, so that he could not be moved to action where action was 
desirable ; this prevented him perhaps from leaving any written work 
worthy of his repute. Besides many interesting papers contributed 
from time to time to the Institute and other Archcoological publica- 
tions, his first book issue was " Aqucc Solis," a collection in one 
volume of the finds and drawings already published relating to Bath ; 
and later he wrote "Eoman Britain" for the S.P.C.K., a work which 
received some pointed criticism. Devoted thus to antiquarian 
pursuits, he was a Member and Vice-President of the Bath Anti- 
quarian Field Club and of the Bath Literarj' Club, whose meetings, 
until recently, he constantly attended. He was also active as a Mem- 
ber of the Literary and Scientific Institution, in whoso corridors are 
deposited the Eoman remains he loved to see. Enthusiastic always, 
he quickly remarked any trace of Eoman occupation and as quickly 
brought it to public notice. His interest seemed never to lessen, so 
that while the Institute has lost a most valuable worker, the individual 
members of it will for long miss his very genial presence, his ever 
courteous manner and marked refinement. The body was brought 
home and buried on Monday, the 21i3t April, at Wrington. 

Iloticcs oi JlvfhacologintX |l;iblicatton0. 

A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND. By Richard S. Ferguson, M.A., F.S.A., 
Chancellor of Carlisle : Popular County Histories : Elliot Stock. 1890. 

DIOCESAN HISTORIES— CARLISLE. By Richard S. Ferguson, M,A., F.S.A., 

Chancellor of Carlisle : Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. 1889. 

HISTORIC TOWNS— CARLISLE. By M. Creighton M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. "Dixie 

professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Cambridge : Longman 
Green and Oo. 1889. 

Cumberland must be pronounced sin,2;ularly fortunate among English 
counties in numbering among her home-born sons two men so admirably 
qualified to write her history — whether it be as county or as diocese — 
and that of her chief town, as Professor Creigliton and Mr. Chancellor 
Ferguson. The works of these gentlemen, whose titles stand at the head 
of this notice, are of singular excellence, calculated to popularize the 
history of the county and city of which they treat, and to show its vital 
connection with the history not of England only but of Scotland also, 
and the influence exercised by its people first in the "making of Eng- 
land," and then in the gradual moulding of the country and nation, in 
which the remote and rugged county of Cumberland has played no incon- 
spicuous part. Each of the volumes is one of a series. Chancellor 
Ferguson's new volumes belong respectively to Mr. Elliot Stock's "Popu- 
lar County Histories," and the "Diocesan Histories" of the S.P.C.K., 
while Professor Creighton's work is one of the " Historic Towns " series, 
issued by Messrs. Longman, under the editorship of Professor Freeman 
and the Rev. W. Hunt. Each collection contains Avorks of considerable 
merit which in some cases reaches a very high standard ; but it is not too 
much to say that in historic accuracy and in literary skill the volumes 
now before us have in their respective lines been equalled by few, and sur- 
passed by none of their predecessors. The highest literary excellence 
may be confidently expected from any work f)f that practised historian 
Canon Creighton, while in wide and intimate local knowledge, especially 
of his own county, and in archaeology generally, as the readers of this 
Journal and the members of the Institute are well aware. Chancellor 
Ferguson has few equals. Orderly in arrangement, clear in description, 
grapliic in style, these three works are models of what such local histories 
should be. 'No one can read either of them without pleasure and profit. 

Chancellor Ferguson opens his history of the county with a modest 
repudiation of any attempt to write a history of Cumberland " on the 
old fnshioncd lines or scale." For that, ho says, " the time has gone 
]iasl." All that he claims for his volume is to be "an attempt to 
discharge the functions of the 'general introduction ' to an old fashioned 
county liistory in two or three quarto volumes. " More detailed 
information on particular subjects is to bo sought in the works of 


specialists to which the CJiancellor aifords a needful and most welcome 
guide in the elaborate classified list of books pamphlets and maps 
relating to Cumberland, which precedes the index. This index itself 
extends to fourteen double columned pages. And yet, ample as it is, it 
cannot be pronounced altogether satisfactory. One who wishes to 
consult the work for local details requires something more than a 
reference to the pages where a particular name, local or personal, occurs. 
Few things are more irritating, especially to one pressed for time, 
than such entries as "Appleby, 35, 51, 53, 141, &c.," " Dacre, 
Ann, 167, 168, 173, 178." One has to turn up page after page in search 
of the particular passage sought, a labour which a word or two of ex- 
planation added to the eniries would have obviated. Another and 
still more serious defect in this generally admirable work is the 
absence of a map. It might bo more truly said " of maps," for 
several are needed to ihustrate the different stages of the history of the 
county. This, however, is probably more the fault of the publisher 
than of the author. In the other work from Mr. Ferguson's pen, " The 
Diocesan History of Carlisle," the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge have supplied this necessary adjunct. The map sufficiently 
filled but not over-burdened with names, distinguishes by difference 
of tint, the old diocese, first created, like that of Ely, by Henry I., and 
originally the smallest diocese in England, consisting only of the old 
Earldom of Carlisle, and the portions of Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
and Lancashire, once part of the vast historic Archdeaconry of Kich- 
mond, severed in the sixteenth century from the see of York to form 
a constituent part of Henry VIII. 's new diocese of Chester, and in 1856 
transferred from it to that of Carlisle. From what has been already 
remaiked it will be seen that the earlier history of a portion of the 
diocese of Carlisle, viz., that which lies to the south and to the west, 
is that of the Archdeaconry of Kichmond, and must, therefore, be 
sought in the diocesan annals, first of York, and then of Chester, and 
forms no part of Mr. Ferguson's scheme, though embraced in the an- 
nexed map. Canon Creighton's " History of Carlisle " is also furnished 
with plans of the city as it Avas in the reign of Elizabeth and in 1815, 
which add much to the intelligibility of the narrative. Both these 
histories have copious indexes which are not open to the objections urged 
against that to Mr. Ferguson's county history. 

Wliile Mr. Ferguson's "Diocesan History" regards Carlisle as the 
centre of the religious life of Cumbria, a life having its beginning many 
centuries before the erection of the Norman Bishopric, in the missionary 
work of St. Ninian, St. Patrick (possibly), St. Bridget, St. Bega, St. 
Kenligern (otherwise St. Mungo), and St. Cuthbert (to the last of Avliom 
c. 180. Carlisle and the country round it and Cartmel, weregiven byEgfrid). 
Professor Creighton's history, as he tells us, "treats of it not merely 
as a town but as a centre of provincial life." This mode of treatment, 
he remarks, is directly suggested by the subject. "Kound Carlisle the 
history of the Borders centres, and apart from its relations to the general 
condition of the Borders the civic history of Carlisle would lose its 
distinctive character." The plan thus stated by Professor Creighton 
is fully justified by its execution. "Border Life" and "Border Warfare " 
furnish the subjects of two of his most attractive chapters. These are 
illustrated copiously, but not too largely, from the rich stores of the 


Border Minstrelsy, ''more Scotch," he truly remarks, "than English," 
from which the rude and savage life of the district, relieved by the 
warmer and kindlier feelings of which human nature is never entirely 
destitute, receives such vivid illustration. The clan system of the 
Borderers, their family feuds, their natural independence of ordinary 
land tenures, their life of rapine varied by outbursts of savage warfare ; 
the thatched clay beehive-huts of the peasants, the peels of the land- 
holders, the baronial castles of the heads of great families and the 
chieftains of clans along the Border line, among which Naworth stands 
pre-eminent ; the powers and governmental system of the " Wardens of 
the Marches " under which some degree of order and respect for law 
was maintained, and some attempts at redressing wrongs were systemati- 
cally made- -all receive full and picturesque treatment. He thus sums 
up this part of his subject : — 

The crimes and wrongs there committed were not like those which were com- 
mitted elsewhere. They were the results of an exceptional condition of society 
which had created manners and customs of its own. The deeds of the Borderers 
might be contrary to the laws of more settled society, but they were in accordance 
with the actual facts of their own lives. The habits of war had been of such long 
standing that they had formed a second nature, and peace only meant to the Borderer 
a time in which personal dexterity was substituted for the more highly organized 
brutality of military exjjeditions. 

Each of the three volumes before us devotes a considerable space to the 
early character and condition of the district and its inhabitants. Inte- 
resting as Chancellor Ferguson's treatment of this period is, and full as 
this portion of his Avork is of that historical and archaeological knowledge 
of the district of Avhich he is the practical embodiment, it is rather 
out of proportion with the rest, and necessitates a more cursory treat- 
ment of some of the later parts of the history. But in books dealing 
with the district through which the Roman conquerors of the island drove 
their stupendous lines of defence, the scanty remains of which it is 
impossible to look on without wonder and something approaching to awe, 
-t is only to be expected that the traces of the Roman occupation should 
take a leading place. It cannot fail to increase the interest with 
which the Castle of Carlisle is viewed to know that, in Canon Creigli- 
ton's words, it was the noble, pure-minded Agricola who, " with the 
eye of a general and the capacity of a statesman," first saAV the capa- 
bilities of the rocks towering over the Eden, and " turned the hill, with 
its British huts, into a Roman town, and stamped upon that town its 
historical character." The " Roman Conquest," the " Roman Roads," the 
" Roman Forts and Towns," elaborately and learnedly described by 
Chancellor Ferguson, lead up to the great historic feature of ^Northern 
England, the gigantic " Barrier of Hadrian," that " mighty builder " who 
has everywhere left his mark upon the provinces, most of which he per- 
sonally visited. His practised eye discerning the difficulty with which 
the frontier at this point could be secured, he ordered the erection of a stone 
wall to connect the isolated forts of Agricola Avith one another, and to 
constitute an impassable barrier against the northern barbarians. Space 
forbids our entering upon the fascinating subject of the Roman Wall. 
And it is the less necessary as so many of the readers of the Journal have 
more than once enjoyed the privilege of accomi)anyingthe veteran historian 
of the great Rampart, Dr. Collingwood Ihuce (a name never to bcmentioned 
without affectionate respect) in the visits of the Institute to its best pre- 


served and most interestiug portions. To those who have not been tlius 
favoured Chancellor Ferguson's pages furnish a clear, concise, and intelli- 
gible description of the stupendous barrier, and the huge earthen vallum 
which accompanies it on the south side all through its length. The 
respective dates of the wall and the vallum, as our readers are probably- 
aware, have been a battlefield for antiquaries for many generations 
nor is the controversy yet decided. Mr. Ferguson with Dr. Collingwood 
Bruce holds what is known as the " iElian theory," viz., that both are 
parts of one design and are both to be ascribed to Hadrian. For the 
arguments by which he supports — and we think successfully supports — 
this view we must refer to his own pages. Canon Creighton wisely 
leaves the " moot points " as to the dates of the various works which 
formed the barrier untouched. He says " it is enough to gain a 
general conception of this mighty series of military outposts and their 
effect on the character of the district through which they ran." We 
unwillingly close this all too brief reference to this most impressive 
memorial of Roman rule by a quotation from Professor Creighton 
relating to the famous rockhewn inscription on the banks of the Gelt, 
which proves that though doubtless the Britons had to take their share 
in the work by forced labour, the wall was mainly erected by the Roman 
legionaries themselves. 

A few miles from Carlisle by the little stream of the Gelt, a tributary of the Eden, 
is inscribed on the face of the arch overhanging the water a legend which tells how 
a vexillation of the second legion under an optio Agricola hewed stones in the consul- 
ship of Flavins Aper, and Albinus Maximus (207 A.D.) Sharp and impressive stand 
out thsse bold letters the work of some Roman soldier in his hours of idleness, a 
memorial of a far off episode in the history of our land. No woader that Tennyson 
regards them as a model of all other inscriptions. 

In letters like to those the vexillary 

Hath left crag carven o'er the streaming Gelt. 

We pass now to the chequered history of the formation of the county 
of Cumberland, as described in these volumes. Originally a portion of 
the British or Welsh kingdom of Strathclyde, reaching from the Clyde 
to the Dee, after the capture of Chester by Ethelfrith, king of North- 
umbria, in 607, Cumbria was reduced to some sort of tributary- 
position, and in the reign of Edwin, king of Northumbria, was some- 
times included within the boundaries of his kingdom, by settlers from 
which, entering by the great Roman roads and planting themselves on 
the right and left (their settlement, the Chancellor tells us, " being 
known by the termination 'ton'") the district was very extensively 
colonised. The mountains were left to the old inhabitants, the Britons. 
Thus colonised, Cumbria was partially absorbed in the Northumbrian 
kingdom by Egfrid, 670-685, who " made Carlisle and the district round 
it English ground, though not part of the kingdom of England, and, as we 
have seen, bestowed a portion of on St. Cuthbert." The disastrous over- 
throw of Egfrid on the field of Nectansmcre in 685, of which, we are 
told, St. Cuthbert, then for the first time visiting his new possessions, 
had a miraculous intimation as he stood by the Roman well in the market 
place of Carlisle, crushed the Northumbrian supremacy. Carlisle, 
however, and the district round still remained tributary to its rule, the 
weakness of which left the inhabitants pretty much to themselves for a 
century or so, "during which," writes Mr, Ferguson, " their county was 


the scene of much confused fighting, in which English, Scotch, Norsemen, 
and Danes all took part." The final issue of this period of anarchy was 
the creation of the kingdom of Cumbria "by the union of Strathclyde, 
Galloway, and the land of Carlisle " under one " Gregorius Magnus," 
King or Regent of Scotland., {i.e., of the Scots or Picts,") contemptuously 
reduced by Mr. Burton in his history of Scotland to a semi-mythical 
" Grig." Early in the tenth century the kingdom of Cumbria voluntarily 
" laid itself at the feet " of Alfred's martial son, Edward the Elder, who, 
in conjunction with his heroic sister Ethelfleda, " Lady of the Mercians," 
had successfully carried his reduction of the Danesleagh to the very limits 
of the district in 92.5, choosing him, as the Britons of North Wales had 
done before, to be their " Father and Overlord." This surrender is the 
celebrated "commendation to England of Scotland and Strathclyde," which, 
though scouted as fabulous by Mr. Burton, ami, as Mr. Ferguson says, 
" at the time practically valueless," was the basis on which three-and-a- 
half centuries later Edward the First rested his claims as overlord of Scot- 
land. Within a few years of the " commendation " its terms were put 
in force by King Edmund " the Magnificent," who, on the revolt of King 
Dunmail, by the advice of St. Dunstan, transferred his kingdom on tenure 
of military service to Malcolm I., King of Scots, "as a feudal benefice in 
the strictest sense." Thus, in Mr. Ferguson's weighty words, " Cumbria 
became a fief of the Crown of England, but not a fief held witlnn the king- 
dom of England. Cumbria was not an integral part of England, it was 
ioithout that Kingdom, and had always been so.^' 

The period of the Norman Conquest saw '• the land of Carlisle " for 
the first time made an integral part of the English kingdom. The 
Conqueror's son, William Eufus, in 1092 marched to Carlisle, drove out 
Dolfin, son of Earl Gospatric, built the castle, strengthened the frontier 
with a line of forts, and colonized the city, which according to Florence 
of Worcester had been laid in ruins by the Danes and had remained 
uninhabited, with " a great number of churlish folk with their wives and 
cattle that they might settle there and till the land " (Sax. Chronicle ) 
This work of Rufus " in no sense a weak ruler, nor destitute of purpose 
in what he did" shews as Canon Crcighton says "that he meant to be 
king of England with a definiteness which none of his predecessors had 
dared to claim. He marked out the Welsh border, he marked out the 
Scottish border as well. Hitherto Caerwel had wavered between 
divers masters. He would have it waver no more but claimed it 
decidedly as English ground." He was distinctly the refounder of 
Carlisle which henceforth was to rank as an English city and to " enter 
its historical position as the Border fortress of the English kingdom." 
But there was no breach of continuity in its history. " Low as the old 
town had fallen it had not altogether disappeared." The old British 
name — Caer Lywelydd — which in varied forms Luguvalio, Lugubalia, 
Caerluel, &c., it had borne through Roman and English occupation still 
survived ; an evidence that the old town had not been entirely deserted, 
but still remained as that to which " the scanty population of the 
districts in some way looked up as the centre of their common life," and 
under this name slightly modified as Caerluel, Carliel, Carliol, and 
ultimately Carlisle it began its new life as an English stronghold and 
city " after the model of other civic communities as they were in the 
days of the Norman kings." " Tlius " in Mr. Ferguson's words "the 


present boundaries between England and Scotland were established, and 
the land of Carlisle became for the first time part of the English 
kingdom, and England became geographically what it is now." 

The first act of William Rufus continues Mr. Ferguson and of his advisers^ after 
adding the laud of Carlisle to the English kingdom was to make the new accession of 
territory available for the defence of the realm. The ' turris fortissima ' he caused to 
be built at Carlisle, commanded the passage of the Eden and one of the two only 
roads, both old Roman roads, by which wheeled carriages could enter this district 
from Scotland, while the Castle of Bew astle built on and out of the ruins of the 
Roman station there stopped the other road, viz., the Maiden Way. 

Canon Creighton reminds his readers that Eufus' stronghold "whose 
keep towered above the houses which clustered round it as a menace to 
the rebellious and as an earnest of protection to the well disposed " was 
not in the strict sense a castle at all — 

But only a tower strong in its position and by the solidity of its walls, facing 
northwards, and designed as an advanced post to keep watch and ward over the 
Scots. There was no thought of a walled town elaborately guarded by a castle, 
for indeed there was no town to defend. The fortress extended its dimensions 
The ground behind it, on the slope of the hill, was enclosed with a curtain wall, 
adding greatly to its strength, and with its battlements and galleries enabling a small 
force to hold it against a considerable army of assailants. 

To complete its defensive character as emphatically a " Border City " 
designed to resist the attacks of its northern neighloours, and to guard 
the frontier against devastating inroads, Henry I. " organised it for mili- 
tary defence in the same way as the Border lands of Wales by setting 
over it an earl, who within his district was entrusted with all the rights 
of the Crown as regards land-tenure and jurisdiction." The first holder 
of this office was Ranulf le Meschyn, i.e., " the younger," the nephew of 
Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, and the third husband of the great Lincoln- 
shire heiress, the much-married Lucy, daughter of the sheriff, Thorold, 
and the wife first of Ivo Taillebois, and then of Roger de Romara, 
and finally of Ranulf. The Earldom did not last long. The scheme 
for defending the frontiers by means of great earls enjoying Jura regalia, 
proved " a very bad policy for the Crown, because these same great earls 
were hard to control." So on the death of his ill-fated nephew, Richard, 
Earl of Chester, who perished with Prince William and the flower of 
the English nobility in the " White Ship," Ranulf, in Canon Creigh- 
ton's words, "gladly exchanging his poor Earldom of Carlisle for the 
richer prize of the great Earldom of Chester," no new earl was sent to 
succeed him. The lands of the earldom were torn asunder. The barony 
of Appleby was taken from it and added to the barony of Kendal, and 
formed into the new county of Westmoreland, while what was left of 
the old earldom, with the addition of the piece of the ancient Yorkshire 
between the Derwent and the Duddon, and the parish of Alston (which, 
as Mr. Ferguson remarks, being separated from the rest of the county by 
a col whose summit is 1,900 feet above the sea — by all the laws of 
geography belongs to the county of Northumberland and actually did 
belong to the diocese of Durham, and now belongs to that of Newcastle) 
was constituted the county of Cumberland, under which designation it 
first appears in the Pipe Roll of 1177, A.D. This new county Avas 
portioned out into eight baronies, to collect the king's dues and guard 
the king's rights. To these baronies Mr. Ferguson devotes an interesting 



chapter, carefully tracing their descents through the mazes of genealogy 
and avoiding the pit-falls which lie in wait for the half-instructed, which 
■well deserves the attention of the student of family history. Among 
these the great " martial house of Dacre " stands out the most prominent, 
" so far back as ever they can be traced avToxOoves, De Dacres of 
I Pacre ' — ever fierce, rough, and ready " — inseparably connected in 
history and legend, with memories of Flodden, of Border warfare and 
Border raids, whose banner was ever a terror to the Scotch, and a rally- 
in" point for the English Border-men. Among these Lords of the Border 
on^ of the best known is the celebrated " Belted Will," a picturesque 
title, which appears to owe its origin to Sir Walter Scott, the great 
Lord William Howard of Naworth, around whose name have grown so 
many wild and picturesque legends of his sharp and summary severity, 
which it has been the ungrateful task of the late Mr. Ornsby to dispel 
under the cold clear light of historical research. The " Boy of Egre- 
mond " also appears here, Fitz Duncan's only son, to whose sad fate, 
celebrated by Wordsworth and other poetic pens, Bolton Abbey by the 
Wharfe owes its foundation. 

The Earldom of Carlisle reappears again when the feeble rule of Stephen 
threw the whole kingdom into disorganization. Canon Creighton writes : — 

The Scottish Iving David, had seen with alarm the spread of Henry's organization 
on the borderland, and he was glad to lend his help towards plunging England into 
confusion. Taking up arms in behalf of his niece, Matilda, he forced his troops into 
Nothern England, which was left unprotected. Carlisle at once fell before him, and 
Stephen made peace with Scotland on condition that he conferred on Henry, the son 
of the Scottish King, the Earldom of Carlisle, which so went back again into the 
same condition from which William Rufus had rescued it. For some years Carlisle 
was a Scottish town. 

At Carlisle, David held his court and here he died in 1153, being 
succeeded by his young grandson Malcolm, who very speedily was com- 
pelled by the stronger will of Stephen's successor to surrender the domain 
which had been rent from the English crown, receiving in exchange 
the Earldom of Huntingdon. 

This recovery of Carlisle from the Scottish King, continues Canon Creighton, marks 
a decisive start in the history of the city. David had occupied Carlisle in Matilda's 
name and Matilda's son when he had won the English crown, reclaimed its heritage. 
He would not have it said that any personal motive of gratitude had led him to 
barter away the right of his possessions. He maintained that the ancient boundaries 
of England must remain as they had been fixed before his time. Carlisle was a 
border city, but it must be the fortress of the English border. Henry II. made that 
fact clear beyond dispute, and though the Scottish Kings tried to assert their claims, 
they had no chance thenceforth of maintaining them . They were powerful enough 
at times to ravage the lands of Carlisle, or even to occupy the city, but they had no 
hopes of winning it back to form a portion of Scottish territory. 

The Scottish wars above referred to and the Border warfare which 
dragged on its disastrous career quite to the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, in the so called " Debateablo Land," a district fertile in song and 
ballad by which, " clothing this stern narrative of a savage past with 
poetic pathos," its name and fame chiefly survive among us, but still 
more fertile in slaughter and rapine, desolation and misery, arc the 
subjects of chapters full of stirring incidents both in Mr. Ferguson's and 
Canon Creighton's volumes. They shew us that in Canon Creighton's 
words " Carlisle cannot have been an attractive place to live in " 
continually beleaguered as it was by Scottish armies, now by that of the 
Earl of Buchan who " finding the place too strong for him," writes Mr. 


Ferguson, " and the citizens too determined, tlie very women mounting 
the walls to throw stones and boiling water upon the assailants, raided 
through the district, sparing neither man, woman, nor child," — now 
summoned to surrender by Wallace and meeting his summons with a 
bold ** come and take it if you can," — now sustaining a ten days' siege 
from Robert Bruce who was beaten off by the prowess of the gallant 
commander of the castle Sir Andrew de Harcla, who, though " to this 
day it is an article of faith in Westmorland that Sir Andrew died an 
innocent man " was in a few years apprehended on suspicion of treason 
in the very castle he had so nobly defended, and suffered the death 
of a traitor. The fourteenth century is described by Mr. Ferguson " the 
most miserable the citizens of Carlisle and the men of Cumberland ever 
had to endure." Perpetually devastated by the ravages of the Scotch, 
the country folk were almost reduced to starvation. The clergy all 
fled. Pestilence followed in the train of hunger and misery, the " Black 
Death " stalked through the land and enforced a temporary truce by 
the utter exhaustion of both sides. 

This lengthened period of warfare converted every man into a soldier. 
" Even the Bishops of Carlisle became military personages." Bishop. 
Halton planned, if he did not carry, out the transformation of his manor 
liouse of " the Rose " into a castle, on the concentric Edwardian plan, 
in which in 1300 he entertained Edward I. and his Queen Margaret. A 
few years later the bishop was himself a fu<.;itive, taking up his abode, far 
enough away from his diocese, at Horncastle in Lincolnshire, the benefice 
of which, on the plea of excessive poverty, the Pope had in 1318 
appropriated to the See. It is only within the last twenty years 
that this strange historic link has been broken by a triple exchange 
between the Bishops of Carlisle and Lincoln, and Queen's College, Oxford, 
by which the last named body transferred the patronage of Burgh-on-the 
Sands to the Bishop of Carlisle who made over that of Horncastle to his 
brother of Lincoln, Queen's College receiving one of that bishop's livings 
in compensation. Bishop Halton was succeeded by John de Ross who in 
1332 made way for John de Kirkby. This last completed the con- 
version of Rose into a fortress which had been already planned by 
Halton. He is an example of a fighting prelate characteristic of the 
times who proved himself one of the most vigorous defenders of 
the Border. In 1345, writes Canon Creighton, "he pursued a band 
of marauders and though his forces were but small he hung upon 
their rear and annoyed them until on their retreat he venturedon an 
encounter. Though unhorsed in the fray he managed to recover his 
saddle and rally his men so that the Scots retreated with considerable 
loss." It is not surprising, that at such a time of distress, with a 
bishop more often in the saddle than on his episcopal throne, the 
restoration of the Cathedral choir, which had been devastated by fire, 
hung long on hand, to rise from its ruins eventually in all the beauty 
of the complete Gothic of the Decorated period, and to receive the 
crowning glory of its east window at the hands of Bishop Kirkby, 
c. 1360. 

This was the epoch of the erection of peel towers which, though 
often hidden among the later buildings which cluster round them, form 
the kernel of almost every country house of any importance or ago 
in the district. These are well described by Canon Creighton. 


All along the Borders the dwellers had to be prepared for the sudden inroad of a 
marauding foray, which swept away their cattle, and all else that they possessed. To 
provide against this constant source of danger the better class of Borderers built 
themselves solid square towers of stone, which reproduced on a small scale the keep 
of a Norman castle, surrounded by a certain wall of wooden palisade and being what 
was known as the barmkyn. Strongly built they could stand a siege even of some 
days. Generally of three stories, they were accessible only by a ladder which led to 
a wooden platform in front of the door, on the first storey. It was the woi-k of a few 
moments to flee into the tower, draw uj) the platform and the ladder, and secure the 
door. The ground floor room was vaulted with stone and if the assailants managed 
to make a breach and take possession of it, they still had to fight their way upwards 
before they could capture the garrison who could retreat if need were, to the roof. 

" Itis true," remarks Mr. Ferguson, "the inmates might be starved out, but 
for that the raiders had no time," one tower also was generally in view of 
another, the beacon fires were kindled and sped, and help was along its 
line soon forthcoming from Carlisle or Naworth, unless those 
places were themselves beset. In many Cumberland villages the church 
towers were virtually peels and the refuge of the parishioners in time of 

After more than two centuries of butchery and violence a treaty of 
peace was signed between England and Scotland in 1551^ and both parties 
set to work to bring about the pacification of the Borders. The " Debate- 
able Land," that fertile source of difference which had been a shelter 
to rebels, traitors, outlaws, and ' border-men ' of all sorts, were divided by 
a joint committee, and an earthen mound and ditch was made to mark the 
frontier line between the two kingdoms. A regular guard was established 
to keep watch by night and day, and to give signal of danger by horns or 
beacon fires. Needless fords were done away with. The arable and 
pasture lands of the townships were enclosed with stout quickset hedges, 
for which young thorns were furnished in large numbers, as an effectual 
safeguard against marauders. " Even Will o' Deloraine himself," says 
Mr. Ferguson, " could not drive a fat bullock through or over a good 
quickset hedge of thorns." 

The quiet and order thus partially restored was confirmed by Elizabeth's 
wise policy ; Carlisle was " once more set in its proper place as an English 
town, and delivered from the anomalous condition of being mainly a 
military centre." There were occasional outbreaks, but the Queen regarded 
such frays as matters of international concern, and insisted on their being 
put down. Her peremptory orders were obeyed, and for the last 
quarter of the sixteenth century peace on the border was only disturbed 
by the well-known picturesque episode of the illegal incarceration in 
Carlisle Castle of " Kinmount Willie" — or Willie Armstrong — and his 
daring rescue by Sir Walter Scott, laird of Euccleuch, so celebrated 
in Border minstrelsy, and so vividly told by Professor Creighton. 

'Twas horse and away with bold Buccleuch, 
As he rode in the van of his border crew ; 

"You may tell your Virgin Queen," he cried, 
" That Scotland's rights were never defied." 

Wi' the stroke of a sword, instead of a file. 
He ransomed Willie in auld Carlisle, 

With this picturesque episode our notice of these interesting volumes 
must come to a close. The reception and residence of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, who here probably, as Canon Creighton remarks, •' spent the 
happiest days she was to enjoy," — " The Troubles, the Restoration, and 


the Eevolution," tlie appetising title of one of Mr. Ferguson's closing 
chapters, — "The '15 and the '45," Avhich is the head of another, the 
barbarous executions of the Young Pretender's followers by a govern- 
ment " determined to enact a fearful vengeance and leave behind a 
terrible warning " — the " modern growth," by which the " dirty and 
dispirited town of 2,500 inhabitants which existed in 1747 has passed 
into the neat and prosperous town of to-day," with its population of more 
than 35,000, with the numerous other matters included in these 
closing pages, must be read in the authors' own words, always clear, 
always instructive, and sometimes rising to something almost akin to 
eloquence. This article can have no fitter conclusion than the 
paragra,ph with which Canon Creighton ends up the history of his 
native city. 

The tract of country over which the eye gazes from the ramparts of Carlisle Castle 
is rich in memories of the past, and tells as no other landscape tells, of that phase in 
our national history which these pages have endeavoured to recall. The title of the 
" Border City," has little meaning at the present day; but the view from the walls 
of Carlisle Castle can teach a stranger to understand how profound are the feelings 
which it awakens among a folk tenacious above all other of old memories, because 
they are proud of the strong sense of personal independenc which has its roots iu an 
historic past. 

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE LIBRARY being a classified collection of the 
chief contents of the Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 to 1868. Biblio- 
graphical Notes, edited by A. C. Bickley, General Editor, George Lawrence 
Gomme, F.S.A. London : EUiott Stock, 1889. 

The advantage of having the valuable contents of the old "Gentleman's 
Magazine," for a period approaching a century and a half, classified is not 
easily over-estimated. The present volume is divided into two sections, 
and is full of interest from cover to cover. The first section contains 
" Notes on Special Books " and the second, " Notes on Special Subjects," 

Under the first section many rare and curious books are brought under 
notice, some of them unique. The first, and most remarkable, are some 
very rare Caxtons which are carefully and very fully described by that 
famous and enthusiastic bibliographer, the late Rev. T. F. Dibdin, the 
author of many bibliographical works, and the founder of the Roxburgh 
Club. There are also other interesting notes on many early printed books, 
among which, not the least interesting are the nobcs with illustrative 
extracts " on Old English Poetical Facetise." 

Passing to the second section, the first subject treated of is " Almanacs" 
their origin, etymology, and early date. The first printed is generally 
admitted to be that of John Muller, of Monteregio, who was bettev 
known as Regiomontanus, published at Nurcmburg, in 1472. He not 
only gave the characters for each year, and of the months, but foretold 
the eclipses, &c., for thirty years in advance. It is stated that " there 
are various manuscript almanacs of the fourteenth century in the libraries 
of the British Museum, and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; Mr. 
Jackson of Exeter, also mentions one in his possession made in the reign 
of Edw. III., of parchment, being about 140 years prior to MuUer's, not 
in the usual form of a sheet or a book but in separate pieces, folded in 
the shape of a flat stick or lath, in the Saxon fashion." 

Though some of the earliest English Almanacs were printed in Holland 
the firi^t recorded account we have of almanacs printed in this country 


appears to be about the time of King Henry VII ; that the earliest 
known specimen was from the press of Wynkyn de AYorde in 1508, and 
from this time they have been continually increasing in number. At an 
early date they were distinguished for the mixture of truth and falsehood 
they contained, and even now those which have the largest circulation 
are characterised by the same qualities. Dr. Moore, according to his own 
account, by his predictions and hieroglyphics amused and alarmed the 
world for 140 years. An anecdote is related of a visit paid by this 
famous almanac maker to Lilly his rival, to endeavour to get at the secret 
of his calculations, when Lilly bluntly exclaimed "I see tvhat you are 
driving at Dr. Moore, you wish to know my system, I tell you what it is, 
I take your almanac and for every day that you predict one thing, I 
predict the reverse, and, he continued, I am quite as often right as you." 
Mr. Henry Andrews of Royston was for many years the maker of this 
popular almanac for which he received from the Stationery Office £25 a 
year. Since the reduction of the Stamp duty its sale has materially 
increased, and last year (this was written in 1H39) it is stated, to have 
amounted to the vast number of 521,000 copies, and it is noted that of 
the famous Murphy almanac, of which 75,000 were printed, 70,000 were 
sold. It appears from a Parliamentary return of 1828 that the Stamp 
duty paid upon the almanacs of England amounted to £30,136 3s. 9d., 
which, the duty being Is. 3d. each, would show an annual circulation at 
that date of 451,593 copies annually. Many special almanacs are 
described, and much curious information is given concerning them, but 
our space will not admit of our entering more fully upon this subject. 

The next special subject treated of is " Newspapers " their origin and 
definition. This will be read with singular interest. Newspapers are 
known to have existed as early as the reign of Henry VIII, for that 
monarch issued a proclamation prohibiting them, and ordering those 
printed to be brought in and burned within twenty four hours after 
the issue of the proclamation under pain of imprisonment, and the 
authors to be further punished at the King's pleasure. This proclamation 
would seem to have been effective, for we hear no more of newspapers 
for a century or upwards. The real origin of newspapers took place 
under the Long Parliament, who originally appear to have used them to 
make their proceedings known. They were generally called "Mercuries." 
The notes on this subject afford much most curious knowledge respecting 
the origin, growth, and circulation of these periodicals. There is a list of 
London Journals in 1833 and 1835, giving the circulation of each paper 
between those dates, distinguishing the issue of each half year from the 
former period. At the head of the list stands the Thnes, with an issue 
within the first period 1,779,494 copies, followed by the Morning Herald 
with 1,206,500. 

The origin, antiquity, and first use of Cards next claims attention. It 
is shewn that playing cards were first invented about the year 1390, for 
the amusement of Charles VI, King of France, who had fallen into a 
state of melancholical depression, and it is stated that the inventor pro- 
posed by the suits or colours to represent the four states or classes of men 
in the French Kingdom. Various other classes of cards are described 
with regard to which we must refer to the volume, especially to the 
Terocchi cards of which a very full description is given. 

To this follows remarks on the works of special Authors. For example 


those of Thomas Lodge's numerous works on the drama, &c., those of 
Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Kenelm Digby, Garrick and others. This is succeeded 
by works on various special subjects, such as Arcliery, Gardeners, 
Calendars, Grammar, &c., and fragments of Literature which are most 
curious and amusing. 

Scheme foe Proposed Excavations at Chester. — Some repairs 
lately executed in the North Wall of Chester resulted in the discovery 
of Boman inscriptions and sculptures, and a further exploration 
started by the Chester Archoeological Society produced more inscrip- 
tions and sculptures. It is now proposed, as the Corporation has 
given leave, to set on foot further explorations on the same spot. The 
former discoveries have excited great interest both in England and on 
the Continent, and Professor Mommsen, of Berlin, has written to 
Mr. Haverfield strongly urging further search. 

Of all the historic sites in England, none are so likely to aid our 
knowledge of Roman liistory as the Pomau military centres, and it is 
well known that Deva was garrisoned by the Twentieth Legion from 
the earliest times almost until the end of the Eoman occupation of 
our island. 

The area of the search will be the Dean's Field and the North 
Wall adjoining the portions examined previouslj'. AllPoman inscrip- 
tions and scidptiu-es found will be deposited in the Grosvenor Museum 
with those found in the previous exploration of the North Wall. 

The scheme is got up by Prof. Pelham, E.S. A., and Mr. F.Havorfield. 
They are supported by the Duke of Westminster, Dr. Evans, the 
Bishop of Oxford, the Bishop of Chester, the Bishop of Salisbury, 
Mr. C. Poach Smith, the Eev. J. Collingwood Bruce, Dr. Hodgkin, and 
others, and by the Chester Archajological Society, in conjunction with 
which the excavations will be carried out. Subscriptions may be sent 
to Prof. Pelham, Exeter College, Oxford, or to Mr. Haverfield, Lancing 
College, Shoreham, Sussex. 

Discovery of a Brass at Gedney, Lincolnshire. — We are indebted to 
the obliging co-operation of tbe Rev. C. G, R Birch for the following 
particulars concerning an inteiesting brass, which has just come to light 
at Gedney, Lincolnshire, during some repairs which are in progress in the 
south aisle of that church. On the removal of a pew near the east 
end of that aisle on June 1 7th, a large slab was discovered, bearing the 
almost perfect effigy of a lady, c 1390, wearing nebule head dress, the 
sideless mantle, mittened sleeves, &c., and having at her feet a dog with 
a collar of bells. The height of the effigy slightly exceeds five feet one 
inch. The rest of the composition, a very fine one is lost. There are 
indents of a large triple canopy, with four saints under small canopies on 
each side, and, on brackets on either side of tho central pediment of the 
large canopy, of effigies of an Angel, with a scroll, probably the Annunciating 
Angel, and of a female figure, probably the Blessed Virgin. On either 
side of the head of the efHgy is the indent of a large shield, and 
round the whole composition the indent of a marginal inscription. It is 
supposed to be the memorial of a lady of the Welby family, for many 
centuries connected with the parish, and to whom there are various later 
memorials in the same aisle, but some more precise identification is 

^rcija^olotjical SournaL 



The classical archaeologist must be a traveller as well as 
a student, that he may be able to describe ancient monu- 
ments with a freshness, vigour and fidelity, which can only 
be the outcome of personal observation, and therefore can 
never result from perusing the works of others.^ He 
should start on his journey, equipped with a sufficient 
knowledge of Greek and Roman authors ; otherwise he 
will see objects with the outward eye, but will be unable 
to discern their significance and mutual relations. A mere 
bookworm who has spent his life in libraries cannot 
prosecute researches of this kind successfully, for a realistic 
treatment of the subject is required; we have to deal 
with things rather than words, and ought to learn from 
foreigners facts unknown to our own countrymen. ^ We 
must be prepared to spend time, labour and money, to 

' Read at the Monthly Meeting of the diminishing), lout also to study foreign 

Institute, July 4th, 1889. literatui-e that has not hitherto been 

" Compare the sentences with which translated. In the latter case the ditii- 

Mr. Freeman begins his article on culty increases ; at the revival of learn- 

Augusta Treverorum in the British ing, and long afterwards, scholars wrote 

Quarterly Review, July 1, 1875. Of all for the most part in Latin, but now they 

periods of the world's history there is employ the vernacular more and more, 

none which so imperatively calls on him Even the Hungarian authors are discon- 

who would master it to unite the charac- tinning this ancient and universal 

ters of student and traveller as the great medium of communication, which was 

transitional time of European history. used for parliamentary debates, as I am 

The days when the Roman and the informed, even later than 1830, and 

Teutonic elements of modern society remained a part of the speech of the 

stood as yet side by side are days which common people longer in this country 

cannot be studied in books only. than anywhere else. Or to take an 

•' Hence for these investigations the example from an opposite quarter, no one 

modern languages are as requisite as the could compile a satisfactory account of 

ancient, not only in order to converse Scandinavian antiquities without a know- 

with persons who do not understand ledge of Danish, such at least as would 

English (though their number is rapidly be sufficient for literary purposes. 
VOL. XLVII (No. 187) 2 B 


risk health and suffer hardship, visiting remote and some- 
times dangerous localities. I have endeavoured, however 
imperfectly, to act in accordance with these views, and 
the Institute has done me the honour to accept my humble 
contributions. But on the present occasion I confine 
myself to the most beaten path of all, the Ehine-land ; 
and my task is the more difficult, because I tread on the 
footprints of distinguished predecessors.' 

As Mr. Roach Smith has remarked in the 2nd vol. of 
his Collectanea, p. 119, Treves and Mayence, considered 
with reference to antiquities, differ widely from each 
other. At Treves they constantly met us ; the gigantic 
mass of the Porta Nigra towers over the principal street 
dwarfs the adjacent buildings, and seems, if I may so 
speak, always to stare us in the face ; the Basilica is near 
the market place : the Roman baths are only a few minutes' 
walk from the bridge ; the Palace and Amphitheatre are 
within an easy distance. On the other hand, the traveller 
who perambulates Mayence sees nothing older than the 
Cathedral, which was begun in the tenth century, but 
repeatedly destroyed by fire.^ Memorials of Roman times 
must be sought in the Museum — a vast collection rival- 
ling those of the European capitals, but having a character 
of its own strongly marked that makes it specially inter- 
esting. It is historical rather than artistic, military rather 
than civil. The admirable classification, due to the learned 
Director Dr. Lindensclimit, enhances the utility of the 
objects preserved here ; and casts of similar monuments 
in other districts have been added for the purpose of 

^ I refer here, uot to German publica- found in Baedeker, Die Ilheinlande von 

tious, but to memoirs by our own der Schweizer bis zur Holliiudischeu 

countrymen — Professor Westwood and Greuze, pp. 197-201, with phm of the 

Mr. Roach Smith. The former haa Cathedral. Speaking generally, the 

described many objects of mediicval art series issued by this publisher will afford 

— carved ivories, enamels and illuminated the antiquarian traveller all the informa- 

manuscripts, etc., found at Mayence, tion to be expected within the limits of a 

Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Darmstadt and pocket-guide. The volume for the Rhino 

other places : Archaeological Journal, is particularly copious ; and this may be 

vol. xix, pp. 219-235 ; xx. 141-157; Notes easily accounted for, as it appeared in its 

made during a Tour in Western Germany earliest form at Coblenz more than forty 

and Franco. The latter haa confined his years ago. Bibliographical references, 

attention chiefly, but not exclusively, to however, are wanting, a deficiency which 

Roman remains : Collectanea Antiqua, will be felt by those who have been 

vol. ii, pp. G5-15'2, plates xxiv-xxxv. accustomed to use the larger editions of 

- Tlie oldest part now remaining seems Joanne for the departments of P^ ranee, 

to belong to the eleventh century. '■' This Museum occupies the Kurfiirst- 

Mauy details of the building will be lithe Schloss, Palace of the Electors of 



Again, the Roman remains at Treves and Mayence differ 
from each other in kind as well as in position ; they 
present the same contrast as those in the North and South 
of England — for example, the Wall of Hadrian and the 
luxurious villas in Gloucestershire. In the former city 
the buildings above-mentioned suggest the ideas of 
governmental administration, civilization and prosperity ; 
in the latter everything reminds us of warfare, offensive 
and defensive. And this leads me to observe how fully 
these fragmentary relics of former times correspond with 
the statements of Latin authors. "We learn from Floras, 
Eerum Eomanarum lib. iv., cap. 12, §26, that the 
Eomans had a (direxit) chain of more than 50 fortresses 
on the Ehenish frontier.' Now of these Mogontiacum was 
the centre and the chief, so that the contents of the 
Museum, conspicuously martial, are just what we should 
a 'priori expect to find there.^ 

Mayence, which must be distiuguished 
from the Grossherzogliche Schloss 
(Deutsch-Ordenshaus), also on the Quay 
and in close proximity to the formei'. 
Baedeker enumerates the contents of 
each room with minute accuracy. 

^ Loc. citat. Drusus ... in tutelam 
provinciarum praesidia atque custodias 
ubique disposuit, jier Mosam flumeu, per 
Albim, per Visurgim. Nam per llheui 
quidem ripam quinquaginta amplius 
castella direxit. 

Florus should be read in the edition of 
Jo. G. Graevius, which is profusely illus- 
trated. Some remarks in the preface 
deserve to be quoted. 

Cum primum illi manum admoverem, 
constitueram non nisi uummos et monu- 
menta quaedam antiqua quibus illustra- 
retur adponere, ut ex iis cognosci possent 
et virorum insignium vultus, et primo 
intuitu intelligi quid cssent fasces, aucilia, 
Palladium, Janus bifrons, sellae curulcs, 
et si quae sunt hujus generis alia non 
pauca. His mire et ad antiquitatis 
studium et ad historias cognoscendas 
incitari adolescentes saepius cognoram, et 
facilius quae legerant et audierant me- 
moriae infigi. 

Graevius was well qualified to express 
an opinion concerning the educational 
value of arcliaeology, because he had 
experience of it as a Professor at Utrecht, 
and also published the Thesaurus Anti- 
quitatum Romanarum in 12 vols, folio, 
169-1-1099. Classical studies would have 
been cultivated with greater advantage, 

if subsequent critics and teachers had 
followed the suggestions offered long ago. 
The portrait of Graevius adorns the 
sumptuous work entitled Richardi Bent- 
leii et doctorum virorum Epistolae, 
partim mutuae, Lond. 1807 4to., which 
was edited by Dr. Charles Burney, but 
appeared anonymously; see Bishop Monk's 
instructive and entertaining Life of 
Beutley, 2nd edition, 1833, vol. i, p. 49, 
and ib. 159, note 21. The Delphin 
Florus bears on the title page the name 
of Madame Dacier, Anna Tanaquilli Fabri 
filia; there are no engravings, and her 
notes are comparatively unimportant. 

^ Lipsius, edit. Tacitus, Autverpiae, 
1607, prints Magontiacum, but two of 
the best among recent editors, Orelli, 
1848, C. Halm, 18G1, give the form as 
above in my text. I think this is more 
likely to be correct ; Magontiacum may 
have proceeded from unconscious imita- 
tion, approximating to later and modern 
names of the city. 

Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished 
in the latter half of the fourth century, 
calls this city Mogontiacus, and makes it 
feminine ; similarly he writes Argentora- 
tus for Argentoratum : edit. Eysscnhardt, 
lib. XV, cap. 11, § 8 ; xxvii, 10, 1, Mogon- 
tiacum praesidiis vacuam. 

Ptolemy has another form, MoKorT(OK(^»', 
Geographia, lib. ii, cap. 9, \ 8. Carol 
Miiller's edition, vol. i, p. 228, contains 
the following note, Apud coteros auctores 
urbs vocatur Mogontiacum et Maguntia- 
cum, ct seriore aevo Maguutia, Maguucia, 


Tacitus, in the fourth book of the Histories, relating 
the war with Civihs, the most formidable opponent the 
Eomans encountered during the Upper Empire, mentions 
Mogontiacum no less than ten times, and each time in 
connection with military operations and events. The 
great historian — great equally in pictorial narrative and 
philosophic reflection — has devoted many chapters to this 
revolt, the forerunner of so many disasters, like drops of 
rain falling heavily on the ground, portending the long 
and angry storm that was to burst upon and shatter the 
fabric of Imperial dominion. He describes the march of 
the legions that had surrendered to the Gauls and 
Germans ; he tells us how the hour of departure was 
more dismal than any expectation of it ; how the busts 
of the Emperors were torn down and the standards un- 
trimmed, while the ensigns of the Gauls were resplendent ; 
how the army advanced silently as if it were a funeral 
procession, and their enemies crowded from the houses 
and fields to glut out their eyes with the unaccustomed 
spectacle. Then the Picentine squadron would not brook 
the insults of a rejoicing rabble, but forced its way to 
Mogontiacir.,1, as to a safe harbour of refuge.' 

Nobellcr illustration of the concluding statement can 
be imai;hied than that which is afforded by a Roman 
gravestone now in the Museum at Mayence. 




H ■ F • C2 

Infeiiori Qermaniae ascribitur perperam. Libraire, Dictionuaire de Geograpbie 

Error ex eo pendet quod urbs ex earum ancienne et moderne, besides other 

numero est quas Ptolemaeus justo magis information, includes Les recherches 

boream versus collocat. For other varie- bibliographiqucs les plus eteudues sur 

ties see the Antoiiino Itinerarj". edit. I'introduction de riniprimerie dans les 

Parthey and Pinder, pp. 350, 355 and difterentes villes de I'Europe. Hence the 

374 (the pagination being that of Wessel- article on Mayence, where printing was 

ing added in the margin). invented by Gutenberg (Qensfleisch), is 

In the Tabula Peutingeriann, edit. unusually elaborate. 

Mannert, 1824, Segmentum ii P., Mogon- ^ Tacitus, Hist, iv., 62, Et volgata 

tiaco (sic) is distinguished by two towers, ca]itarum legiouum fama cuncti, qui 

like Augusta Treverorum; this is the sign paulo ante Romauorum uomen horrebant, 

of an important city. Dr. Konrad Miller jtrocurrentes ex agris tectisque et undique 

has published the Table, which' he calls effusi insolito spectaculo uimiiim frue- 

the Weltkarte des Castorius (1888), with bantur. Non tulit alaPiceutinagaudium 

the same colours as the original ; here iusultautis volgi, spretisque, Sancti pro- 

the upper )iart of the towers is purple, missis aut minis Mogontiacum abeunt. 

and the lower yellow. - The Ala Picentina has a special 

Brunei's Supplement au Manuel du interest for English readers, because we 




Silius, Attonis filius, eques alae Picentiiiae, annorum 
quadraginta quinque, stipendiorum viginti quattuor : 
heres faciendum curavit. 


Silius, son of Atto, a horse-soldier of the Picentine 
squadron, 45 years old, served in 24 campaigns : his heir 
erected this monument.' 

know it was one of the bodies of Eoman 
troops that occupied oiu* own country. 
It occurs in a military diploma of 
Hadrian found at Riveling, near Stanning- 
ton, Yorkshire : Lapidarium Septen- 
trionale, pp. 6-8. Six alae and twenty 
one cohorts were mentioned. Opposite 
p. 7 is a coloured fac-simile of both sides 
of the remaining plate. With the 
Cavalry and Infantry here enumerated 
comp. Map at p. 1, showing approximately 
the localities from which many of the 
Forces doing battle in the Mural District 
were drawn. 

See also Corpus Inscriptionum Latin- 
arum, Inscrr. Britanuiae Latinae, edit. 
Hiibner, p. 215, cap. Ixxv., Privilegia 
militum veteranorumque de civitate et 
conubio . . . vulgo appellantur uon 
recte tabulae honestae missionis, contra 
breviter diplomata militaria dici possunt. 
P. 218 sq., No. 1195, he gives the name 
thus picent|a|, and the expansion 
Picent [i] a [n(a)]. The characters were 
engraved on two sheets of metal folded 
together, and fastened by thongs passing 
through holes which are still to be seen. 
Forcellini correctly explains the word 
Diploma, ita dictae (literae) a forma, quia 
formabautur in modo tabellarum dup- 
licium, like a diptych. 

Orelli, CoUectio Inscrr. Latiuarum, vol. 
i., No. 737, honestae missionis formula ; 
note 1, Sex ilia foramina referuut 
tabulae plicatilis ; ib. No. 2652; vol. ii., 
Nos. 3571, 3577, 3592. 

It is said that the ala usually consisted 
of 300 cavalry : comp. Livy, bk. iii., chap. 
62, equites duarum legionum sexceuti 
fere ex equis desiliunt ; but the number, 
as is the case with our own regiments, 
seems to have varied according to cii'- 
cumstances. Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities, s. v. Exercitus, p. 
507, § 8 ; p. 509, ^ 12. The ala (wing of an 
army) was subdivided into 10 turmae ; 
hence Milton says. 

Legions and cohorts, turms of horse 
and wings. 

Paradise Regained, Book IV., v. QQ : on 
which Bishop Newton Las the following 

note. Troops of horse. A word coined 
from the Latin tunna. Virg. ^n. v. 560 
Equitum turmae. 

^ This inscription is the more valuable 
because the ala Picenilna is not mentioned 
elsewhere by Tacitus or any other writer : 
V. Orelli's Commentary, Tac. Hist, iv, 26. 
Forcellini explains the adjective in this 
passage as derived from Picentia in Cam- 
pania, and refers to Pliny, Nat. Hist., 
lib. iii, cap. v, § 70 (edit. Sillig), a Sur- 
rento ad JSilarum amnem triginta miUia 
passuum ager Picentinus fuit Tuscorum, 
templo Junonis Argivae ab Jasone condito 
insignis. Intus oppidum Salerni, Picentia 
(the coast of Amalfi). But I think that 
the great lexicographer is mistaken ; more 
probably ala Ficentlna should be con- 
nected with Picenum than with the ob- 
scure Picentini. In a letter from Pompey 
to Domitius inserted in Cicero ad Atti- 
cum, after the 12th Epistle of the 8th 
book, and marked C, Piccntince cohortes 
occur ; and from the context, where he 
speaks of Umbria and Luceria, we may 
infer that these troops were raised in 
Picenum, all these places being on the 

Of this province Ancona was the chief 
town and only port ; the journey to it is 
a tedious one, but the classical traveller 
is compensated for his fatigue by the 
sight of Trajan's beautiful arch — remark- 
able for the dazzling splendour of its 
v/hite marble, fine proportions, and in- 
scriptions recording the names not only 
of the Emperor but also of his wife 
Plotina and his sister Marciana : Fraucke, 
Zur Geschichte Trajan's und seiner Zeit- 
genossen, pp, 593 — 595, Hafenbauten, 
esp. p. 594, the three inscrr. in full: 
Orelli, vol. i, p. 190, No. 792. 

Cicero de Senectute iv, 11, uses the 
adjective Picenus from Picenum ; and 
Horace has Picenus, iSat. ii, 3, 272, Picenis 
excerpens semina pomis ; ibid., 4, 70. 
Ptolemy calls the people who lived on 
the southern side of the mountains 
between the bays of Naples and Salerno 
ntKiVTivoi, and the inhabitants of Picenum 
ni/cTjcoi, Gcogr. lib. iii, c. 1, i^S^ h 18. 


It was found about ten miles south of Mayence, in 
Ebenish Hesse, between Dienlieim and Ludwigsliolie, 
villages on tlie left bank of the Khine, near Oppenheim 
(Baiicomca), and therefore at a spot nearly equidistant 
from Mayence and Worms (Borhitomagus ) the capital of 
the Vangiones, and afterwards of the kingdom of the 
Burgundians who came from the Baltic. This city is 
marked twice in the Antonine Itinerary ; 1, on the road 
from Milan [Mediolanum) to Mayence through the Pennine 
Alps ; 2, on the road from Treves to Strassburg ( Arg enter- 

Above the inscription is a relief that represents a man 
reclining on a couch with cushions, and a tripod table 
before him, on which vessels for eating and drinking are 
placed ; at the side there is a slave in attendance. With 
this scene we may compare plate xii, fig 1 in the second 
volume of Bottiger's Sabina, facing p. 173, where we see 
a father of a family at the dinner-table together with his 
wife, he is semi-recumbent, she is seated beside him.^ 
But a parallel example may be found at home ; the British 
Museum possesses a fine bas-relief of which the subject is 
Bacchus received by Icarius in the garden of a villa. 
Close to the couch upon which the latter reclines stands 

^ For Oppenheim see Baedeker, Rhein- hodie Brumat, is situated a little nortli 

lande, p. 121, and map of Rhenish Hesse, of Strassbm'g on the ancient road from 

No. 12, opposite p. 122. that city to Cologne (Col. Agrippiua). 

I subjoin from the Antonine Itinerary It must not be confounded with Borbito- 

the latter part of the route a Mediolano magus, which Ammianus indicates by the 

per Alpes Penninas Mogontiacum, edit. word Vangiones, substituting the name 

Parthey and Binder, p. 169, Wesseling, of the people for that of their chief city, 

p. 355 just as we see it done in the map of 

Noviomago (Speier) ... mpm. xi modern France, c^'. Caesarodunum is now 

Borbitomago (Worms).., mpm. xiiii called Tours from Turones. Borbitoma- 

Bauconica (Oppenheim) ...mpm. xiii gus was corrupted into Wormatia, from 

Mogontiacum (Mainz) mpm. xi. which Worms is derived: Diet, of Greek 

Cf. Ptolemy, Geogi". II, 9, § 9, 'OvaYy^ovwv and Roman Geography, s. v. Vangiones etc, 
Se hopP'qTdixayos ; on which Car. Miiller For the topography of the whole dis- 

has the following note, vol. i, p. 229, trict see the Notitia dignitatum in parti- 

Borgetomagi Tabula Peuting. ; Bormito- bus Occidentis, edit. Bucking, cap. xxxix, 

mago Itin. p. 355, 3,374, 6 codices longo Dux Moguntiacensis, p. 116* sq., Annot. 

plurimi. pp. 958* — 981* ; and esp. for Vangiones 

Ammianus Marcellinns (relating the cam- and Wormatia al. Warmatia, Guarmatia 

paigns of the Emperor Julian) xvi, 2, 12, pp. 966* — 968*. 

Audiens itaque Argentoratum Brotoma- •* This bas-relief was found in the island 

gum Tabernas Salisonem Nemctas et of Samos by the celebrated botanist 

Vangionas et Mogontiacum civitates bar- Tournefort, and described by him in the 

baros possidentcs ; comp. the German Relation d'un voyage du Levant, fait par 

nations enumerated by Caesar in the ordre du Roi, Tome ii, p. 167, edit. 4to. 

account of his battle witli Ariovistu.s, BiJttiger has coi)ied his engraving ; Op. 

Bell. Gall, i, 61. Brotomagus, otherwise citat Erkliirung der Kupfertafeln, zur 

Brocomagus, Ptol ii, 9, 9 BpivK6fj.ayos achteu Szeue p. 255. 



a tripod table, bearing a cantliarus (two-handled drinking 
cup), fruit and cakes. Description of the Ancient Marbles 
by Taylor Combe, part ii, plate iv, show the details 
very accurately.' We find the same subject in Spon, 
Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis, p. 310, pi. xviii, with 
the addition of Erigone, daughter of Icarius, and amplified 
by a more numerous assemblage of figures ; but the 
provenance is not stated. Below the inscription is a man 
wearing a broad mantle that falls symmetrically in front 
and behind, slit up on both sides, and over it a sagum 
fixed by a brooch on the right shoulder ; he leads a horse 
with saddle and bridle. In the upper part of the man's 
helmet we observe undulations that seem to imitate curls 
of human hair ; his garment, reaching to the knees, has a 
fringe at the bottom. The horse, ornamented as usual 
with bosses (phalerae), carries the rider's shield on his left 
side ; three straps hang down from each end of the saddle 
which is placed on a cloth, Both reliefs were formerly 
painted. The material employed is limestone, and the 
dimensions are : — height, 2 metres 45 centimetres ; breadth 
84 cent. ; thickness, 32 cent.^ I exhibit an engraving 
of the lower portion of this monument,^ also of another 

^ Taylor Combe devotes more than 
five pages to this subject, and cites many 
Greek and Latin authors at length. 
Much the same information may be 
obtained from Sir H. Ellis's Townley 
Gallery, vol. ii, pp. 141-145, woodcut 
opposite p. 141. The text and notes are 
learned, but, as might be expected in a 
cheap and popular work, the illustration 
is very inferior. 

- Keferences to the literature connec- 
ted with this Inscription are given in 
Jacob Becker's Catalog, entitled Die 
romischen Inschriften nnd Steinsculp- 
turen des Museums der Stadt Mainz, 
1875, p. 72, No. 222. Brambach, Corpus 
luscrr. Rhenanarum, No. 915. 

^ The design below the inscription is 
accurately described by Dr. Lindenschmit 
— the best living authority, as far I know, 
for the accoutrements of the Roman 
army: Tracht nnd Bewaffnung des romis- 
chen Heeres wahrend der Kaiserzeit, mit 
besonderer Bcriicksiclitigung der Rheinis- 
chen Denkmale uud Fundstiicke, dar- 
gestellt in zwtjlf Tafeln und erliiufcert, 
1882, p. 24, Taf. viii, No. 2. 

In tripartite monuments of this class, 
the reliefs under the epitaph are, I think, 
usually, as here, specific ; i.e., they indi- 

cate the profession or occupation of the 
deceased. A. Miiller considers that Silius 
belonged to the Equites Singulares, or 
Siugularii. They are thus described by 
De Vit (s.v. singularis k 11), who has 
added much to the original aiiicle in 
Forcellini's lexicon, Fuerunt militum 
genus praetorianis proximum turn cus- 
todiae munere, turn praetenturae viciuia 
in castris, ex provincialibus institutum 
. . Equites praetoriani latere dextro 
praetorii, singulares imperatoris latere 
siuistro tendere debent. Inscrr. apud 
Gruter, 367, 2 ; 516, 8 ; 1028, 2 ; 1041, 
12 : Henzeu, in Annali dell' Istituto 
Archeologico, a. 1850. De Vit makes a 
distinction between these troops and the 
ala singularium in Tacitus, Histories iv, 
70 ; V. Orelli in loco, who quotes Eaph. 
Fabretti, p. 354. 

In a Roman camp the Praetentura 
above mentioned extended from the Porta 
Praetoria facing the enemy (as we see it 
now at Ratisbou, Castra lier/ina), to the 
Via Principalis. The central division 
was called Latera Praetorii ; and the part 
behind it, towards the Porta Dccumaua, 
was the Retentura: Dictionary of Antt., 
pp. 252-254 with plan, s.v. Castra: The 
Roman Castcllum Saalburg, by Col, Von 



belonging to the same class, viz., Eoman cavalry. The 
grave-stone which it represents was found at Zahlbach, 
near Mayence, where considerable remains of an aqueduct 
still exist. Under the group of figures in relief is the 
following Inscription ; — 

ANDES • SEX • F • 


NIG • EQ • ALA • 


STIP -V-H-S-E-H.F'C' ^ 

Andes, Sexti filius, cives Eaetinio, eques alae Claud- 
ianae, annorum triginta, stipendiorum quinque, hie situs 
est : heres faciendum curavit.^ 

Andes, son of Sextus, a citizen of Raetinium, a horse 
soldier of the Claudian squadron, thirty years old, who 
served in five campaigns, lies here. His heir erected this 
monument. 3 

Bentley in his celebrated edition of 
Horace prints heres uniformly, as far as 
I have observed ; the index, however, 
has haeres, but it is of no authority, as 
coming from another and inferior hand. 
Professor Key's Latin-Englisli Diction- 
ary, which alas ! is only a fragment 
derives heres from the obsolete her, heris 
akin to the German Herr, owner, heir, 
and explains cd = eg, a diminutive 
suffix, which is in Greek a-y or a/c ; comp. 
merces, mercedis, pinguedo, gravedo, 
dulcedo, teredo ; hence the word means 
literally young owner. In Plautus 
Menaechmi, iii, 2, 12, edit. Ritschl 

Hanc, quoius heres ndmquam erit post 
hunc diem. 

One manuscript (A) has haeres. 

^ Evei-y classical scholar is familiar 
with Andes, a village near Mantua, the 
birth-place of Virgil ; according to tra- 
dition it is represented by the modern 
Pietola. The name occurs three times 
in Caesar as equivalent to Andecavi or 
Andegavi, a Gallic tribe in the lower 
valley of the Loire : Bell. Gall, ii. 35 ; 
iii, 7 ; vii, 4. They joined with other 
Gauls bordering on the ocean in tlic 
confederacy led by Vercingetorix, which 
vainly endeavoured to shake off the 
lloman yoke. Lucan appears to have 
another form of the name, Andus, 

In ncbulis, Meduana, tuis, mai'cere 

Andus, jam placida Ligeris recreatur 
ab unda. 

Pharsalia, i, 438, sq., 
but Burmann has marked the passage as 
spurious, and Bentley says that it is not 
found iu any of the MSS. that he coUa- 

Cohauseii nnl L. Jacobi, p. 13, plate ii, 
English Tiiiuslation. 

Neither Silius nor Atto occurs in 
Romano-British epigraphy. The former, 
a nomen gentile, is not uncommon in 
literature, and especially frequent in 
Tacitus ; the inscriptions also furnish ex- 
.amples. We meet with p. siLivs at Car- 
thagena [Carthago Neva), Hiibner, Inscrr. 
Hispaniae Latinae, No. 3111. Probably 
P. Silius Nerva is meant, who was Consul 
under Augustus, B.C. 20, the year when 
the Parthians restored the Roman stan- 
dards. Of all who bore the name, the 
best known is Caius Silius passionately 
loved by the notorious Messalina : Juvenal, 
Sat. X, 331 seqq. 

Optimus hie, et formosissimus idem 
Gentis patriciae rapitur miser exstin- 

Messalinae oculis. 
Lo ! this most noble, this most beauteous 

Is hurried off, a helpless sacrifice 
To the lewd glance of Messalina's eyes! 
Gilford's Translation, 
^Becker, Op. citat., p. 72, No. 223. 
Brambach, Inscrr. Hhenan. 1228. 

'- Orthography requires us to write 
heres rather tnan haeres. The early 
scholars Manutius and Cellarius express 
this opinion, which is supported by the 
testimony of manuscripts and the 
stronger evidence of inscriptions. Some- 
times the aspirate is omitted : Gruter, 
521, 7, EiiES B.M.F. ; .526, 7, euedes 
FECERVNT. Comp a similar variety in 
herus and crus. De Vit, s.v. Heres, 
written without the diphthong, prevents 
confusion with haeres 2d. pers, ind. act. 
of the verb hacrco. 


An engraving, on a reduced scale, one-ninth of the 
original, is given by Dr. Lindenschmit, Die Alterthiimer 
unserer heidnischen Vorzeit, Heft XL, Tafel 6 (Romische 
Grabsteine). The group consists of a rider, an attendant 
and a German lying on the ground : of these figures the 
first has a helmet with cheek pieces, a lance in his right 
hand, and an oval shield in his left ; his sword is on his 
right side, but I cannot see any belt by which it was 
attached. However, the most interesting part of the 
composition is the barbarian —proved to be so by his wild 
expression of countenance, pointed beard and hair turned 
back. Moreover, he attempts to wound the horse with a 
short curved sword,' such as we see amongst the spoils 
taken from the Germans In the ensign of a cohort, figured 
by Dr. Lindenschmit, Heft VH., Taf. 5. He wears close- 
fitting trousers, a part of German costume, fastened by a 
girdle, and covering the calf of the leg. It is worthy of 
notice that Lucan, Pharsalia, lib. L, v. 431, speaks of the 
Vangiones (Worms) as imitating the loose trousers of the 

Et qui te laxis imitantur, Sarmata, braccis, 

Eaetinium, called by Pliny Eataneum, is now Eudunich, 
a town of Dalmatia, near the coast, between Salonae and 
the island of Melita.^ In the map which accompanies 

ted. The Antonine Itinerary mentions Usipetes and Tenchteri, German tribes 

the Andium lusulae, Itinerarinm Mari- on the right bank of the Rhine {hodie 

timum— In raari Oceano quod GalHas ct Westphalia), — suffossisque equis, com- 

Britannias interkiit, Andium Sicdelis pluribusque uostris dejectis, and ibid., 

Uxantis (Ouessant, Ushant) Sina(Sein), equo vuluerato dejectus. 

edit. Wesseling, p. 50, 9. Hiuc colligi Au English translation published by 

potest Andes aliquando fines suos usque Talboys, Oxford, and professing to be a 

admareprotulisse ; De Vit, Onomasticon, literal version renders sicffosso equo by 

s.v. Andes. " his horse being killed ; " but this ia 

I have not met with Andes as the name inadequate, because the force of the 
of a man elsewhere, but in our own preposition sub (under) is not expressed, 
country we find some abbreviations that Tacitus means that the animal was 
resemble it. Hiibner. Inscrr. Brit. Lat., stabbed in the belly. The Italian inter- 
No. 143 AND, in castris Romanis prope preter, Bernardo Davanzati, does not 
Trawsfynnyd ad viam Romanam, now succeed much better with his phrase 
. . ." at Tan-y-bwlch Hall, Merioneth- mortogli sotto il cavallo. Translations of 
shire ; ibid. No. 1331^' andon, Camulo- the classics have often been made by 
duni (Colchester) in ansa amphorae aut second-rate scholars, who through ignor- 
in margine catini. ance and carelessness have misrejiresented 

^ The attitude of this figure admirably the originals ; so they have verified the 

illustrates a passage in Tacitus : Annab, proverb, Tradutlori, traditori. 

bk. ii, ch. 11, Chariovalda dux Bata '^ We are accustomed to the form 

vorum . . . congestis telis et suffosso Dalmati't, and most editions of Horace iu 

equo labitur. Comp. Csesar, Bell. Gall. the Odes, ii, 1, 16, have 

iv, 12, where he relates the war with the Dalmatico peperit triumpho, 



Mr. A. J. Evans's Eesearches in lUyricum,^ Archceologia, 
vol. xlviii, between pages 2 and 3, Eunovic seems to 
correspond with the situation of Rataneum. Accord- 
ing to Hardouin, the modern name is Mucarisca. Dion 
Cassius relates that it was set on fire by the inhabitants, 
and taken by Germanicus ; he says the Romans suffered 
great loss, being burnt as well as wounded. An illustra- 
tion of this locality is supplied by a monument discovered 
at Bingen in 1860, erected to a soldier of the third cohort 
of Dalmatians (delmatarvm).' 

"We may remark that natives of distant provinces served 
in the army on the Rhenish frontier ; so in the next 
inscription, Becker's Catalogue, No. 224, mention is made 
of a soldier buried near Mayence, wdio came from Celeia 
in Noricum (Styria). Similarly, the Lapidarium Septen- 
trionale records the presence of Spanish troops in Britain 
— the first and second Ala, and the second Cohort of 
Astures. It was evidently part of the wise policy of the 
Romans to distribute their forces in such a way that there 
should be no danger of sympathizing with disloyal 

where the victory of Pollio is referred to ; 
but Orelli reads Belmatico with the 
following note : Scripturam Dclmaiia 
pra;bent Inscriptiones (Grut. p. 96, 1. in 
inscript. a.ii.c. 7(33, bello delmatko) 
interdum et Codices, ut h.l. antiquissimus 
noster B. Similarly Floras, Epitome 
Rerum Eomanarum, lib. iv, cap. xii, ^11, 
relating a former war with the Dal- 
matians, says Hos jam qnidem Marciu.s 
(i.e., C. Marcius Figulus, Cos. B.C. 16:^) 
incensa urbe Delminio quasi detruuca- 
verat, v. the note of Freinshemius in the 
Variorum Commentary of Graevius's 
edition, p. 508. In the map mentioned 
above the delminenses are marked East 
of Salonae. 

Mr. Arthur Evans has adopted the 
form SalonfD, which is more usual than 
Salona ; both the singular and ]ilural 
occur in Greek as well as Latin — SaAiva, 
"XaXSivai. The place derives its celebrity 
chiefly from having been the retreat of 
Diocletian : Gibbon, chap, xiii, vol. ii, 
pp. 101—103, edit. Dr. W. Smith. 
Comp. Lucan, Pliarsalia, iv, 404, 
Qua maris Iladriaci longas ferit unda 

Et tepidum ia molles Zephyroa excurrit 


In Smith's Diet, of Classical Geography 
this reference is given incorrectly. 

The modern city of Spalato is near the 
ruins of the ancient Salona, and is built 
cliiofly on the site of Diocletian's Palace. 
Spdlatro is incorrect, because the name 
comes from the Latin Palatium: in this 
respect books of reference may mislead. 

^ See Lindenschmit, Die Alterthiimer 
imserer heidnischen Vorzeit, zehntes 
Heft, Tafel v. Besides the Inscription, 
this monument is remarkable for the 
ornament covering the lower part of the 
abdomen (somewhat like the spwran worn 
by our Highland regiments), which is 
unusually 'well preserved ; also for two baa- 
reliefs of figures from the Mithraic cycle. 

2 Lapid. Septent., Nos. 27, 28, 116, 
121, 943, 285, 288 ; Bruce, Roman Wall, 
edit. 4to. ; First Ala of Astures, Benwell, 
p. 109 ; Second Ala of Astures, Cheaters, 
pp. 64, 158 ; Second cohort of Astures, 
Great Chesters, pp. 68, 235. Now that 
many attempts are being made to dis- 
member our own country, it would be 
well for us to study the lessons of history, 
and consider by what means the Romans 
consolidated their empire, enabled it to 
resist external attacks, and made it last 
so long. 


The cenotaph of Manius Caehus holds a foremost place 
among the antiquities of the Khine-land, on account of 
its intrinsic importance and the event which it commemo- 
rates ; and I beg permission to describe it as an example 
parallel to the leading features of the Mayence collection. 
Mr. Eoach Smith has treated this subject in his Collec- 
tanea, vol ii, but by no means in an exhaustive manner, 
so that some new particulars may be added on the present 


M • L. M • L • 


M'CAELIO • T • F • LeM — BoN — 

Manius Caelius, Manii libertus Privatus. Manius 
Caelius, Manii libertus Thiaminus. — Manio Caelio, Titi 
filio, Lemonia (tribu) Bon (onia, lega)to legionis duode- 
vicesimae, annorum quinquaginta trium semis. (Ce) cidit 
bello Variano. Ossa (i)nferre licebit. Publius Caelius, 
Titi filius Lemonia (tribu) frater fecit. 

Manius Caelius Privatus, freedman of Manius. Manius 
Caelius Thiaminus, freedman of Manius- — To Manius 
Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian tribe, of Eononia, 
general commanding the eighteenth legion, fifty-three 
and a half years old. He fell in the war of Varus. The 
bones may be brought here. Publius Caelius, son of 
Titus, of the Lemonian tribe, his brother, erected this 

The great difficulty here is in the beginning of the 
second line, where the military rank of the deceased is 
indicated. I have translated the inscription according to 
Overbeck's supposition, viz., that we have here the ter_ 
mination of the word legato. Some read (inverted C) 

^ Varus was defeated by tbe German encourages his troops to oppose 

chieftain Arminius, and his three legions Germanicus. 

were nearly destroyed, a.d. 7, in the A colossal statue of Hermann, the 

Saltus Teutoburgiensis, Teutoburger national hero, has been erected on the 

Wald. Hence Tacitus, Annals, bk. ii, spot where the battle is supposed to have 

chap. If), puts into the mouth of been fought. It can easily be visited in 

Arminius these taunting words, Hos esse an excursion from Detmold : Murray's 

Eomauos, Variaui excrcitus fugacissimus Handbook for the Khiuc and North 

(the worst runaways), with which he Germany, 20th edition. 886, p. l78 sq. 


instead of TO and explain it as the abbreviation of 
Centurioni, which agrees very well with the vitis (staff 
made of a vine-branch) in the hand of Caelius ; but this 
view cannot be accepted because the letter on the stone is 
an fully closed. As there is not room for three large 
capitals, one of the critics has proposed TrO as a solution 
of the problem, these characters would of course stand for 
Tribuno, we may compare BoN for Bononia in the preced- 
ing line, and account for the disappearance of the r by 
the fact that the stone is here much weathered. Lastly, 
it has been conjectured that stands for Optio, the 
assistant of the centurion (captain) or vice-centurion as 
the Germans translate it.' The lexicographer Festus 
uses the word adjutor to explain Optio ; and hence prob- 
ably modern dictionaries have rendered it by adjutant, 
the officer who has charge of the drill in a regiment, as 
the adjutant-general superintends the discipline of the 
army. But the centurion's deputy had no special func- 
tions of this kind, so that, I think, our military title 
lieutenant would be more equivalent. One would expect 
to find the Dative here, in apposition with the name 
Caelio which precedes ; but if Optio is read, it must be in 
the N i.iinative, and constructed with the following verb 

On each side of Manius Caelius is the bust of a freed- 
man whom he had manumitted, surmounting a pedestal. 

^ Overbeck thought that the letters prisoner iu the same war, Hist. Eom. 

on the stone were lto, but admits that lib. ii, cap. 120, § 6, edit. J. C. Orelli ; p. 

there is no other example of this abbrevia- I'i B, edit. Lipsius, 1607. 
tion of lerjato iu Roman lapidary inscrip- ^ Optio occurs on a votive altar found 

tions. Dr. A. Miiller, of Flensburg, at Saalburg, and now deposited iu the 

follows the oi^inion that Caelius was a Museum at Homburg. 
tice- or sub-centurion : see his elaborate 
and copiously illustrated article Waffen 
iu Baumeister's Denkmiiler des Ivlassis- 
chen Altertums, 3 Band, p. 2049 sq. 

At first sight one would infer from the 
number and magnificence of his decora- ^^'^ Eomercastell Saalburg von A. V. 
tions that Caelius was of higher rank Cohau.sen, Oberst. z. D. uud Conservator 
than a centurion ; but the argument is by "^i'^ L- J-'icobi, Baumeister, p. 46; English 
no means conclusive, because the effigy Translation, p. 24. This inscription has 
of an officer who belonged to this clas.s, ^^eu carved over an earlier one, like a 
the Veronese Q. Sertorius, presents an palimpsest. I suspect that in some cases 
appearance even more splendid. Linden- ^^^ letters have not been copied correctly. 
Schmidt, Op. citat., Heft vi, Taf. 5, Riddle and Arnold in their English- 
discusses fully the interpretations above Latin Dictionary propose senjeant as a 
mentioned, and cites an ajipositc passage tran.slation of optio, but the inferiority of 
from Velleius I'aterculus, who records ^ non-commissioned officer renders this 
the heroism of Caldus Oaehus, taken ^'^^'^ unsuitable. 

IN . H . D . D . GENIO 

C . SO . CVPITI . 

rRiJiivs Avso 



In this case, as usual, the libertini received the praenomen 
and nomen gentilicium of the patron. We have a famous 
example of this practice in the comic poet Publius 
Terentius Afer, the freedman of Publius Terentius 
Lucanus, a Eoman senator.' It is worthy of remark 
that these two busts are smaller than that of the chief 
personage. So in the Cathedral at Mayence, among 
the monuments of the episcopal electors, Bishop Peter 
von Aspelt is represented as large as life, while the 
emperors whom he had crowned are only half the size,^ 
On the other hand, Egypt supplies illustrations of a date 
long antecedent to the group now before us. The first 
plate in vol. i. of Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians shows 
Eameses III returning with his prisoners to Thebes ; he 
looks like a giant surrounded by a generation of dwarfs, 
for, as compared with the monarch, both the captives and 
his sons, who attend as fan-bearers, are quite diminutive. 
However, the central figure demands much closer atten- 
tion than the subordinate ones, the superiority of Caelius 
being indicated not only by size, but by position and 
decorations. He wears the corona civica, one of the most 
honourable distinctions, and conferred on him who 
had saved the life of a fellow citizen in battle. It con- 
sisted of a wreath of oak leaves and acorns,^ which in 
this case were united by a medallion. Pound the neck is 
a torquis standing out prominently, so that it cannot be 
confounded with the folds of the under clothing.'* Two 
armlets [armillae) are suspended by ribbons in front of 

^ Bentley in tlie Preface to his edition enough to show clearly both the leaves 

of the Fables of Phaedrus and the and the acorns : legend of reverse 

Proverbs [Sententiae), of Publius Syrus, r.s.p.q.r. adsertori libertatis rvBLiCAE 

bound up with Terence, calls attention to Dans une couroinie de chene. Cohen, 

the emancipation of these authors — Hi Medailles Imperiales, tome i, p. 32G sq., 

tres pari conditioue Liberti et Peregrini. Nos. 4G2-464 ; also s.p.q.r. ob civ. ser, 

The manumitted slave was called the i.e. civcs servatos, Nos. 465-469. Eckhel, 

Ubertus of his former master, but he was Doct. Num. Vet., vol. vi, p. 329 — Thes- 

said to belong to the class of libertini. aurus Morellianus, tom. iii, Nummi aurei 

This distinction is explained in the Imperatoris Vespasiaui, Tab. v, num. 30 ; 

Dictionary of Antiquities, p. 705. Art. by Tab. vi, 8, 9, 10. Numismata Vespasiani 

Mr. G. Long, and in Adam's Roman ex iEre Magno, Tab. xiii, 15, 16 ; Tab. 

Antt. p. 28, edit. 1834. xiiii, 17, Scriptum intra coronam quer- 

^ Murray's Handbook for North Ger- ceam MAPK02 HAANKIOS 0TAP02 

many, &c., notices this fact ; comp. AN0TnATO2. 

Baedeker, Kheinlande p. 200. The name ■* Rein, ap. Baumeister Art. Waffen, 

is variously spelt, Aichspalt and Asfeldt. conjectures that the large ring round the 

" A good example is supplied by the neck is the torquis major, and that the 

brass coins of Vespasian, which are largo smaller ones on the breast aio the torq^ucs 



the breast, and smaller bracelets adorn the wrists ; but 
the bosses {phalerce) are still more conspicuous, being five 
medallions arranged in two rows ; in the upper Medusa's 
head takes the central place between two others that are 
ivy- crowned and evidently Bacchanalian : below, one 
medallion is for the most part concealed behind the wrist ; 
the other, which is distinctly visible, exhibits a lion's 
head.' Caelius wears a leathern cuirass {lorica) ; this 
may be inferred from the appearance of the shoulders, 
where there is no sign of joints or liinges, which would 
be required if the armour was metallic, in order that the 
arms might work freely. He holds in his right hand the 
vine -staff {vitis), usually indicating a centurion, but also 
carried by evocati who had the same military rank.^ 

The classical tourist oudit not to leave the Museum 
without taking a turn in the court yard and examining 

minorcs, which seems very plausible. lu 
support of this opiniou, he refers to aa 
iucription in Gruter, p. xcvi, 1, quoted 
ftbove for another purpose. It is given 
with some variation by Orelli, No. 1584, 


LiBEUis II SVI3 posviT. The editor remarks 
Mihi . . . de fraude suspecta est, but 
the asterisk prefixed implies that he 
doubted whether the incription is genuine. 
^ Phalerae were originally metal orna- 
ments attached to the harness of horses, 
and were afterwards worn by soldiers on 
their breasts. There were two kinds, 
plain and figured ; of the former we see 
an example in the monument of Cneius 
Musius, an eagle-bearer {aquilifcr), en- 
graved by Lindenschmit, Op. citat., Heft 
iv, Taf. 6 ; they consist of nine round 
discs — the same shape as Polybius denotes 
by the term (j)id\r) {patera), lib. vi, cap. 
39, § 3, T<J5 5e KaTa^a\6vTi Kai dKvXfvffavTi 
T^ (xiv inQf (pi(i\r)v, TcJ! 6* jVire? <pd\apa, 
Of the latter variety some specimens were 
found in 1858 at Lauersfort between 
Moers and Krefeld, closely corresponding 
with the decorations of Caelius : they are 
nine medallions with the devices in high 
relief — Qorgons, youthful Bacchus, Venus, 
Silenus, lion, etc. 

Persius uses the word phalerae in a 
secondary and figurative sense to mean 
external advantages that make a show : 
Sat. iii, V. 30, Ad i)opulum phaleras : ego 
te iutua et in culc uovi. 

Away ! these trappings to the rabble 
show : 

Me they deceive not ; for your soul I 

Within, without. 

Gifford's Translation, 

Heinrich has a good note in his Com- 
mentary. Phalerae, Pferdeschmuck, Putz 
iiberhaupt, Blendwerk. " Das ist Blend- 
werk fiir den grossen Haufen, nicht fiir 
den Denkenden, den Weisen ! " 

* Representations of centurions iu 
military costume are by no means 
common, but a very interesting one was 
discovered by Mr. George Joslin near 
Colchester, August, 1868. The Kev. B, 
Lodge has written an accurate description 
of this sepulchral monument, in which 
the figure carries a vitis. This memoir 
is accompanied by a good engraving, which, 
I think, has been repeated in Lewin's 
Life and Epistles of St. Paul. Comp. 
Juvenal, Sat. viii, v. 247, sq., 

Nodosam post haec frangebat A'ertice 

Si lentus pigra muuiret castra dolabra ; 
and Tacitus, Annals, lib. i, cap. 23. 
Centurio Lucilius intcrficitur, cui 
militaribus facetiis vocabulum " cedo 
alteram " indideraut, quia fracta vite in 
tergo militis alteram clara voce ac rursus 
aliam poscebat. See the instructive 
notes of Brotier and Orelli. 

Juvenal says that the knotty vine-staff 
was broken about the head of Marius, if 
he was slow to work with his adze in 
fortifying the camp. Tacitus, narrating 
the mutiny of the I'uuuouiau legions, 



the remains of a Eoman bridge deposited there ;' the 
piles [Pfahlrost), were removed from the Ehine in 1881, 
and are arranged as they stood originally. We have not 
direct statements of historians or evidence of inscriptions 
to prove the exact date of erection ; but we should 
bear in mind that, according to Florus, Drusus placed 
garrisons on the Meuse, Elbe and Weser, and as mentioned 
above, built a chain of more than fifty fortresses on the 
Rhine.'' Moreover, Tacitus mentions his fort on the 
Taunus, and Dion Cassius another erected by him in the 
country of the Catti, close to the Rhine, which seems to 
be Castel opposite Mainz. Hence we may conclude, with 
great probability, that he at least began the bridge, of 
which we now see the substructions, in order to preserve 
the communications with the right bank, and to make 
both sides of the stream thoroughly lioman, as they after- 
wards became.^ 

A leaden medallion found in the Saone at Lyons in the 

mentions that the rioters put to death 
Lucilius, a centurion nicknamed cedo 
alteram (give me another), because, when 
he had broken his cane on the back of a 
soldier, he used to call aloud for another 
and then another. These two passages, 
written about the same time, aremutually 
illustrative ; what is wanting in the poet 
is supplied by the historian and vice versd. 
As the bust of a freedman is placed on 
either side of Caelius, so at Colchester 
the inscription informs us that the 
sepulchral monument was erected by two 
freed men of the deceased : verecvndvs 


The vitis, being a special badge of 
distinction, was used to express the 
centurion's office : ^lii Spartiaui Had- 
rianus, cap. 10, ^6, locum castris caperet, 
nulli vitem nisi robusto et bonae famae 
daret, with the note of Salmasius in the 
Variorum edition, Lugduni Batav, 1671. 
For other illustrations see the woodcuts 
in Rich's Companion to the Latin Diet., 
8. V. Evocatl and Vitis. 

* He can hardly see these relics with- 
out thinking of Cresar's bridge over the 
Rhine described in his Gallic War, book 
iv, chap. 17. An engraving of it is given 
in Oudendorp's excellent edition, 4to., 
1737, p. 187, Pontis figura a Cajsare 
decern diebus ad Rhenum trajiciendum 
effecti ; it also ajipears as a frontispiece 
to Moberly's edition, 1879. But the two 
representations do not altogether agree ; 
tUe latter is, I think, preferable, as coin- 

ciding more closely with Csesar's account ; 
it shows the diagonal braces (JibulueJ 
" passing from the head of each pile to 
the middle point of the next pile up or 
down stream." Note p. 269 s. f. 

Cfcsar broke the bridge down, pontem 
rcscidit, ibid. c. 19, and its position 
cannot be determined exactly : some 
authorities place it near Bonn, but the 
majority are in favour of a site a little 
below Cobleuz, near Andernach [Autun- 
nacum) on the left bank, and Neuwied 
on the right. Merivale, History of the 
Romans under the Emi)ire, edit. 8vo., 
vol. i, p. 46 sq. and note : C. Julii 
Cfcsaris Commeutarii de Bello Oallico, 
edit. Prof. Hermann Rheinhard, Illus- 
trierte Schulausgabe, 1889, pp. 87-89, 
Taf. Y% Y^; pp. 243-245, Addenda, 
Zum Ban der Rheinbriicke. 

- Florus, iv. 12, 26, loc. citat., and sec 
the note of Freinshemius in the Variorum 
Commentary, edit. Graevius, tom. i, p. 

^ Tacitus, Annals, i, 56, speaking of 
Germanicus the son of Drusus, says, 
positoque castello super vestigia i>aterni 
praesidii in monte Tauno, expeditum 
exercitum in Chattos rapit. Some suppose 
that the Saalburg, near Homburg, is 
meant ; vid. interpp. in loco. Dion 
Cassius, lib. liv, cap. 33, koI 'irfpov {^i.e, 
(ppovpiov) ev XaTTOts nap avrt^ rai Pijvij). 

Among the later Roman Emperors two 
deserve to be noticed in connection with 
the occupation of this region, Probus and 



year 1862 seems to indicate that the arches were of stone. 
It was first pubhshed in the Eevue Numismatiqiie, but 
the most complete account of it is by Becker in the 
Annalen des Vereins ftir Nass. Alterthumskunde und Ges- 
chichtsforschung, IX, p. 152 ff, und X., p. 158 ff/ The 
ancient bridge was in the space between the present 
which is of iron, and the site of an earlier one of boats, 
but very much nearer the former position. I have not 
j^et been able to study the details of construction, and 
must refer the inquirer to two German Memoirs : Der 
Eomische Brlickenkopf in Kastel bei Mainz und die dor- 
tige Eomerbrilcke, von Julius Grimm, 1882; and Die 
romische Eheinbrlicke bei Mainz, von Baurath Heim 
und Dr. Wilh. Velke in the Zeitschrift des Vereins zur 
Erforschung der Eheinischen Geschichte u. Alterthiimer 
in Mainz, Band III., Heft 4, 1887. These publications are 
illustrated ] y plans and drawings on a scale sufficiently 
large. ^ 

I have already said that nothing Eoman can be seen at 

Valentinian. The former is supposed 
but incorrectly, to have constructed the 
Limes Transrhenaiius whicli protected 
the Agri Decumates (Suabia). Gibbon, 
chap xii (edit. Smith, vol. ii, p. 46), makes 
this statement, but does not give any 
ancient authority for it ; and no evidence 
of the kind exists. See Mr. Thomas 
Hodgkin's Memoir quoted below, The 
Pfahlgraben, etc., pp. 52-88, especially 
p. 86 sqq. Again, it has been said that 
the culture of the vine was introduced 
on the Rhine and Moselle by the same 
Emperor ; this account does not agree 
well with a passage in Vopiscus, Life of 
Probus, c. 18 § 8, Gnllis omnibus et 
Hispanis ac Brittannis hinc permisit ut 
vites haberent vinumque conficerent, ipse 
Almam Montem in Illyrico circa Sirmium 
militari manu fossum lecta vite consei'uit. 
Perhaps we ought to read conscvit 
(planted) : comp. Virgil, Eclogue i, v. 73, 
CD, quis consevimus agros ! Cicero, Dc 
Senectute xvii, 59, agrum diligenter con- 
situm. la Livj', x, 24, Drakenborch's 
text has quam arhorem conscruisset, but 
the recent editors, Madvig and Weissen- 
born adopt the conjecture of Glareanus 

Gibbon, in his narrative of Valentinian 's 
campaigns and the defence of the Gallic 
frontier, remarks " The banks of the 
Rhine, from its source to the straits of 
the ocean, were closely planted with 
strong castles and convenient towers," 

chap. XXV, edit, Smith, iii, 260 sq. It 
should be observed that the historian 
rightly uses the plural number in the 
beginning of the sentence. Montesquieu, 
Grandeur et Decadence des Romains, 
chap, xvii, Valentiuien sentit plus que 
personne la necessite de I'ancien plan ; 
il employa toute sa vie h, fortifier, les 
bords du Rhin, a y faire des levees, y 
batir des chateaux, y placer des troupes, 
leur donner le moyen d'y subsister. 

^ This medallion is now preserved in 
the Cabinet des Medailles of the Biblio- 
tlieque Nationale at Paris, and was shown 
to me by M. Ernest Babelon, bibliothe- 
caire au Cabinet des Antiques. The 
reverse is perfectly plain. 

-Four plates are appended to the 
former work: Taf. i Ka.stel, Situation des 
Romercastells und der Briicke. Taf. ii 
Liingenprofil in der Linie A-b des Situa- 
tionsplanes mit geometrischer Ansicht 
der reconstruirten ersteu Rihuerbriicke. 
Liingenprofil c-D, 30'" nordlich von a-b. 
Taf. iii, 1, iiom. Medaille nach Friihner, 
2 Castellmauer. Taf. iv Kastel, Nach 
einer amtlichen franzosLschen Aufnahme 
von 1807. 

The latter memoir is illustrated by six 
plates, Taf. ix-xiv : the fallowing may 
be mentioned as specially interesting ; ix, 
Situation der Pfeilorreste der romischen 
Rheinbriicke bei Mainz ; xi, Pfahlrost 
der ri5m. Rheinbriicke (aufgestellt ira 
Hofe des kurfiii-stl. Schlosaos) ; xji 


Mayence outside the precincts of the Museum ; this is true 
for the city, but in its immediate neighbourhood the cita- 
del contains a monument which is Koman both in name 
and in reality. It is a tower, now about twelve metres high, 
at the south-west corner of the fortress, which stands on a 
hill and has succeeded the ancient caslrum. The modern 
name of this structure, Eigelstein or Eichelsiein, has been 
derived from the German Etchel, an acorn, because its shape 
is supposed to be similar. But this etymology seems 
fanciful and far-fetched, it would be better to connect the 
name with the Latin aquila (French aigle), especially as 
an old tradition relates that the building was erected by 
the legions in honour of Drusus. The words Eigel {Eichel) 
and aquila resemble each other more closely than appears 
at first sight, because the Romans pronounced QU as K or 
the hard C which is interchanged with G, as in the name 
Caius, frequently written Gains/ It is said that games 

Romische Werkzeuge von der Rhein- 
briicke. Hiibner, after investigating tlie 
inscriptions, concludes that the Bridge 
ahould not be attributed to Drusus, but 
that it was probably erected about the 
end of the first century of our era. 

There is an important and well known 
passage in Eumeniiis relating to tliis 
subject ; Panegyricus Coustautio Caesari, 
i.e. Constantius Chlorus (the Pale) father 
of Constantine the Great, Emperor, a.d. 
305-306, cap. ii, A ponte Rheni usque ad 
Danubii transitum Guntiensem devastata 
atque exhausta penitus Allemannia. 
Guntia has been identified with Giinz- 
burg, which is situated a little east of 
Uim, at the junction of the river Giinz 
with the Danube ; see the French trans- 
lation " Discours d' Eumene " by Land- 
iot and Rochet, note p. 176 sq. Cf. 
Brunet, Diet, de Geographic, s.v. Some 
authorities, however, assign Guntia to a 
different position : v. index to tlie Aiiton- 
ine Itinerary, edit. Parthey and Piuder. 

Ammianus speaks of a bridge at May- 
ence constructed by the Emperor Julian, 
lib. xvii, c. 1 , § 2 petiturus ipse Mogoniia- 
cum, ut ponte compacto transgressus in 
suis requireret barbaros, cum nullum 
reliquisset in nostris, refragante vetabatur 

The most recent discovery with which 
I am acquainted is that noticed in the 
Independance Beige of September 11, 
1889. Un travail execute a JIayenco 
pour r agrandissement d'une u.sine a mis 
h nu, et dans un parfait etat de conserva- 
tion sous sa gangue de plfitre, une dee 

piles du vieux pont romaiu de I'antique 
Magontia. Ce prccieux debris a C metres 

The same No. of the Zeitschrift quoted 
above contains an article by Dr. Jakob 
Keller entitled Die neuen romischen 
Inschriften des Museums zu Mainz, 
Zweier Nachtrag zum Beckerscben 
Katalog, which forms a valuable supple- 
ment to preceding publications. 

' We infer that among the Romans 
QU was equivalent to k, from the fact 
that the preceding vowel is short in such 
words as aqua, equus ; if QU had been pro- 
nounced, according to our English usage, 
as Kw, that vowel would have been long 
by position, Moreover, ecus sometimes 
occurs instead of cqmts,e.ff.,in Heyne's 
Virgil edited by Wagner, ^Eneid vii,'l89, 
Pic us ecum domitor, i.e. equorum ; ibid. 
V. 651 ; and ix. 26, Dives ecum : cf 
Mom-o's note on Lucretius, i, 477. 
Accordingly, Qu, like K, interchanges 
with the Greek Gamma : quidcm is the 
same word as ye ; cf. cquidcm tyuyye 
siqiiidem t'lye. Key's alphabet, &c., 
Essay on Terentian Metres, p. 141 sq., 
and Latin Diet., 1888. s. v. qiiidem §13. 

The explanation of Eigelstein given 
above is confirmed by the case of Aquileia, 
parallel both in form and derivation. 
Strabo, lib. iv, c. vi, §9, sqq. calls this 
city 'AKv\r)ia. and Ptolemy lib. iii, c. 1, 
§'-!5 'AKov\rii'a KoXwvia (Papo, Worterbuch 
der GriechLschen Eigennamen). The 
place received its name from the acci- 
dental omen of an eagle at the time of 
its foundation ; Eustathius, commentary 


and military spectacles were exhibited here on the anni- 
versary of the death of Drusus. I have not found the 
authority for this statement ; but if correct, it would tend 
to support the local tradition. We have already com- 
mented on the cenotaph of Ca^lius, which records one of 
the greatest disasters that ever befell the Romans, ranking 
with the surrender at the Caudine Forks, the battle of 
Cannre, and the ignominious defeat of Crassus. Here, as 
we stand on the height which commands an extensive 
view over Maj^ence, the Khine, and Mount Taunus in the 
horizon, we are reminded of a Roman prince, distinguished 
equally by his high lineage and his personal achievements. 
He was descended on the father's side from C. Claudius 
Nero, and on the mother's from M. Livius Salinator — the 
generals who defeated Hasdrubal on the river Metaurus, 
and by this decisive victory saved Rome in the second 
Punic war.' He was the stepson of Augustus, the father 
of Germanicus and the Emperor Claudius. But his 
brilliant, though brief career, attracts our notice far more 
than the deeds of his ancestors or his relation to the 
Imperial famil}'. Drusus carried on the war against the 
Rha3ti and Vindelici (Tyrol and Bavaria) which the verse, 
of Horace celebrate,^ administered the province of Gauls 
invaded Germany, penetrated into the interior of that 
country as far as the Elbe, made a canal between the 
Rhine and the Zuyder Zee, erected a fort at Aliso on the 
Lippe, and died under thirty years of age. He was a 
favourite with the Romans, because they thought he 
would restore their old republican government, and so 
popular with the army that the soldiers wished to keep 
his body ; which, however, was removed by order of 
Augustus, and burnt in the Campus Martins ; the ashes 

on Dionysius Periegetea v. 378 (381) ; see the eagle appears as one of the ornaments 

Sir E. H. Biinbury's Art. s.v. in Smith's of the signum. 

Diet, of Classical Geography. Comp. ^ Horace, Odes iv, 4, 37 sqq. 

the figure of an eagle-bearer faquilijcr} njuid debeas, Koma, Neronibus, 

engraved in Dr. Lindonschmit's Alter- Testis Metaurum flumeu et Has- 

thiimer unserer heiduischen Vorzeit, driibal 

Heft iv, Taf. vi, with copious explana- Devictus et pulchcr fugatis 

tious, monument of Cn. Musius ; aqviuf. Ille dies Latio tcnebris. 

occurs in the inscription •L'.ndcr the effigy. See the note in Wiokham's edition, 

The eagle, which is very conspicuous, 1874, p. 277. 

holds an acorn in its beak and a thunder- '^ Ibid, v, 17 sq. 

bolt iu its claws. In the same plate No. Videre Racti bella sub Alpibus 

2 shows a signifer (standard bearer) ; Drusum gerentem Vindelici. 

comp. Heft xi, Taf. vi, also a sujnifcr ; where Bentley and Orelli read Raetis. 



were deposited in that Mausoleum of the Emperor which 
is well known as one of the chief monuments in the 
Eternal City." 

The feminine form Drusa, as far as I know, does not 
occur in the authors, but we are all familiar with the 
diminutive of it, Drusilla, wife of the governor who 
trembled while Paul preached before him.^ 

If the visitor is willing to extend his walk, and proceed 
for about half an hour from one of the western gates of 
Mayence (Gau Thor or Binger Thor), he will reach the 
aqueduct that supplied the Castrum, Its remains are 

* This Mausoleum, described by Strabo, 
V, iii, 8, is situated in tlie northern part 
of the Campus JIarbiiis, between the 
Corso and the Tiber. In modern times it 
has been converted into a place of public 
amusement ; when I was at Rome, I 
observed many placards on the walls 
announcing equestrian performances in 
the Mausoleo di Augusto, as in a hippo- 

The death of Drusus was caused by 
his horse falling on his leg, which we 
learn from the Epitome of the last book 
of Livy, edit. Drakenborch cxl, edit. 
Madvig cxlii. It is worthy of notice that 
the historian ends his gi'cat work with 
the death of Drusus, for he thus indicates 
that the event was one of national im- 

Eutropius, lib. vii, c. 13, mentions the 
erection of a memorial in honour of 
Drusus at Mayence ; it may remind us of 
another at Rome — the arch that bears his 
name within the Porta S. Sebastiano, 
where the Via Appia issues from the city. 
Suetonius, Claudius, c. 1, Seuatus, inter 
alia complura, marmoreum arcum cum 
tropaeis via Appia decrevit. Rossini has 
three very fine engi'avings of this Arch — 
Avanzi dell' Arco di Druso (1), dalla 
parte interna della Citth ( 2 ) dalla 
parte esterna della Citta ; the third plate, 
Ristauro, shows the adjoining aqueduct 
constructed subsequently in the time of 
Caracalla, together with illustrative 

For an account of the campaigns of 
Drusus and an estimate of their perman- 
ent results see Merivale, History of the 
Romans under the Empire, edit. Svo, vol. 
iii, chaps, xxxv, xxxvi, esp. p. 238 sq. 
In the Index, art. Drusus, some of the 
numerals are incorrect. 

-Acts, xxiv, 24, Mera Se ^]uipas rivas 
vapayevSfj.ii'os 6 <i>ijAi| irw ApovalWy ttj 
yvpaiKl, oiiff]) 'lovSala, (./.iTiirifx^aro rhv 
UavKoy, This Drusilla was sister of 

Agrippa and Berenice mentioned ibid. 
XXV, 23. Conybeare and Howson, vol. ii, 
p. 352. Tacitus, Histories, v, 9, speaking 
of Felix, says Drusilla Ckopatrae et Antonii 
nepte in matrimonium accepta ; but this 
statement may be reasonably doubted. 

De Vit in his Onomasticon enumerates 
four Drusillae ; one of them is well 
known from the coins of Caligula : Cohen 
Med Imp., vol. i, p. 148, pi. ix, No. 13, 
Grand Bronze ; the reverse bears the 


three sisters are represented as Security, 
Concord and Foi-tune, each with appro- 
priate emblems. Comp. another medal 
in the same plate, and text ]}. 155. 

The diminutive suffix of the name has 
lost its force, as is also frequently the 
case with common nouns, e.g. the Italian 
sorella sister, frateUo brother ; so fratelli is 
the term nsed for brothers who are i^art- 
ners in business, where no idea of little- 
ness can be supposed. Moreover, Prisca 
and Priscilla are said of the same j^ersou, 
apparently without any difference of 
meaning ; comp. Acts, xviii, 2, koI evpuiu 
Tiva 'lov5a7ov oi/dfiaTi 'AKv\av, TlovriKhu tw 

yevei Kal TlpiarKtWap yvua7Ka 

avTov, with Romans, xvi, 3, 'Aavdaaade 
npicTKau Kod 'AKv\av rolis avfepyovs nov iv 
Xpicrrt^ 'Irjaov, and 2 Tim. iv, 19 : Alford's 
Greek Testament note on Acts, xviii, 2 ; 
Conybeare and Howson, vol. i, p. 455 sq., 
text and notes. Priscus and Prisca occur 
frequently in inscriptions : for examjiles 
V. C.I.L. for Gallia Cisalpinaand Hispauia, 
Cognomina virorum et mulierum. 

'AKvXas, " which is merely the Greek 
form of Aquila," corroborates what has 
been previously said about the pronuncia- 
tion of QU. 

I have followed the Authorised Version 
in using the word " trembled : " the 
Revisers have substituted " terrifled " ; 
this is less graphic, but accurately corres- 
ponds with the original ^^(po^os ytfdniyos. 


situated on rising ground above the village of Zalilbacli, 
near which many inscriptions have been found, because 
the burial place of the legions and of the earliest Christian 
church was in this suburb. The water-course was in 
great part carried over arches, like those that we see 
radiating from Eome through the Campagna. It began 
at Konigsbruunen (Konigsborn) near Finthen — a name 
connected yflih. fons (Italian fontana) — and pierced the 
hills which the road to Bin£i;en traverses. Between Drais 
and Gonzenheim foundations of a wall have been dis- 
covered, extending 1062 paces, and continuous with it 
are substructions of piers, about 270 in number, over a 
plain named Addach. From this place to Zahlbach it is 
supposed that there was a row of 245 piers; but at the 
latter point fifty-nine, called by the common people 
Langsteine, stand to this day, so that conjecture gives 
place to certainty here. Some have still a height of 
twenty to thirty feet, though they shared the fate of many 
ancient edifices, and were used in the twelfth century as 
building materials for a monastery. Hence, for a distance 
of 250 paces, the aqueduct crossed the Wildbach to the 
plateau where the Castrum was erected. The exact 
site of its termination has not been discovered ; 
Murray and Baedeker mention the Entenpfuhl (Ducks' 
pool) between Forts Stahlberg and Philipp, but Colonel 
Cohausen, who excavated there in 1853 to a depth of ten 
feet, could fnid no traces of a reservoir, but only soldiers' 
graves, buttons of uniforms, &c., belonging to the 
Kevolutionary War.' 

The total length is 8000 Schritt, rather less than 7000 
yards.^ Somewhat more than half of the aqueduct is 
underground or upon the soil ; the remainder is carried 

^ For the details of the Aquccluet I together with the Valhun Hadriani and 

am indebted to a meiooir entitled Die the Vallum Pii in Britain — all oa the 

roniischen Wasserleitungen von Trier, same scale. In the Suiiplement, 188G, 

Mainz und Kiiln, und ein ahnliches will be found a list of the author's 

ProjiJct fur Frankfurt. Vortrag, gehalten numerous publications. 

im Altcrthumsverein den 16 Marz 18(JG From existing remains it is evident 

von dem kon. jireuss. Oberstlieutenant that the Aqueduct at Mayence far sur- 

A. V. Cohausen ; v. csp. pp. 149-151. passed that at Treves in arclutectural 

Mitteilungen des (Jesch.-Vcr. Frankfurt, magnificence. 

iii, 1868. This eminent antiquary is '■' Hilpert, Ocrmau Dictionary, s.v. 

best known by his important work on Schritt [as a measure or scale of distance] 

the Roman Boundary wall in Germany, a pace, a step. Ein ijcmcincr Schritt, a 

1881, which is coi)iously illustrated ; Taf. common pace or step of the usual length 

i saows the Limes Trausrheuauus, [i.e., five-sixths of a yard.] 


over about 500 pillars and arches. The higher piers taper 
from three feet at the base to two in the upper part : 
their depth at the springing of the arches is between seven 
and eight feet, and the interval from one to another is 
between sixteen and seventeen feet. 

It is known from marks on bricks that the 14th legion 
built the Aqueduct, as from inscriptions on tools we learn 
the names of the legions employed in constructing or re- 
pairing the bridge ; the latter are given in Tafel xiv., 
accompanying the Memoir by Heim and Velke in the 
Zeitschrift, quoted above.' No trace of the masonry 
forming the canal remains except a gutter-stone now pre- 
served in the Museum at Mayence ; but from the depth 
of the piers, and by comparison with other aqueducts, 
it may be inferred that the breadth was from 2 to 2 J feet, 
and the height from 4^ to 5 feet.^ 

Considering the importance of Mayence, some persons 
might be surprised at these small dimensions, and expect 
to find here the colossal grandeur that we admire at Metz. 
But I think the difference is not difficult to explain. In 
the former case the design was simply to meet the require- 
ments of the Boman garrison, without regard to the 
towns-people, Moguntiacum being a great military station, 

^ Zeitscbrift . . . der Rheinischen easier to cut two right lines than to form 

Gesch. u. Altertbiimer in Mainz, 1887, the curve of c on a stone. See examples 

Band iii, Heft 4, Verzeichniss der Tafehi in Lapid. Septent. index xiii ; and in 

at the end of this Part. Taf. xiv, fig. 2, Dr. Bruce's Roman Wall, edit. 4to pp. 

Holzschliigel (Funde i, 1) ; L (ucius) 415-417, five woodcuts of Centurial 

VALE (rius) LEG xiiii. Fig. 3 Gusstlick Stones ; they generally indicated the 

a us Blei (Funde i, 2) ; leg xvi, with i^ortion of work which the troop had 

letters reversed as in a seal. Fig. 4 done. Comp. Catalogue of Antiquities in 

Legionbaustein (Funde ii, 21). the Museum of the Society of Anti- 

LEG" XIIII quaries of Scotland, ji. 94, ii, Nos, 145, 

G • M • V * 147-150. also stands for centurio, 

•> • G ' VELSi • SECV Orelli Inscrr. Nos. 488, 894 : Key, Latin 

Expansion Diet, initial article c, § 53. 

Legio xiiii - The student of the history of 

Gemina Martia Victrix Mayence should consult Brambach's 

centuria a (sic) Velsi Secimdi. Corpus luscriptionum Rheuanarum ; 

Observe here >, the abbreviation of there is a separate article, to which a 

centuria. Dr. Bruce, Lapidarium Sep- table of contents is prefixed, under the 

teutrionale, p. 13, No. 5, says " The heading Mogontiacum et Castellum 

angular mark is supposed to represent a Mattiacorum, pp. 190-257, Nos. 974-1377. 

vine sapling, the badge of the centurion's Of the sections the most apposite for my 

office." But I should leather think that Paper are B. Extra moenia sive in ipsis 

it is a C reversed, and the initial letter of moeuibus. 17 Zahlbach, 1136 ■ 1271 ; 

centuria, formed in an unusual way to Legio xiiii occurs frequently 1172-1196. 

denote a special ajiplicatiou, and to D. In ripa Rheui sive in ipso Rheuo, 

distinguish it from c used to mean Caius, 1301-1309 ; E. Castell. Muttiacor., Kastel 

centum etc., just as It stands for the 1310-1359. 

reverse of a medal. Besides it would be 


but neither an imperial residence nor a commercial centre. 
On the other hand, the Aqueduct at Metz, which some 
have attributed to Drusus, more probably belongs to the 
latter half of the fourth Century and to the reign of Valen- 
tinian the First or some other Emperor of that period, 
■when the frontier was threatened by the Germans, and 
the Eomans, alive to their own interests, endeavoured to 
secure the fidelity of the provincials by undertaking 
public works that were both magnificent and useful. At 
Mogontiacum they built for themselves ; at Metz for the 
population around them. The aqueduct we have been 
investigating is more analogous to the one at Luynes 
which I had the honour to describe to you in my paper on 
Touraine : there the only motive of construction was to 
supply the fortress that commanded the valley of the 

{To le Continued). 

'' ^ Archaeol. Jouru, 1SS8, vol. xlv, pp. Sauvagcre's Plate; it Las also been 
235-237. The aqueduct is w ell fchowu iu photographed. 



The Eev. Greville I. Chester has been fortunate enough 
to secure another addition to our stock of Hittite inscrip- 
tions. As the object on which the inscription is found 
was purchased at Smyrna, it may be inferred that it was 
discovered somewhere in Asia Minor. Unfortunately it 
is impossible to fix more definitely the exact spot from 
which it may have come. Smyrna is the centre of the 
trade in the coins and other antiquities which are found 
in the interior of AnatoHa ; I have myself bought there 
cylinders which were imported from Kappadokia, and it 
is therefore quite possible that the " Hittite " relic 
obtained by Mr. Chester may have come from an equal 

The relic is a seal, though I was at first a good deal 
puzzled to ascertain its original use. It is a circular bead 
of brown limestone with flattened sides, on which inscrip- 
tions have been engraved. A hole has been drilled 
through the thickest part, passing between the sides on 

which the characters are inscribed. This hole, however, 
was not the first which it had been attempted to make. 
There are remains of another hole which has been drilled 
for a short distance into the stone, and then left un- 

The hole shows that the object was intended for 
suspension. But it could hardly have been intended for 
purposes of ornamentation. The stone of which it con- 
sists is not a beautiful one, and seems to have been selected 

' Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, June 5th, 1890. 


simply on account of the ease with which an inscription 
could be cut upon it. Moreover the inscriptions on both 
faces are executed with an equal amount of care and 
attention. Yet, if it had been intended that the " bead " 
should be used merely as the pendent of a necklace one 
of these faces would have been necessarily hidden. Finally, 
as we shall see, the inscription on one of the faces contains 
a royal name, that on the other the name of the king's 
father. It is difficult to suppose that such inscriptions 
could have formed part of a necklace. 

A clue, however, to the original purpose of the object 
is afforded by the Babylonian cylinders, the use of which, 
as we know, extended itself as far as Kappadokia and the 
country of the Hittites. They, too, were pierced with 
holes through which strings were passed to attach them 
to the wrists of their owners. The cylinder, in fact, was 
the signet of the Babylonian gentleman, which had to be 
employed whenever he wrote his name or witnessed a 

The bead Mr. Chester has bought must have served a 
like purpose. It must have been a royal seal attached to 
the wrist by the string or chain which passed through it. 
This will explain the unfinished liole to which I have 
referred. The latter has been drilled through the edge 
of the bead at a point which corresponds with the end of 
the inscription on the first face. But the whole inscrip- 
tion did not really end here, a second inscription giving 
the name of the owner's father having been added on the 
other face. The workman, therefore, did not complete 
the hole, and made another at the point where the second 
inscription ends. 

The inscriptions are composed of Hittite characters 
which we find extending with but slight variations, from 
Hamath and Carchemish in the east to the shores of the 
iEgean in the west. I believe that they were primarily 
invented in the district which adjoins the modern 
Mar'ash, It was here, at all events, in the eastern part 
of the ancient Komagene that Hittite art begins, and it 
was here also that the Hittite tribes of the Taurus first 
came into contact with the civilisation of Assyria, Baby- 
lonia, and Egypt. However this may be, the extraordin- 
ary similarity, not only between the products of Hittite 


art, but also between the forms of the Hittite characters 
and the arrangement of the symbols, throughout the 
whole of the Hittite region, indicates that most, if not all, 
of the Hittite monuments known to us in Asia Minor 
belong substantially to the same people and the same 
conquering race. 

The only light hitherto shed on the decipherment of the 
Hittite texts comes from the bilingual inscription of king 
Tarkondemos. This has given us the meaning of two 
ideographs — those for " king " and " country " — and the 
phonetic values of four signs . Besides this we know the 
meaning of the ideograph of " deity," and also of one or 
two more. 

The first face of the seal from Smyrna presents us with 
a number of characters arranged in the symmetrical 
fashion which we are accustomed to find on Hittite seals. 
At the foot of the inscription is the ideograph of " king," 
twice repeated, and enclosing, as it were, the Eoyal name. 
On the inner edge of the ideograph is drawn a short line, 
which is attached to the last character in the inscription 
of Tarkondemos, as well as to the last character of an 
inscription on a seal belonging to M. Schlumberger. As 
it further occurs in other Hittite inscriptions in places 
where a paragraph seems to come to an end, it would 
follow that it denotes pretty much the same as a full stop, 
and served to indicate the conclusion of a text or a 

The two ideographs of " king " are preceded by two 
signs, each of which is found to precede the names of the 
kings mentioned in the longer Hittite texts. One of them 
is a simple line, the representative of the numeral "one." 
The other combines this line with a crescent, which a 
comparison of passages has shown to be a determinative 
afiix of patronymics. At Mar'ash the simple line takes 
the place of the compound sign which elsewhere is the 
one generally used. Besides preceding proper names it 
also precedes what are evidently titles and nouns of 
agency. I therefore pointed out some years ago that it 
must be a determinative prefix indicating that the word 
following was either a proper name or a noun of agency. 
Mr. Chester's new acquisition verifies this conclusion, and 
further proves that the simple and compound signs were 

VOL. XLVn 2 E 


employed interchangeably. They here determine the 
word for " king." 

^ The royal name to which the ideograph of " king " is 
attached consists of three characters, one of which is new. 
■ Tliis is the one at the top, which looks like a cord tied 
into a bow with the ends spread out. The other two 
characters are a triangle which is found elsewhere, and a 
circle, which in an inscription from Carchemish (J. iii. 5) 
is' preceded by the determinative of "deity," and must 
therefore denote the Sun-god. It is a pity that we do not 
know how the name of the Sun-god was pronounced in 
the Tlittite language. 

The vacant spaces in the inscription are filled up with 
two little angles which are frequently found fulfilling the 
same function on gems and seals of the " Hittite " class, 
as well as with a star. Two stars are also engraved on 
the other side of the seal, and similar stars are employed 
for the purpose of ornamentation on Hittite seals in the 
possession of M, Schlumberger. The inscription on both 
faces of the seal is surrounded with the representation of 
a twisted rope. 

The inscription on the reverse contains the characters 
which a comparison of passages has long since shown 
denoted the patronymic, one of them being the phonetic 
representative of the patronymic suffix C^.kus), the other, the 
determinative affix to which I have already alluded. They 
are twice repeated, like the ideograph of "king" on the first 
face, and the hole which runs through the seal starts from 
a point immediately below the place where they are 
inscri])ed for a second time. 

The name of tlie father consists of three characters like 
that of the son, the first being again the triangle, and the 
second a character which has not been met with before. 
I have no idea as to what it represents ; perhaps the foot 
of a horse, perhaps the head of some animal. The third 
character occurs on one of Mr. Schlumberger's seals, and 
is shown by a comparison of texts to be a "hieratic" and 
much deformed representation of a hand. 

Such, then, is the signification of the inscriptions on the 
seal, so far as they can be made out at present. On one 
side is a royal name followed by the title of " king," on 
the other side the name of his father. Both names begin 


with the same character, and the first name ends with 
that of the Sun-god. Until another bihngual text is 
discovered I doubt whether we shall succeed in getting 
much beyond these results. 

By way of appendix I would mention a fine Phoenician 
seal of chalcedony, also obtained this winter by Mr. 
Greville Chester, and also presented by him to the 
Ashmolean Museum. A couchant lion, with its mouth 
open, is engraved on the lower part of it. Above the 
lion is an inscription in five Phoenician letters, the former 
of which belong to the 7tli or 6th century B.C. Unfor- 
tunately fractures in the stone make the reading of the 
second and last letters a little doubtful, though the second 
letter can scarcely be anything else than p, and the last 
letter is either n or a mere symbol to denote the end of 
the inscription. The other letters are clear enough, and 
the whole legend would therefore run 

ly^lD^ L-P-R-'-N 

"belonging to Phera'n." The characters resemble these 
of the Siloam inscription. 



The works in connection with the restoration of the 
Chapter House of Lincohi Minster, now all but completed, 
rendered it necessary to take down and rebuild the 
eastern walk of the cloisters. This work had been 
previously accomplished for the other two existing walks, 
the fourth, or north walk havingf lone: since fallen down 
and been rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren. An oppor- 
tunity was thus offered for a close examination of the 
bosses of the wooden groining. Photographs of the 
whole series were taken by Mr. Hadley, of Lincoln, reduced 
copies of which were published in the *' Builder" July 19th 
of the current year. 

These bosses which belong to quite the close of the 
thirteenth century are of exquisite design and execution, 
the pose of some of the figures and the flow of the 
drapery exhibiting a grace and refinement which it would 
be difficult to surpass. Exjjosure to the weather for 
several centuries has robbed the carvings of much of 
their original sharpness, and in some instances has 
caused decay and mutilation. But even in their damaged 
state they prove themselves to be the works of no ordi- 
nary artist, whose eye for beauty of form was combined 
with vigour of conception and ready skill of hand, and a 
true feeling for nature. The designs, especially those 
representing the months are charmingly sj^irited and 
natural, characterized by that " uncalculating bestovval of 
the wealth of labour' which Mr. lluskin speaks of as one 
of the sj)ccial features of mediaeval carving. They are 
not dead prosaic fashionings of the mallet and the chisel. 


They live and move. What must the instmctive feeling 
for art in the ordinary Enghsh workman have been, when 
such exquisite carvings came naturally from his hands, 
not to be placed near the eye and gazed at and admired, 
but to be fixed high above the head, as mere architectural 
decorations, adding to the general effect, but not chal- 
lenging the individual notice which we now feel they so 
richly deserve. 

The bosses in question are nineteen in number, alter- 
nately larger and smaller, fixed at the point of junction of 
the ribs of the slight wooden groining. The eastern walk 
to which they belong consists of nine narrow bays, with 
one wider bay at the southern extremity, corresponding 
to the width of the southern walk. A tenth narrow bay, 
and the wider extreme bay have been swallowed up 
in Wren's Roman Doric cloister, which supports Dean 
Hony wood's library. The subjects are as follows — 

(1). Much mutilated ; one of the series of the months, 
perhaps October, the tree-felling month, or March the 
pruning month. It represents a man, now headless, in a 
long flowing frock girt round his waist, grasping in his 
two hands the handle of an axe or some sharp cutting 
instrument, now lost, which he is about to bring down on 
the trunk of a tree standing at his right hand. The 
action in spite of the mutilation of the boss is clearly 
discernible, and looks too vigorous for pruning. 

(2). (small) A short fat man with long curls dependent 
over his ears, and a short beard, seated with his hands 
on his knees, as though in front of a fire, his countenance 
indicating a sense of complete satisfaction. Possibly 
intended to represent " cold February," for which a man 
warming himself before a chimney-place was the recog- 
nised symbol. 

(3). The month of November is typified by a man 
sowing corn. He wears a long loose frock, girt about 
the waist; on his head is a flat cap, and a muffler 
protects his cheeks and chin. On his left side he carries 
a broad, shallow basket of seed corn, suspended by a 
strap passing over his right shoulder. He scatters the 
seed broadcast with his right hand ; a sack of corn is 
behind him to his right. This figure is very spirited ; 
the action vigorous ; the face shews much character. 


(4). (small) Two winged dragonlike animals fighting ; 
each seekino' to devour the other. 


(5). The month of December typified by pig-killing, 
recalling old Tusser's lines : — 

When mast ia gone 
Hog falleth anon. 

The killer is an old man with a long beard, his head 
covered with a close fitting coif, He wears a loose frock, 
with a girdle round the waist. His right arm is raised in 
act of striking a huge swine, who is contentedly munching 
acorns. The axe is gone. The back of the boss represents 
oak leaves and acorns beautifully carved, but out of pro- 
portion with the rest of the design. 

(G). (small) A male lamb scratching its nose with its 
right hind foot. 

(7). The month of January, the month of good cheer; 
a prolongation of the Christmas festivity. The subject is 
in agreement with Chaucer's lines 

" Janus sits by the fyre with double herd 
And drinketh of his bugle horn the wyn." 

Franklein's Tale, 516. 

A man clad in a long loose tunic, ungirt, that he may 
drink more at his ease, his head covered with a broad flat 
slouching cap, wath a hood reaching over his head and 
protecting his chin, is sitting cross legged, holding a 
drinking horn in his left hand and a bowl in his right, 
resting his elbow on a pitcher. Behind him is a cask of 
ale with a spigot, to replenish his bowl. The man's 
thorough enjoyment of his surroundings is very marked. 

(8). (small) A very singular grou^D probably intended to 
portray Ezekiel's four living creatures. It consists of 
four small squat draped figures, the upper part human, 
the bodies almost non-existent, the extremities those 
resjDectively of the ox, the lion, the eagle, and the man. 
The heads of three are hooded, the fourth wears a peaked 
cap ; all are gazing upwards. 

(9). Two dragon like creatures in fierce conflict, each 
biting the other's neck. 

(10). (small) another subject from Ezekiel's vision, a 
figure, broad for its height, combining the ox and the 
lion below, and the human form above. It has a female 


head in a thirteenth century square headdress, the cheeks 
and chin wrapped in a wimple, and long flowing drapery 
falling over each ear. The bust is fully vested, the 
drapery flowing over the breasts. The being has no body, 
but two sets of extremities ; to its right the hoofed feet 
of an ox, and a tail ending in a leaf; and on its left the 
paws and tail of a lion. 

(11). Our Lord in act of Benediction. He is seated 
on a cushioned throne, the uprights ending in finials. 
He is fully vested, the pallium fastened with a diamond 
shaped morse, His feet are bare, His hair is long and 
curling ; the beard short. The right hand is raised in 
blessing ; in the left hand He carries the world, represen- 
ted as a flat disk. 

(12). (The central boss over the Chapter House door.) 
A very solemn looking, long- eared rabbit, in a crouching 
attitude ; his head and shoulders are invested with a close 
fitting covering, puckered at the neck, with holes for the 
ears and eyes, the very ideal of " Brer Babbit " of Uncle 
Eemus' Tales. 

(13). The Virgin and Child, throned ; an exquisitely 
graceful composition. The Virgin veiled and crowned is 
seated and carries the Holy Child on her left knee. Her 
flowing veil passes under her chin from left to right ; her 
right hand, and the head of our Lord have been destroyed. 
He holds a dove in His left hand, and raises His right hand 
in blessing ; a dove of a larger size is perched on the back 
of the throne to the left. 

(14). (small, much mutilated, both the head and hands 
gone), a seated angel exquisitely draped, holding a crown 
in the left hand. 

(15). The enthronement of the Blessed Virgin. Our 
Lord is seated, witli long flowing hair and bearded, in a 
long tunic, girt round the waist, and reaching to the feet 
which are bare ; His right hand raised in blessing. His left 
holding the world as before in the form of a disk. On the 
right hand sits the Virgin, half turning toward her 
Divine Son, the head unhappily gone. The treatment of 
this subject is surpassingly beautiful ; the drapery shews 
much grace. 

(16). (small, much mutilated) a grotesque. A tumbler 
performing his feats, holds his right foot with his right 

224 BOSSES or wooden vaulting of the eastern 

hand, on a level with liis shoulders, his left hand is on his 

(17). A large boss of vine leaves and grapes, exquisitely 
true to nature. 

(18). A calf lying down, scratching its chin with its 
right hind foot. 

(19). A mitred bishop — perhaps Oliver Sutton, the 
chief promoter of the cloisters, — seated on a cushioned 
throne, his right hand raised in blessing, bearing a 
mutilated crozier in his left hand. 

It wdll have been noticed that only four of the months, 
or possibly five, are represented in the bosses of the East 
walk, which now come under our observation. The others 
may have perished on the fall of the North walk, or they 
may be still awaiting identification among the bosses of the 
other two walks, which have never yet received a thorough 
examination. There can however be but little doubt that 
the series was once complete, and embraced all the twelve 
months of the KaJendar. It is well known that represen- 
tations of the months by their characteristic occupations are 
of very frequent occurrence in illuminated manuscripts and 
in early printed books. 

The earliest known English example in carving is the 
Norman font at Burnham Deepdale, near Hunstanton 
in Norfolk, described and figured a century ago, 
1790.) in the Archieologia, vol. x., p. 177 ff. A very 
similar series, accompanied by the signs of the Zodiac, 
occurs upon a leaden font at Brooldand, Kent, between 
Eye and Eomney, described and figured in the Archceo- 
logical Journal, vol. vi,p. 159, and in the Archceologia 
Cantiana, vol iv, p. 87 ff. The occupations of the 
months together with the signs of the Zodiac are also 
carved on the porch doorway of St. Margaret's Church, 
York, figured in Drake's Eboracum, p. 308, as well as by 
Cave and Carter, but most correctly by the late Mr. 
Browne, of York, in 1827. 

The most complete series existing in stone, however, 
is that on the fourteenth century capitals of tlie twelve 
pillars of the choir of Carlisle Cathedral. Each bears, 
without a single break, a representation of the charac- 
teristic occupation of a separate month. The whole 
series has been most carefully described by Mr. James 


Fowler, f.s.a., in a paper in tlie Transactions of the 
Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian Society for 
1875-6, (vol. ii., part 2, pp. 281-296). To the same 
gentleman we are also indebted for an elaborate and 
exhaustive treatise on the " Mediaeval Representations of 
the Months and Seasons," published in the ArclicRologia^ 
vol. xliv., pp. 137-224. 

Eeturning to Lincoln Cathedral, it may be mentioned 
that three of the months, March, April and July, are 
represented in stained glass in the quatrefoils of the east 
windows of the choir aisles. There can be no doubt that 
the series was once complete. They date from the close 
of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. March (Marche) is represented as a man in 
a short jerkin, girt at the waist, and closely fitting hose, 
and a slouch hat, engaged in pruning. He holds a pruning 
hook in his left hand. In his right he bends down a twig- 
he is about to cut ofiP. Three small fagots of the cuttings 
lie on the ground. Behind him is a square castle sur- 
mounted by two towers, one round, the other square. 
April (Auerill) has a young man handsomely dressed, in 
tightly fitting hose and shoes, and a tight short coat 
purffled round the hips, with long loose hanging sleeves, 
thiough holes in which his arms come out. On his left 
fist is perched a hawk ; in his right hand he holds a bunch 
of roses in full bloom. A small flat cap is on his head, 
beneath which his hair sticks out in bunches on either 
side. He is smoothly shaven, behind him to his left is a 
square castle on a mound, surmounted by a square turret 
with pyramidal roof. July (lulii) the hay month of the 
Anglo Saxons, appropriately represents hay harvest. 

" Julius ergo secat gramen, fenumque reservat." 

To the left a man in a close fitting vest, the right sleeve 
folded back above the elbow, and his hose turned up 
above the knees, is mowing with a scythe held by its 
two handles. He wears on his head a low crowned broad 
brimmed hat, probably of straw. To the right a lad in a 
closely fitting tunic, girt round the waist, is turning the 
grass with a fork. In the back ground are three conical 
hay cocks. 

Two of the misereres of the upper range of stalls 



(erected by Treasurer John of Welton, c. 1380), on the 
north side are carved with subjects belonging to this 
series. The miserere of the stall of Biggleswade has 
two men ploughing in the centre, with representations of 
harrowing to the left and sowing to the right. That of the 
stall of the Archdeacon of Huntingdon has the customary 
autumnal scene; a man beating down acorns in the 
centre, with swine feeding on either side. 

The misereres of the choir of Worcester Cathedral 
supply a complete series of subjects which indicate if 
they do not actually represent the months of the year. 
The history of these carvings is curious. Believed to 
have been executed in 1379, they were removed from 
their places in 1551 by King Edward's commissioners, 
restored and reset by Queen Mary's authority in 1556, 
and removed again at the beginning of the present 
century by Mr. St. John, the Treasurer to the Dean 
and Chapter, to be fixed upon the cornice of a " compo " 
organ screen then erected between the nave and choir. 
This wretched production was cleared away in 1865, 
and the misereres were refixed in the choir stalls. 
Unhappily the old arrangements had been entirely lost 
and they were placed in no definite order. The follow- 
ing is the arrangement given by Mr. Fowler (Mediceval 
representations of Months and Seasons p. 27), though he 
allows that in some cases the identification is not beyond 
question. Tlie numbers, given, refer to the photographic 
representations of these carvings published by Mr. 
Bemrose of Derby. 

January (?). A woman with a distaff*, and a man 
digging with a spade. 

" "When Adam delved and Eve span 
Who was then the gentleman? " 

" In England " writes Mr. Fowler, the day after Twelfth 
Day, or the very end of the Yule Tide feastiiigs, was 
called St. Distaff's Day, and was a special holiday for 

If the maids a spinning goo 

Burne the flax and fire the tow. 

* * -X- 

Give St. Distair all the riglit 

Then give Christmas-sport good night. 


Februaky (1). An old man in a flat cap and wrapper 
over his ears and chin, his jacket closely buttoned up, 
seated on a semi-circular three-legged arm chair before a 
fire, at which he is warming his feet having taken off 
his boots, and is stirring a pot hanging over it. An 
embattled octagonal chimney appears above. The^ sup- 
porters represent, to the left a dog or cat warming itself, 
and to the right two flitches of bacon hung up to dry. 

March (11). A man sowing seed. He wears the same 
flat cap and jerkin which appears in all the subjects. 
His shoes are oddly pointed for the great toe only. 
He stands between two tall cylindical baskets, and 
has a seed bag on his left side strapped over his right 
shoulder ; with his right hand he casts the seed. The 
supporters are two birds flying down to pick up the 

April (?) (5). A bearded knight in complete armour, 
his sword in its sheath depending between his legs. He 
wears the same flat cap with a wrapper drawn over his 
ears and chin, and is enveloped in a loose cloak held 
together by a band above the waist. In each hand he 
carries a branch covered with roses. 

May (30), A king or crowned personage with a cloak 
over his shoulders ; his short coat is ungirt, he carries his 
gloves in his left hand, on his right fist there has been a 
hawk, of which the claws only are left ; to his right a 
richly caparisoned horse is led by a page. 

June (18). Three men in flat caps, their hair frizzed 
out into wings on each side, are mowing with scythes ; 
tliey stand upright, not bending to their work. The 
supporters are very curious, to the right a fox in a cloak 
kneels in prayer over a sheep's head, to the left a rabbit 
is going hunting, mounted on a greyhound. 

July (17). Three men with the same flat caps and 
frizzed hair stand weeding in the midst of standing corn. 
Their weeding tools are much mutilated. There are the 
remains of the prongs of a crotch near the left foot of 
two, and of the curved blade of a weed hook near the 
right foot of all three. 

August (16). Three men, bare headed, are reaping corn 
with small curved sickles, and binding it into sheaves. 
The attitude and expression of the faces are extremely 


animated. As supporters there are three sheaves on 
either side. 

September (?). A huntsman sounds his horn which 
winds round his body. 

October (27). A man, his head covered by a hood, and 
his shoulders by a cape which comes down over his but- 
toned jerkin, beats down acorns with a staff held in his 
two hands, which two swine are munching below. 

November (?). A sow suckling two young pigs, in 
preparation for the Christmas feast. Pork was the 
favourite winter food of the middle ages. 

December (6), A butcher killing an ox, lying down before 
him, with an axe, the blunt part of which he is bringing 
down on the animal's head, the sharp blade being turned 
upwards. ITe wears an apron and sharp pointed shoes, 
and the usual flat cap ; his sleeves are turned up. 

At Malvern Abbey Church, interspersed among a num- 
ber of carvhigs of other subjects, there are seven misereres 
very similar to those at Worcester, which may be identi- 
fied with the months. For March (or November) there 
is a man sowing seed ; for April a man holding in each 
hand a bunch of roses ; for June a man mowing with a 
scythe ; for July a man weeding out thistles from stand- 
ing corn ; for September a man carrying a basket of fruit ; 
for October a man beating down acorns which a boar on 
one side and on the other side a sow are eating ; and 
finally, for December a man killing an ox. Several similar 
examples occar in the misereres at Gloucester Cathedral, 
and on the lower frieze of the wooden watching loft on 
the north side of the feretory of St. Alban's. For fuller 
particulars I would refer to Mr. Fowler's admirable paper 
in the Archceologia, already mentioned. I believe that 
he could now add many more examples to his list.' 

^ Canon Creiglilou informs inc that ho near Tewkesbury. They are fourteen in 
haa met with a set of carved misereres of number, representing the Sun and Moon 
great excellence in the church of Hippie and, probably, the twelve mont.hs. 


At the suggestion of many friends and by request of 
the Editor, I have undertaken to continue for this Journal 
the series of articles in which, year by year, the late Mr. 
W. T. Watkin collected new discoveries of Roman inscrip- 
tions made in Britain. It would be out of place here to 
discuss either the merits or the faults of Mr. Watkin's 
work, but I may say that his yearly collections were much 
prized by competent judges both in England and abroad, 
and I think that the discontinuance of his scheme would 
be generally regretted. For the delay in the appearance 
of the present article I am solely responsible. My time 
has been occupied in preparing a much longer contribu- 
tion to the Epliemeris Epigraphica^ forming a supplement 
to the Corpus and including all inscriptions found since 
1879. In the execution of this I have been led to visit 
many museums and examine many inscriptions. I venture 
to think that some good results of this labour will be 
found in the following pages. 

In the present article I have included, as I believe, all 
inscriptions which have been found or made public since 
the date of Mr. Watkin's last contribution (vol. xlv, p. 1G7), 
to which I have added a few corrections of previous read- 
ings. I omit only (1) a few unimportant fragments 
already edited in the Epliemeris, and (2) most of the 
inscriptions on pottery. The latter were regularly omitted 
by Mr. Watkin and very rightly. Of themselves they do 
not prove the presence of Komans or Romanized natives 
where they are found, and their real value lies in the 
light which, when collected together, they throw upon the 
extent and character of the ancient earthenware trade. 
I am, however, slowly collecting potters' marks, and hope 


that, when I have a sufficient number, I shall be able to 
publish them in connected lists. 

In arrangement of matter, I have to some extent 
followed the Corpus. I give first an account of the 
provenance, size and characters of the object, then the 
text, thirdly a statement of the source whence my reading 
comes, and lastly any notes which seem suitable. Where 
the inscription has been edited, rightly or wrongly, in the 
Corpus or Ephemeris, I give the reference at the head of 
the notice. The inscriptions are arranged in the same 
order as that of the Corpus, which is not unlike that 
used by Camden in his Britannia ; they begin with Cornwall 
and work northwards. To facilitate reference, I have 
prefixed to each district-heading the number of the section 
in the Corpus. I hope that I may thereby promote 
the use of this work by English archseologists. I am 
convinced that no real student of Roman epigraphy can 
dispense with it and the Ephemeris. In one point only 
have I not followed the Berlin editors. They place the 
milestones and all portable objects, rings, lamps, &c., at 
the end of the whole collection, grouping the portable 
objects by character, not by locality. This is right 
enough in a large work; in a short yearly article it seems 

Abbreviations C = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum : where no Eoman 
numerals follow the British volume, vii, edited 
by Prof. Hiibner (Berlin 1873) is meant. 
£ph. = Ephemeris £'pi(/ra2)h'ca, supplements to the above. 
The supplements to C. vol. vii, are in I^ph. iii and 
iv (by Prof. Hiibner), and in vii (by myself). 
ArcJi Ael. = Archaologia Aeliana the Joui-nal of the Newcastle 
Society of Antiquaries. 
Arch. Journ. = Journal of the Ai'chreological Institute. 
Assoc. Journ, = ,, ,, Association. 

In expansions of the inscriptions, round brackets denote the 
expansion of an abbreviation, square brackets 
the supplying of letters, which, owing to breakage 
or other cause, are not now on the stone, but 
which may be presumed to have been there. 

I. Cornwall, Devon, 

1. [C. n. 1 ; Eph.vii, n. 812.] The pewter cup found in 
175G, at Bossens, West Cornwall, was given by William 
Borlase to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, where it 



now is. The proper reading of the inscription, scratched 
on the bottom of the inside, is 

Aelius Modestus Deo Marti 

This was pointed out to me by my friend Mr. A. J. 
Evans, Keeper of the Museum, with whose assistance I 
copied it and to whom I am indebted for the drawino- re- 
produced above. There is no word and very little space 
between Modestus and Deo, and Borlase's Doiuli f\ilius) is 
impossible. What the E in the centre means I do not know. 

Cups similarly dedicated are by no means unknown, 
though they are usually of silver. One, inscribed Deo Marti 
m(erito) l[aetus) l{ibens), was found in 1633 at Wettingen, 
in Switzerland, along with a pot of coins, datino- from 
Hadrian to Constantine Junior (a.d. 120-340), and other 
inscribed silver vessels. It has been published by Momm- 
sen in his Inscriptiones Helveticae (Zurich 1854), and by 
Dr. F. Keller in his Statistik der romischen Einsiedlungen in 
der Ostsckweiz. Other such dedications, again, are found 
on pottery : for instance, a small jug scratched with the 
words DEO MARTI was found with a Worms inscription 
quoted below (p. 253). The age of the Wettingen bowl is 
fixed by the coins to the fourth century, and Mr. Evans 
judges, from the character of the lettering, that the Bossen's 
cup is of third or early fourth century date. 

2. [0. n. 1279; Eph. vii, 1156.] Borlase (p. 316) in- 
cludes among the Eoman objects found with the inscribed 
cup at Bossens, a stone weight, on which he read the 
number x. The weight is now in the Ashmolean Museum, 
and I think it is pretty plain that the x is only ornament. 


3. On the rim of a pelvis or mortarium, found with 
(so-called) Samian ware and coins of Trajan and Vespa- 
sian, at Tregeare, near Bodmin : — 


Lesbius f{ecit 

I am indebted to the Eev. W. Jago, for an excellent 
drawing of this. He has edited it, with a plate, in the 
Journcd of the Royal Institute of Cornwall (1890.) The 
mortaina, called by Professor Hiibner catini, are now 
generally described as pelves, and by this name I propose 
to call them in the future. 

4. [Eph vii, 1095]. Oblong stone, now forming the lich- 
stone at the S.E. entrance of Tintagel churchyard, 59in. 
long, 12in. broad, 7in. high, much worn, inscribed at the 

Reading of Mr. Jago. My own reading. 

X^l P C Q, ^^P C 

V A r- V A 

i.icL'ciN iin I^ 

Mr. Jago was kind enough to send me his reading and 
some rub])ings. I have since examined the stone myself. 

His own interpretation is Imp[erator) C(aesar) G(alerius) 
Val{erius) Liciinianns) Licin{ius)^ that is, it is a milestone 
of the Emperor Licinius, colleague of Constantine the 
Great (a,d. 307-323). The chief objection to this is that 
Licinius, though credited by Dr. Smith in the Dictionary 
of Biography with the name Galerius, does not seem really 
to have borne it. The only evidence in literature, inscrip- 
tions, or coins, that I can discover for it is one coin type 
(Cohen (ed 2), vi, p. 194, n. 52), which is undoubtedly 
restamped from the coin of another Emperor who really was 
called Galerius. Prof. Mommsen suggested that possibly 
Galerius Valerius Maximianus (a.d. 292-311), and Licinius 
were mixed up by the stonecutter. Such confusion would 
not be impossible in such troubled times. 

There are no letters visible bej^ond the third line ; one 
would expect the name of Constantine,^ or at least the 

' Constantine and Licinius were not vii, p. 211). Licinius' name botli on coins 
friends, but their names do appear and inscriptions, and in literature is some- 
together on coins and inscriptions (Cohen times spelt with a double 'n,' LiciuHius. 


regular title AUG(iisius). To me, when I saw the stone, the 
third line seemed very uncertain, and I should prefer to 
leave the Emperor's name uncertain, while admitting that 
the stone may be a milestone. The lettering points to 
the fourth century, which is also the date of the St. 
Hilary milestone (C. n. 1147). 

If the stone be a milestone, it will confirm the theory 
advanced by Borlase {Cornwall, p. 306), and Sir J. Maclean 
{Trigg Minor i, 484, and iii, 8), that a Eoman road ran 
through N.W. Cornwall. The traces of such a road are 
not very substantial. The name of Stratton, though often 
quoted, proves little, but we have a ' Plain street ' near St. 
Endellion, and pottery, glass, bronze ornaments, &c., near 
Padstow {Arch. Joiirn., xvii, 311). At Tintagel itself no 
Eoman remains seem to have been found ; the masonry 
of the Castle is most certainly not Eoman. The stone 
itself seems to be of local origin ; at least, 1 understand 
from a high authority, Mr. F. W. Eudler, that there is 
no reason why it should not be so. 

VI. Kent. 

5. [Eph. vii, 1149.] Two lead seals found in a rubbish 
pit outside the Camp at Eichborough. They closely 
resemble coins and bear on one side (the other is blank) 
the head of Constantine the Great with the inscription : — 

P{ius) Aug{ustus) 

Published with a plate by Mr. Eoach Smith, Coll. Ant. 
vi, 120. Mr. Bolfe, who found them, gave them to Mr. 
Mayer ; they are not now however in the Mayer Museum 
at Liverpool. Fragments of string were visible on the 
back, so that they seem to have been used either for letters 
or as custom house seals. 

Dr. Hettner lately shewed me two similar lead seals 
found at Trier, and now in the museum there. They are 
inscribed constantinvs p avg and crispvs . . . (the last 
letters are illegible) round the corresponding heads. 
Marks of string are visible on the first across the front, on 
the second across the back. I also noticed two such seals 
in the Museum at Speyer, found at Eheinzabern, one 
illegible, the other inscribed crispvs nob c. 



6, Pelvis, found at Reciilver, now in the possession of 
the Rev. E. Field, Petrockstow (N. Devon). 


I/ugudu{ni) [^factus] 

Copied by myself. 

^Similarly inscribed 2->elves have been found in London 
(C. n. 1334, E-oacli ^mit\ Roman Lo7idon,^. 89), Ewell 
and Maidstone [Coll. Ant. i, 149), Kinderton (Watkin 
Cheshire p. 248), and at East Bridgford (Notts), the last 
given as gvdv, but obviously broken. Lugudunum is the 
correct form of the Eoman name of Lyons, not Lugdunum. 

Such pelves were imported from France. One dredged 
up forty miles east of the North Foreland and inscribed 
c ATisivs GRATVsf Proc. Soc. Ant. xiii (1890), 107), where 
it is printed gatisivs by obvious error) may be a relic of 
such traffic, for the stamp has been often found in France 
(c. xii, 5685). For local potters, see No. 48. 

7. [Eph. vii, 1160]. Silver spoon found in Kent, on 
the bowl : — 


Communicated by Mr. A. J. Evans. Compare a similar 
spoon found near Winslow and now in Aylesbury Museum, 
inscribed venekia vivas (Eph. iv, p. 211). 

VIIL London. 

8. [Eph, vii, 816], A piece of marble sculpture, ISin. 
high l3y 22in. wide, found in 1889, in Walbrook, near Bond 
Court, about 20ft. below the surface, along with two marble 
sculptures of a Iiiver God and a Genius, fragments of 
Samian ware and bronze pins, now in the private Museum 
of W. Eansom, Esq. f.s.a., Fairfield, Hitchin. 




V T V M 




Vlfius SUvanus cmcrilus lcg(ionis) II Axtyiustac) votum solvit, factus Araxmone- 


By the kindness of Mr Eansom, I was able to carefully 
examine this inscription. The whole find is a very re- 
markable one, of which I hope Mr. Eansom will himself 
pubhsh a full description. The workmanship of the 
sculptures is excellent, far surpassing ordinary British 
work, and, but for the occurrence of smaller objects in the 
find, one would fancy that these pieces, like some of the 
Arundel marbles, had been brought in modern times to 
London, lost, and then rediscovered. 

Emeritus legionis is a phrase used sometimes {e.g. on a 
Bath inscription, C. n.51),to denote a veteran " honorably" 
discharged from the legion with a bounty. Ulpius Silvanus 
the veteran who erected this marble, was discharged while 
the Emperor was at Arausio (Orange), in the S. of Gaul. 
A similar inscription in Henzen's collection (n. 7170), of the 
date 14 a.d., records the discharge of a veteran by the 
Emperor while staying at Alexandria. This explanation 
of the words f actus Arausione I owe to Prof, Mommsen, 

From the style of lettering and the use of the nomen 
Ulpius, I should suppose that this inscription was erected 
in, or soon after the reign of Trajan (a.d. 97-117), whose 
own name was Ulpius, 

The Mithraic sacrifice represented is a good specimen 
of the ordinary type. 

9. [Eph. vii, 822]. The subjoined inscription was edited 
by Mr. Watkin, in this Journal (xxxviii, 289). The follow- 
ing is a more correct reading : — 

Lis] M{anilus) liu[s], ,.,.,. tus, vi{xU) an{nos) L,,,, ,. ntina co[nmx posuit] 

Copied by myself. 

The gravestone of a man whose name is lost, erected Ly 
his wife. 


10. [Eph. vii, 1141.] Professor Zangemeister, to whom 
I sent some squeezes, has favoured me with the foUowmg 
letter on an mscribed tile found in 1886 in Warwick lane 
and published by Mr. Watkin in this Journal (xliv, 126). 
His letter may be translated as follows. 

The tile reads 2— 

Austalis dihus xiii vdgatiir 5iJ[i] cotidim 

*^ Austalis wanders about to please himself for thirteen 
days, day by day." 

The forms of the words are of unusual interest. 

(1) Austalis = An gustalis\ compare Aosta in N. Italy, 
originally Augusta Praetoria, and the French aoiit = 
augustus (mensis). So on a Spanish inscription (C. ii, 
(2705) invicto deo Austo ; on an African one of a.d. 452, 
Kalendas Avstas " the Kalends of August ; " in the 
Eavenna Geographer (Ed. Parthey, p. 151, 16), vicus 
Austi for Augusii, and in one manuscript (codex B 
saec. ix) of the Anionine Itinerary (p. 353), Austa 
Ramracum (sic) for Augusta Rauracum. 

(2) dihus = diehus. 

(3) cotidim = cot {die. Neither of these seem to occur 
elsewhere. The latter is probably the accusative, used 
adverbially so that the man declined dim dibits, instead of 
diejn diehus. 

Similar plajful inscriptions occur at Pompeii and else- 
where ; for instance (1) cave malum si non raseris latercs 
DC; si raseris minus ^ malum formidahis (G. v.u. 8110, 176, 
Bonner Jahrbiicher Ixvii, 75). (2) [/ac...] later cl[o]8... 
riane ; [m]cde dor[mias, or-mies]^ si non feceris, "make... 
bricks : il you don't, may you sleep badly." 

(3) cred\ere v^ix d[u]bito, set amicum amittere [noli^m: 
si tibi credidero, non te tarn s(a)epe vid[e]blo]. 

" Neither a borrower nor a lender be : 
For loan oft loses both itself and friend." 

To this exposition, by the first living authority on Latin 
graffiti, nothing need be added. The curious dibus may 
perhaps be made more intelligible by the fact that in 
" vulgar Latin " as opposed to the literary language, the i 
was long : hence the Italian di, lloumanian zi, &c. 
(Seelmann Aussprache des Latein, p. 93 ; WoliUin Archiv 


ii, 101). With Austalis compare our English "Austin' 
for " Augustine." I should add that the reading of the 
second line, dibits xiii^ is the result of my own inspection 
and seems to me absolutely certain. 

11. [Eph. vii, 1155.] On the bottom of a glass bottle 
in the Guildhall Museum — 


Copied by myself. 

12. Fragment of inscription, in three concentric lines, 
on the bottom of a glass vessel in the British Museum 
(Roach Smith's Coll. 631), hardly legible — 


... .GIN 
. . I N I I V I s/ 

Copied by myself. 

I give this because glass thus inscribed is rare, and some- 
one may be able to supply me with a complete example of 
the same inscription. 

13. [Eph. vii, 1163.] Iron chisel (?) Tin. long, found 
by Mr. J. E. Price, f.s.a. (with Nos. 14 foil.), in arranging 
the Guildhall Museum, London (Walker Bailey collection.) 

aprilis f 

Aprilis fiecit) 

Copied by myself. 

14. [Eph. vii, 1177, b.] Bronze stamp (Guildhall 

S E C V N 'of Secundinus ' 

D I N I 

Copied by myself. 

15. [Eph. vii, 1177, c] Steel stamp, the handle shew- 
ing marks of hammer blows ; in the Guildhall Museum. 


Mr. Price sent me a cast. The letters probably repre- 
sent the initials of a man's three names. 

16. Lamps 1-6 in the Guildhall Museum, 7-8 in Mr, 
Bansom's collection. (Copied by myself.) 


1. A N N I S E P {The mould of) Annius Sc[r] . . . 

2. AVFFRON ... Auf{kUus) Fron{to >.) 

3. L V C Luc(ms ?) 

4. M A R T I V S Martius f{ecit) 


5. P H R 

N I M V S Phronimus 

6. L'CAEC-SAE Z. Cac{cilius)Sae . . . 

7. STROBILI Strobilus 

8. F R T I S ForUs [very indistiuct] 

The inscribed lamps of the whole western empire came 
probably from Italy . Moulds for making them were supplied 
by Italian makers, some of which moulds have been found 
in Austria. Inscribed lamps are comparatively uncommon 
in England. See n. 72 below. 

17. Castor Ware — (1) in the British Museum, from Old- 
ford, near Bow ; (2) in the Guildhall Museum, from the 

(1) V I T A D A • (2) P I E 

Copied by myself, pie, the Greek ttlvb in a latin dress, 
occurs often on such vases, sometimes with z e s e s ' you 
shall live,' added. Similarly z e i t e ' live/ quoted by M. 
Vaillant {Vases jiastilles et epigraphies^ Arras 1887), from 
an urn found in Picardy, and aemilia ZESESona 
ring found at Corbridge (C. n. 1300). 

Mr. Price has also shewn or sent me some marks on 
keys e.q. Axxxi, but these, I imagine, are mere ornament. 

18. '[Eph. iv, n. 698, vii, 1189^a.] In 1871 the British 
Museum received among a number of objects, a brick 
incribed d • n • v o c • Mr. "Watkin interpreted this 
decurio numeri Vocontiorum and the interpretation was 
accepted or discussed abroad. It now appears that the 
tile is spurious. There are two forged tiles, perhaps of 
the same class, in the Guildhall Museum, inscribed 
V N D I n I o and p v i c n v. The former is perhaps a bad 
shot at Londinium. 

IX. Bath. 

19. [Eph. vii, 830.] Bottom corner of an altar found 
in the baths in 1880, and now there. 


Copied by myself ; doubtless the formual v(otum) s[olvit) 
l{ibens) m[erito), regular at the end of dedications. 

X. Cirencester. 

20. [Eph. vii, 839.] Stone 29in. square, found in 1887, 
at Siddington, on a Eoman road near Cirencester, and now 
in the possession of J. Bovvly, Esq., of Siddington Hall. 
Very uncertain, except the first line. 




V . s . lI 

Mr. A. J. Evans and myself failed to make out more 
than the above. The stone is a dedication (z;.5./.[??i]) to 
some genius. 

2 1 . [Eph. iii, 838 c] Fragment in Cirencester Museum, 
copied by myself. 


XI. Midland Counties. 

22. [Eph. vii, 842.] Two fragments, 18 in. long, 15 in. 
high, with large letters, found in 1888 in the restoration 
of Peterborough Cathedral. There are still traces of 
colour in the letters. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine sent me a squeeze and drawings. A 
notice was published in the Antiquary xix (1889), 76. 

This is part of a large inscription, which perhaps com- 
memorated a building. Possibly the seven extant letters 
formed part of the date, expressed by the names of the 


consuls, which is often added to such inscriptions. The 
only known consuls whose names suit are those of 184 
A.P. ; we might supply the missing parts thus : — 

,..L. Eggio Marul]lo et C[n. Paplrio AeUa]no [cos... 

In some previous attempts to explain the inscription, 
the tied "E was taken to be necessarily te. The symbol 
stands for te or et. I have assumed that the last letter 
of line 1 is c : it might conceivably be a broken o, but 
I do not think it is. 

Probably these fragments and an ornamented half 
column found near them came from either Castor (Duro- 
brivae) or Chesterton. The two places are so near to- 
gether that inscribed objects found at one have often been 
put down to the other, and in some cases it is impossible 
to decide between conflicting accounts, 

23. Fragment of sandstone, 8 in. long, 5 in. wide, found 
at Sandy (Bedfordshire), about thirty miles south of 
Peterborough, in 1888, now in Mr. Ransom's collection at 
Hitchin : rough letters. 


Copied by myself; the object itself and its provenance 
seemed to suggest that it was Eoman, possibly a walling- 
stone, certainly not a regular inscription. 

A fair number of smaller Koman remains have turned 
up at Sandy, especially coins dating mostly from Valens 
to Arcadius (a.d. 364-400). See Gentleman's Magazine^ 
1764, 60 ; 1787, ii, 952 (recording find of a coin of Pius, 
A.D. 145), Academy, May 24, 1890, p. 359. British coins 
have also been found there. 

XII. Colchester. 
24. [Eph. vii, 845.] Fragment of Purbeck marble, 16 
[not 8] in. by 5, found in 1889 in Balkerne lane. 

D\ m 



^k \\ 

.... coJiortis 



QVI 1 

militavit annos 



Mr. H. Laver, f.s.a., sent it to me to inspect: I have 
published it in the Archceologia Aeliana, xiii, 289. 

The tombstone — dis Mambus — of one or more soldiers, 
probably veterans of the cohors 1 Vangioniivi, a regiment 
deriving its name from a German tribe near Worms,^ and 
stationed at Hahitancium (Eisingham). It resembles C. 
n. 91, 92, and like them may date from the second century. 

The material, Purbeck marble, was a good deal employed 
by the Romans. C. n. 91, 92 are made of it, and so is the 
celebrated Chichester inscription of Cogidubnus. I can- 
not make out that there are any traces of Eoman quarries 
in the Isle of Purbeck, but Boman remains are not un- 
common there, e.g.^ at Langton, Worbarrow, Creech 
(Warne, Ancient Dorset^ pp. 281, 327) and two years ago 
a villa was found near Corfe Castle. Kimmeridge " coal " 
was used for bracelets and vases, and General Pitt Pivers' 
museum at Farnham contains a Eoman slate of Kimme- 
ridge shale, found at Eushmore. 

24«. Bronze stamp in Colchester Museum. 

p • G • V 

Copied by myself. Probably the initials of the owner. 

25. [Eph. vii, 1147.] Plat round disks (tesserae) of 
clsiy inscribed on one side, about 2 in. in diameter, in 
Mr. G. Joslin's Museum. 

(1) VAK (2) B (3) X (4) I 

Copied by myself. I cannot give any certain account of 
how these were used. They are quite different from the 
— as I believe — forged " theatre tickets " in the Colches- 
ter Museum. 

26. Lamps (Colchester Museum) — 

1. ATIMETI of Atimetus. 

2. EVCARPI of Eucarpus. 

3. . . E S T I of [Fjestus. 

Copied by myself. No. 2 (found 1888 in an urn) was 
shewn me by Mr. F. Spalding, Curator of the Museum, to 
whom it belongs. All the names are well-known. 

27. Urn of Upchurch ware 15 in. high, found with 

' Thia does not by any means denote were afterwards recruited from anywhere, 

that the soldiers of this cohort were Thus we find Helvetians and Batavians in 

Germans. Probably the cohort was origi- a cohors Ilisjpanorum (C. iii, 3681, Bram- 

nally raised in Germany, but such troops bach, 890). 



bones inside in 1889. On the outside has been scratched, 
after baking : — 

Thalius vassv (?) 

Mr. H. Laver, f.s.a., sent me a rubbing, from which 
the cut was prepared. I printed a note of the find in the 
Archceological Revieiv, iii, 274. 

The name Thalius, though uncommon, appears indu- 
bitable. Professor Zangemeister suggests — very doubt- 
fully — for the second word vass[_a]v = vasa quincjue. The 
letters, he tells me, may date from any part of the first 
three centuries. I lately copied in the Museum at Stutt- 
gart, a possible parallel, a fragment of a large jar found in 
Wiirttemburg, with the letters scratched on it 'M\ff'^'^, 
The fragment was broken immediately before and after 
the letters. 

28. Castor ware, found 1889, now in Mr. Joslin's collec- 
tion, black with bronze glaze, 4 J in. high, ornamented 
with white slip — 

PIE " drinh:' 

Mr. Laver sent me a tracing. See No. 7. 

29. Scratched with a sharp point on a cinerary urn, 
found in building the Hospital (near C. n. 91), and now, 
as Mr. Laver tells me, in Mr. Joslin's collection. 

P V I S T I " thou hast lived" 

E. L. Cutts, Colchester (in the " Historic Towns " Series) 
p. 45, who says that none of the coins found in this 
cemetery are later than Hadrian. He says the lamps also 
are not later than Hadrian, but I do not know how this 
can possibly be proved. Or is " lamps " a misprint for 
" coins ?" I may add here that Mr. Cutts' book contains 
two useful maps of Eoman Colchester. 

XIII. Caerleon. 

30. [Eph. vii, 848.] Thanks to the kindness of Mr. 
T. H. Thomas, who sent me a squeeze and drawings, I can 
(as I believe) give a correct reading of the curious stone 
washed out at Goldclill^ near Caerleon, in 1878, and now 

The accompanyiDg map of Chester, 
also due to Mr. Shrubsole's kiuduess, will, 
I hope, serve as an Orie7iUrun(jskartc. In 

using it, I do not wish to exjiress here 
any opinion as to the areas of the Romau 
camp at Chester. 

/ The £a€fgi€!te 

7 The Cafh 

2 T/n fyafe/ya^a 

8 tVnttr Ton 

J tfle Nctfigat^e 

3 /^e^gafe 

4- The BndgreCaft 

fp /faTeyarJ 

S The Cross 

// Phmn<x 7 

iZ £d^arci-a 

,.tc,t,irM — 


in Caerleon Museum (C. Eoacli Smith, Assoc. Journ.^ xl, 
186 ; W. T. Watkin, Arch. Journ., xxxvii, 137). The 
stone is 36 in. high, 14 in. broad, the inscription being 
6 in. high, and at the top : it is much worn. 

H T 

/y S T A T R I! 
MAX. .Mil 


co]i(ors)i, cfenturia) Statori Ma.x[i]mi. The stone may 
be centurial, but the shape is unusual, and we do not know 
how much is lost. In any case, it is of late date, and 
mentions a cohort. It is quite impossible that the third 
line can as was suggested by the Rev. C. W. King, have 
reference to Eoman miles. 

XVII. Chester. 
A.— The North Wall. 
When Mr. Watkin compiled his last yearly supplement 
for this Journal, he was able to publish only half of the 
inscriptions found recently in the north wall of Chester. 
Since that time, the whole series has been made accessible 
to the public in the Grosvenor Museum, and a complete 
account of the excavations and of the questions arising 
therefrom has been edited by Mr. J. P. Earwaker, f.s.a., 
under the title : Becent discoveries of Roman remains found 
in repairing the North Wall of Chester (Manchester: 
Ireland). The contents of this book (up to p. 131) have 
been re-issued in the second volume of the Journal of the 
Chester Archceological and Historic Society, the paging of 
both works being identical. In these books Mr. W. T. 
Watkin discussed the inscriptions which he edited in this 
Journal (pp. 11-24), and Mr. W. de G. Birch treated the rest 
(pp. 98-131), with the texts of which alone I am here 
concerned. I have elsewhere said my say about Mr. 
Birch's article (Academy, No. 894, June, 1889), and I 
need now only add that many of his readings and inter- 
pretations are most incorrect. The texts which follow 
are the result of my own inspection, aided by some ex- 
cellent squeezes which Mr. G. W. Shrubsole sent me.' 

^ The accompanying map of Chester, using it, I do not wish to exjiress here 
also due to Mr. Shrubsolc's kindness, will, any opinion as to the areas of the Roman 
I hope, serve as au OrienUruwjikarte, Iia camp at Chester. 


Nearly all the recent finds in the north wall come from 
the lower courses which are earlier than and differ very 
markedly from the superstructure. One or two, which 
seem to have been found higher up, were originally, I 
think, part of the older wall to which these lower courses 
belonged. When the upper part of this older wall was 
repaired, it was not unnatural that some of the stones in 
it should find their way into the newer superstructure. 
It is, therefore, not incorrect to say that all the Roman 
inscriptions and sculptures recently found in the north 
wall were probably built up by those who erected what are 
now the lower courses of the present wall. The date of 
these lower courses is a matter of notorious controversy. 
In the Academy (n. 894) I ventured to suggest that they 
belong to the age of Septimius Severus (say 200 a.d.), and 
I was much gratified to find that Professor Hiibner, 
writing a little later in the Deutsche Litteraturzeitung 
(1889, column 1087), had independently arrived at the 
same conclusion. Mr. Eoach Smith (Antiquary xvii, 41, 
242, and xix, 41) requires a later date, the fourth century 
A.D., though I venture to think that what we know of 
fourth century Britain is quite adverse to such a view, 
and that the masonry is not what one usually calls late 
Eomano-British work. At the same time, it must be admit- 
ted that the examples of Eoman walls containing sepulchral 
and other stones, are mostly of late date. The walls of 
Neumagen, for instance, from the foundation of which the 
Trier Museum has been enriched with such astonishingly 
fine statuary, etc., are of Constantinian date.* Mr. Watkin, 
lastly, Mr. Shrubsole, and others refer the lower courses 
to the middle ages. 

In any case the stones found are all earlier than 200 
A.D. I should not, indeed, venture to go so far as Pro- 
fessor Hiibner does in a paper lately read before the 
Chester Archaeological Societ}^ and assign precise dates, 
on pal[EOgraphical grounds, to various inscriptions. But, 
it is clear from the lettering that none of these inscriptions 
are later than Severus, and such actual evidence as we 
have points the same way. One inscription, for instance, 
mentions the praefectus castrorum, an officer who, at least 
under this title, ceased to exist about a.d. 200. 

^ It Wivs at a late date, too, that tomb- the Roman road at Worms, 
stones were used for the foundations of 

Earwaker, pi. ix. (See No. 32.) 


With two exceptions, the stones are of red sandstone, 
such as is found in abundance near the city. The two 
exceptions are a piece of sculpture and the inscription 
beginning pvb 7 leg v maced. These are seemingly- 
made of a stone found some ten miles from Chester, and 
Mr. Shrubsole has ingeniously suggested that they may 
belong together. 

31. [Eph. vii, 884.] Fragment 24 in. high, 12 iu. wide, 
with large deep letters of an early date — 

Shape and contents shew clearly that we have here part 
of an epistylium, recording some erection of buildings. In 
line 1 we have et joining two nouns, (say) templu]m et 
{porticum ; line 2 shews that they were sacred ; line 3 
commences [faciundum curavit] or the like. Probably 
the letters were filled up with metal letters, such as have 
been found at Colchester and Lydney Park. 

32. [Eph. vii, 886.] Inscription 26 in. long, 20 high : 
above is the figure of a soldier lying on a couch, with a 
handleless cup^ in the right hand, a sword and helmet" near, 
and a boy standing in front. The annexed illustration is 
reproduced from Plate ix in Mr. Earwaker's book. 

/e Q V I T I s 
H -F -C 

h{eres) /{aciundum) c{uravit). 

The recumbent figure in the anaglyph above this in- 
scription belongs to the class of funeral monuments in 
which the dead man is represented as recHned on a couch 
at a table. This class — with differences in detail— is very 
widely spread, and is to be found on Etruscan Lycian 
and Greek, as well as on Eoman tombs. Mr. Earwaker's 
book includes plates of four others found in the north 

^ This cup on Roman monunieuta is * The helmet seems to be represented 

usually if not always handleless. full face in the vizor and side face in the 



wall (Plates iii, iv, viii, pp. 8, 18, 104). A fifth, from 
Chester, surmounts an almost illegible inscription in the 
Grosvenor Museum (C. n. 173). A sixth is on the stone 
of Callimorphus (Eph. iii, n. 69). The other British 
instances Avhich I have been able to collect are one from 
Kirkby Thore (C. n. 303a) ; one from York (C. n. 1343) ; 
and one from Lanchester (Bruce lapid. septentrionale n. 
705) uninscribed ; and the bilingual inscription at South 
Shields (Eph. iv, n. 718a). Through the kindness of 
Mr. J. P. Earwaker, f.s.a,, I am able to give plates of some 
tombstones from the north wall of Chester. 

A banqueting scene seems out of place on a tombstone, 
and several theories have been invented to explain it. 
Some have thought that it is retrospective, representing 
the ordinary past enjoyment of the dead. Others con- 
sider it to refer to offerings brought by the family to the 
dead. A third view — that of the Russian archasologist, 
Stephani — holds that the scene sets forth the enjoyments 
of the dead in Hades. The true explanation, I think, is 
that given by Professor Percy Gardner, who has treated 
the subject exhaustively in the Journal of Hellenic Studies 
(v. pp. 105-139). He points out that the earliest types of 
" the banqueting scene " are to be found on certain early 
Attic and Laconian tombstones, on which the dead are 
represented as seated in state holding a wine-cup and 
pomegranate, to receive the worship of his descendants. 
The wine-cup reminds them to pour libations to him ; the 
pomegranate is the peculiar food of the dead.i The 
annexed cut reproduced from the Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, by permission of the Council of the Society for 
Hellenic Studies, represents such an early Laconian tomb- 
stone. It may seem a far cry from these early Greek 
works to the Poman sculptures at Chester, but the gradual 
change and development of type can be minutely traced. 
Of course, many of the details visible on the later " ban- 
queting scenes " are purely conventional. If we were to 
ask what the Eomans themselves meant when they carved 
and erected them the answer would probably be that they 
copied their predecessors. 

^ Miss J. E. Harrison {Mythology and The Austrian scholars who have been 

Monuments of Ancient Athens, pp. 587- exploring Lycia seem to uphold the first 

592) tries to get further back than this, of the views quoted above, 
but, I thiuk, without proving her case. 

Earwaker, pi. iii. (See p. ^46.) 

Journal of Hellenic StudieF, v. 123. (See p. 246.) 

Earwaker, pi. viii. (See No. 34 ) 



33. [Eph. vii, 893.] 50 in. high, 41 in. wide, with very 
large letters — 

(T> I 

L -E^IMl 

S E l( L I C I 

V I T \ L I S . V E T R 

LEG.ix. V. V 
H I C . ^EPL ^ 

Bis M[anihus) 
L. Echnius 

Vitalis vet[e)r{anus) 
leg{ionis) xx v{aleriae) v{lctricis) 
hie sep{e)l{itus) 

Tombstone of the veteran L. Ecimius Bellicianus VitaHs. 
The name Ecimius does not seem to occur elsewhere ; 
Bellicianus is already known from Caerleon (C. n. 133 
and 1255), and elsewhere abroad. The suggestion of 
sepelitus (for sepultus) is due to Professor Mommsen. The 
form, I may add, occurs in a fragment of Cato and on a 
good many inscriptions. 

34. [Eph. vii, 890.] A large stone, 45 in. high, 25 in. 
wide : above is an anaglyph similar to n. The lettering 
is rather indistinct but certain. Mr. Earwaker has kindly 
allowed me to reproduce the annexed illustration (Plate 
viii in his book). 

D M 


E S S V S N A C{a)ecilius Donatus 

TIONEMILI Bessus natione 

5 TAVIT ANN militavit annos xxvi 

OS XXVI'VIX , vixit annos xxxx, 


The Bessi were a Thracian tribe. Thrace was one of 
the great Eoman recruiting grounds, and we find definite 
Bessians in particular mentioned as serving in the prae- 
torian guard, the legions, the auxiliaries, and the fleets. 
There was also at one time a coliors Flavia Bessorum. 
The length of service, twenty-six years, is unusual, twenty 
years being the nominal limit. But inscriptions give us 
instances of thirty-three, thirty-eight, and forty j^ears 
service (C. iii, 2014, 2818, 2710). The usual age of 
enlistment was about twenty. 



^ 35. [Eph. vii, 891]. 42 in. high, 15 in. wide : rather in- 

rcr- C E S 

AN • XXX ' MI 
X -H -F- C 

D(is) [M{anibus)] 

G(aius) Ces[ti ?] 

-w Teurnic[us ? (vixit) 

an{nos) xxx, mi[les] 

leg{ionis) xx v.v. s[tipendia'\ 

x.h{eres)f{aciundum) c{uravit) 

The text is a Uttle uncertain, as the second line may 
read g c f s, but I think it is right. Gains Cestius (?) 
Teurnicus will have got his name from Teurnia, a town 
in Noricum, on the upper course of the Drau, near the 
modern Gmiind. Possibly it was his birthplace. G for 
Gaius is not unknown, though C is far more usual. 

:^6. [Eph. vii, 896.] Mutilated sculpture of two men, 
one apparently with a horn, 29 in. high, 21 wide. Beneath, 
in elegant letters — 


F R |.... )P M/ 

The fragment cannot be completed with certainty. The 
first line is clearly Hermagor\_as\ not, as was at one time 
suggested, Herma cor[n{cen]. See Antiquary xix (1889) 
pp, 44, 135, 

37. [Eph. vii, 987]. Stone 36 in. wide, by 24 long : fine 
lettering of a good date. 

5 S T P • X V 


Q{uintus) Longinius 
Laetus Lnco 
stip{endia) xv 
(centuria) Cornell Sctieri 


' " Q. Longinius Laetus, of the Pomptine tribe, from 
Lucus, served fifteen years in the century of Cornelius 
Severus [in the xx"' Legion?]." There are two points of 
interest here: (1) Pomentina is a rare but perfectly well- 
known form of Pomptina, of which Kubitschek in his De 
Rom. Trihuum Origine quotes several instances (0. vi, 
2577, 3884 ; Eph. iv, p. 221. (2) Lucus is a town in 
N.W. Spain, in a district which has yielded us several 
other citizens belonging to the Pomptine tribe. The fact 
is difficult to explain. The Pomptine tribe is very rarely 
met with outside of Italy, and, at the bestowals of franchise 
on various Spanish districts, other tribes were selected in 
which to enrol the new citizens. We know that the dis- 
tricts enfranchised by Augustus were placed in the Gale- 
rian tribe, and those enfranchised by Vespasian in the 
Quirine. It is probable that, at some time unknown, 
various individuals in N.W. Spain received the franchise 
with the Pomptine tribe. Kubitschek connects this with 
Galba (a.d. 67), but his theory is by no means proven. 

38. [Eph. vii, 898.] 7 in. wide, 14 in. high; large 
letters — 

D{is) M(anihus) C. Puhli\lius2„Mgnif\er mi[l{tavit ?...'] 
Publius itself is not a uomen. 

39. [Eph. vii, 899.] 33 in. broad, 27 in. high; fine 
lettering — 

D-M.*P"RVST0 -D(js) M{anibus) F{nUio) Rustio 

FABA-CRESCEN-BilX Fabia Crescen{ti) Bnx{ia) 

M I L • L E G • XX V V mil{cs) lcg{ionis) xx . v . v . 

AN*XXX"STP*X an{norum) xxx, stip[€ndi(mjiin x) 

5 GROiNi-IERES Gromaheres 

F A C V r/ fac{iundum) cur{avit) 

" To Publius Eustius Crescens, of the Fabian tribe, from 
Brixia, a soldier of the 20tli Legion, aged 30, 10 years 
service. Groma his heir erected this." 



Brixia, now Brescia, in North Italy (Gallia Cisalpina) 
belonged to the Fabian tribe. Gallia Cisalpina, Italy, 
north of the Eubicon, was included in Italy proper in 
42 B.C. Under the Emperors, all Italy was relieved from 
the burden of service in the legions. Probably this is 
due, as Mommsen thinks, to Vespasian : certainly regular 
legionary recruiting came to an end in Italy shortly after 
70 B.C., and though we do find Italian legionaries later — 
there were some on the Antonine wall at one time, C. n. 
1095 — they are the exception. As this inscription is an 
early one, it is quite possible that Rustius was enrolled 
before 70 b c. 

Groma is probably the name of the heir ; it is known 
only as a noun feminine, meaning a surveyor's measure. 

40. [Eph. vii, 902.] 24 in. long, 16 in. high ; the letter- 
ing is very faint — 

TITINIVS FELIX B Tiiinius Felix h{enejicianus) ? 

. . LEG XX W MIL AN [legati ?] leg{ionis) xx. vv. viil{itavU) 

. . . IX AN X L V an{nos) , . . [v]ix{ii) an{nos) xlv 

. . IVL SIMILINACo Iul{ia} Similina coniux et 

5 NIVX ET HERE.... litre [des ■pomerunt] 

The reading of the first letters in line 2 is very uncer- 
tain. When I examined the stone I could make out 
nothing. Professor Mommsen, using a squeeze provided 
by Mr. Shrubsole, read (rather doubtfully) i s G-, of which 
nothing can be made. He suggested that possibly the 
right reading might be l e G, which I have adopted in 
my expansion. If this is right, Titinius was beneficiatmis 
legati, " attendant of the commander of the legion " (see 
note to n. 43). But it must be remembered that this is 
only conjecture, though very probable conjecture. 

41. [Eph. vii, 904.) 31 in. long, 40 in. high; above is 
a mutilated standard-bearer — 

D M 

V«TS<' T I F E I 


I){{s) M[anibus) . . . ins Diogen\_es] . . . si[gn'\ife\_r . . 
" The tomb of . , . ius Diogenes . . . standard bearer." 


42. [Eph. vii, 906.] Fragment 80 in. square — 


Part of a tombstone put up by the dead man's brother. 
I can give no explanation of line 2. It has been thought 
that we should read tiirma and suppose the man to have 
served in the cavalry. If so, he can only have served in 
an auxiliary ala, since the legion had only 4 ticrmae, while 
the ala had sometimes 16 (500 men), sometimes 24 (1000 
men). Professor Hiibner supposes that the man was first 
in the 8 th then in the 10th tier ma, but this is surely a 
counsel of despair. Besides, the invariable rule is to 
identify the turma by its decurion's, i.e., commander's 
name, and not by a numeral at all. 

43. [Eph. vii, 907.] 12 in. high, 14 in. long. 

|iVl 1 fc) S i (J 1 
V A • B TR 

[ex ala Claudia ? no]va h[eneficianus] tiiibuni] 
[mil{Uavit) atm{os)] xxiii, vixit .... 

" [To the memory of . . .] discharged honorably from 
[the ala Claudia 7io]va, (?) beneficiary of the tribune, 
[served] 23 years, lived . . . ." Missicius is a term used 
both in literature {e.g. by Suetonius) and on inscriptions 
to denote " men in the position of lionesta missio7ie 7nissi." 
The word is formed like dediticius, "one in position of 
subject or prisoner " {deditus) or deducticius, " one in 
position of a colonist" {deduct us). The ala Claudia 
nova is mentioned as being in Germany in a.d. 74, and 
three inscriptions have been found in Dalmatia erected 
(at uncertain dates) to soldiers in it. The conjecture that 
it was mentioned on this stone is due to Professor 

A beneficiarius was a soldier who was given exemption 
from onerous duties by a superior officer, whose attendant 
or sentry he probably became. A complete list of all 
known — over 430 — is given in the Ephemeris (iv, pp. 379- 
401). There are enumerated (1) 162 bene/iciarii con- 



sulares who received their privilege from legati, provincial 
governors of consular rank; (2) 16 h. legati Aug. pro 
praetore^ where the governor was a praetorian; (3) 25 6. 
of commanders of legions [legati legionum) ; (4) 27 of 
procurators; (5) 57 of various pra^6d^; (6) 31 of tribunes, 
of legions, cohorts, or alae ; (7)2 of ^yraesides. For the 
rest, we cannot determine the officer to whom they were 

44. [Eph. vii, 914.] 



[D. 31.] 
. . . Tcre]ntius . . 
.... Sab]inus . . . 
anno]ru[m . . 

This was not included in Mr. Earwaker's book ; it was 
first pointed out to me by Mr. Shrubsole. The restoration 
of the names is, of course, pure guesswork. 

I omit here, as wholly unimportant for the purposes of 
the present article, some smaller fragments (Eph, vii, 909- 
913), which have only a few letters on them and prove 

B. — Other discoveries in Chester. 
45. [Eph. vii, 878.] A thin plate of lead 2f in. long 
found in 1886 in Grey Friars, near the abutment of the 
city wall ; a hypocaust was found at the same place. The 
accompanying wood- cut represents both sites of the object 
full size — 

Co ir. 
7 Atili 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. C. Eoeder, of 
Fallowfield, Manchester, for a loan of the plate and in- 


formation as to the find. The object has been already 
described in this Journal (xliv, 125), but not, I think, 

The inscription seems to resemble that of centurial 
stones, co{hortis) II, {centuria) Atili Maioris. I presume 
it was used for indicating some property or other of the 
century in question. I have never seen anything like it 
elsewhere. In size and shape it somewhat resembles the 
Laminae Concordienses edited by Pais iSupplementa 
Italica ad C. v, n. 1090), but these were apparently 
tickets to shew the amount and price of a private 
shopkeeper's goods. 

46. [Eph, vii, 881.] Centurial stone, ansated, 12 in. 
long, 7 in. high, found in Eastgate street in 1888, now in 
the Grosvenor Museum : the second line is not quite 
certain — 


Copied by myself ; edited in the Proceedings of the New- 
castle Society of Antiquaries iii, 387. 

Possibly c(o)hor{tis) m, (centuria) Ter{entii) Ro[mani). 
The theory of some archaeologists that these stones had 
to do with land-tenure is quite incorrect. They simply 
mark the amount of wall built by the centuria which 
erected them. 

I omit here, as unimportant, one fragment (Eph. vii, 
883) found near the north wall. Instead, I may add an 
inscription found at Worms in Germany in 1888, and 
edited by Prolessor Zangemeister in the Westdeutsches 
Korrespondenzhlatt vii, n. 76, col. 115-7.' The reading, 
supplying what is lost, is — 

[/w }ionoi^e')n\ domu[s'] divinae, Marti Loucetio sacrum 
Amandus Velugni /{ilius) Devas. 

Devas here apparently means " of Deva," indicating 
that the dedicator Amandus was an inhabitant or native 
of Eoman Chester. The date of the inscription cannot 
be fixed. The letters are well formed ; the domus divina 
is rarely mentioned before the end of the second century ; 
other remains found near this stone are of much later 
date. The peculiar interest of the inscription to us is 

^ I was lately ble to take squeezes of the atone for the Chester Museum. 


this — that it is the first 'mention, on any inscribed object, 
of the Eoman name of the city. The name has, indeed, 
been read on a lead trough at Northwich (Eph. vii, 1184), 
but the reading is far too uncertain to prove anything. 
The coins supposed to be inscribed col . divan a, are, no 
doubt, the result of error or forgery (Watkin's Cheshire, 
pp. 9-1 0). The very idea that Deva was a colonia, though 
shared by Mr. Watkin (Cheshire, p. 242) is erroneous. 
The place was an important military fortress, not a town 
with any sort of civil rights, and it owes its epigraphical 
importance to this fact. Had it been a inanicipium or 
colonia (the two are nearly identical), we should never 
have had the important inscriptions yielded by the north 

XVIII. Lincoln. 

47. [Eph. vii, 918.] Fragment, 5 in. wide, in the 
Cathedral cloisters — 

Copied by myself. It is, of course, unintelligible. 

48. On the rim of a pelvis, in the possession of Mr. 

Q • S A S E R Q. Saserina). 

Sent me by Mr. Koach Smith, and edited by him in 
the Journal of the Archaeological Association. It is a 
known stamp, a specimen on an amphora from Lincoln 
being in the British Museum (C. n. 1331, 110), but it does 
not seem to have been found elsewhere ; we have therefore, 
a local potter's work. 

49. I may add a word here as to the Parcis Deahus 
altar [Eph. vii, 916], now in S. Swithin's Church. The 
last two lines are cvrator-ter- | ar-d-s-d 
which Mr. Koach Smith explains as curator terrarum. 
The other explanation curator ter, "for the third time," 
he says, cannot be correct. However, the use of curator 
by itself, generally (it would seem) denoting " curator of 
the shrine," is certainly capable of parallel, and the use of 
the numeral adverb for the more usual number (ter for 


III.) is quite well-known. We have, for instance, a 
curator nautarum bis on a Lyons inscription (Wilmanns 
22B6), si. legatus jyro praet07'e ter Sit Eome (Henzen 5368), 
and so forth. Mr. Roach Smith's own suggestion that 
the altar belongs to the age of Diocletian, is, I think, 
wrong. First, the lettering is that of at least sixty years 
earlier ; secondly, the only evidence for the late date is a 
coia legend, Fatis Victincibus, and the Fatce (this, not 
Fata, seems to be the nominative plural) are frequently 
mentioned on inscriptions of the second century. (See 
further Antiquary^ xxi, (1890) 257.) 

XIX. Slack, Ilkley, South Yorkshire and 

50. [Eph. vii, 920.] The altar found in 1880 near 
Slack, now in the Greenhead Park at Huddersfield, is 
inscribed — 

DEO Beo 

B sR G ^/ T I Berganti 

T- ■ N • A V G • ct n{uminihus) Aug{ustornm) 

T'AR-QYINIS, T. Aiir{elius) Qumtus 

5 D'D'P'IS'S" d{onum) d{edit) p{ecunia) et s{umptu) s{iw) 

With the aid of Mr. G. W. Tomlinson, f.s.a., T was 
able to examine this stone. The text given by Mr. 
Watkin (Arch. Journ., xl, 139 and elsewhere) is incorrect. 
The expansion of the fifth line was suggested by Pro- 
fessor Mommsen. Mr. Watkin's decreto decurionum is 
impossible, because the place was neither a colonia nor a 
municipium, and had therefore no decuriones (municipal 
magistrates). The God " Bergans " is no doubt con- 
nected with the dea Brigantia (C. n, 200, 203). Mr. 
Whitley Stokes, one of the highest authorities on Keltic 
philology, has been good enough to send me the following 
note on the name — " The words Brigantes and Brigantia, 
like the Gaulish Brigiani and the Irish Brigit, regularly 
descend from a root bhrgh (with the r vowel) whence 
also the Sanskrit hrhant. Berganti cannot come from 
this root, but it may, and I think it does, come from 
another form of the same root, namely hhergh. Hence 
also the Zend bet'zant " great, high," the exact reflex of 


Bergmit-i. Hence also, probably, the Gaulish god Ber- 
gmius (Orelli, 1970, 197'2) and Bergomum (now Ber- 
gamo, in north Italy), Bergintrum, Bergusia, Bergion, 
and others (see Zeuss Graynmatica Celtica, ed. 2, pp. 770 
and 1125, and Gliick Keltische Namen, pp. 89, 95 note, 
151, 153, 191)." I may add, by way of explanation, a 
parallel from Greek to the double roots hhergh, hhrgh. In 
Greek the vowel 9' becomes ra, and in the verb (for 
instance) depKo/^ai " I see," we have exactly the same pair 
of roots — Sf/OAT in the present, dpuK in the second aorist, 
i^paKov (originally *e8p<ov). 

51. [Eph. vii, 921.] An llkley mscrijDtion, now in the 
vestry of the church there, has often been misread. The 
text is — 

[B. i¥.] 

PVDE^- {praenomen and nonien] 

Pude\iitis ?] 
Leg{ionis) II Aug[ustae\ 

T E S S E R 
LEG-il' A 

Copied by myself. I owe to Mr. E. Blair, f.s.a., the 
hint whereto find the stone, "To ... Pudens, tesserarius 
of the Legio II. Augusta ..." The tesserarius was an 
inferior officer who distributed the watchword written on 
a small ticket or tessera : there was one in each century. 
The old reading Pudentius lesseius is nothing less than 
absurd. I suppose the stone to be a tombstone, because 
the sketches, (as they seem to be) given by Whitaker and 
by Collyer shew the letters dm at the top. But the 
inscription is perfect at the bottom and on the left hand 
side, and if these sketches are not firsthand, the D m may 
be inaccurate and the stone a dedication to some god put 
up by the soldier. 

52. [Eph. vii, 1181.] Found on Staincrossmoor, near 
Barnsley, in 1782 ; now lost — 

D E M A R Deo Mar[ti) 

PRO S A L V I Pro Saluile} 

D D N N {dominoi'um nostrorum) 

IMP A V G imp{crato7'is) Av[rclii?] 

Published, from Mr. J. C. Brooke's papers, by B. Jack- 
son, History of Barnsley, p. 233. 


Probably the lower part of the stone is lost. The title 
dominus noster first appears about 200 a.d., and becomes 
common after a.d. 284. The last word may be wrong. 
If we read Aurelius, we may suppose the inscription to have 
commemorated any Emperor in the third century who 
bore that name and had a colleag-ue. 

53. Pig of lead weighing ] 35 lbs., 22 in. long, 4^ in. 
wide, 5^ in. deep, found in 1890 at South Cave, near 
Brough, Yorkshire, (where the Roman road from Lincoln 
crosses the Humber) ; the last letter is broken, thus : 


Now in the possession of C. E. G. Barnard, Esq., Cave Castle. 

{Gail) Iul{ii) Protl Brlt[annicnm) Lut{udense) ex arg[cnto) 

Mr. Barnard sent me a squeeze and full details ; I am 
also indebted to Mr. W. Stephenson, of Beverley, for a 
reading. Published in the Hull Express, March 1 and 3, 
1890, and in the Eastern Morning News, March 7, with 
a note by myself; afterwards in the Illustrated London 
News, No. 2G64, p. 587, with a cut from a photograph 
(which, as I understand, was not taken direct from the 
original). I am obliged to the proprietors of the Illus- 
trated, for an electrotype. 

The inscription is identical with that of a pig found 
near Mansfield (Notts) in 1848 (C. n. 1216), and now 
in the British Museum. Lutudae was somewhere in 
South Derbyshire, where Protus was lessee of a lead 
mine, probably state property. Another Lutudensian 
lead manufacturer is known to us, Tiberius Claudius 
Trophimus (C. n. 1215). The words ex argento imply 
that the silver had been extracted, as was always 
done and as analysis of actual Boman pigs has shewn. 
Silver being the more valuable metal, the lead is said to 
have been taken " from the silver." 



. Roman remaiDs have been found at Brough, where Mr. 
Barnard tells me, coins are so common as to be called 
" cow farthings "— the " cow " being the rustic interpreta- 
tion of the Wolf with Eomulus and Ilemus. A fragment 
of another lead pig has been found here, some date before 
1700, inscribed br ex arg. Possibly it was shipped 
on the Humber into trading vessels ; otherwise Brough is 
off the direct line from Lutudae to anywhere, 

I may add here an inscribed pig of British lead found 
in 1883 in France, in the bank of the old harbour of Saint- 
Valery-sur-Somme in 1883, and now in the museum of 
Saint-Germain. It weighs about 165 lbs., and is in- 
scribed — 


Ncronis Aurjusti BrUan^nicum) ... ? 

Published first by M. J. Vaillant Cfn Saumon de Plomh 
Antique (Boulogne) ; then, more correctly, by Professor 
Cagnat LAnnee Ejngraphique 1888 (n. 53, p. 10). 

The expansion of l . ii is doubtful. M. Cagnat pro- 
poses Legio ii comparing a lead pig (C n. 1209 6) found 
on the road from Shrewsbury to Montgomery, and said — 
no doubt correctly, though not on the best authority — to 
be inscribed leg x x. There is no reason why a legion 
should not have provided workmen for the mines, which 
were State property, but the second legion, whether at 
Qloucester or at Caerleon, is rather far from the lead 
districts. If the lead be Mendip lead, the legion may 
have worked the mine before it went to Caerleon, though 
it was stationed there, as I believe, at a very early date. 

Nero reigned a.d. 54-68, so this pig, like one found in 
Hampshire C. n. 1203) belongs to an early period of the 
Roman Conquest. Two earlier ones are known, both of 
the year a.d. 49. 

54. On the brim of n pelvis, in an irregular cartouche 
of chocolate coloured pigment, moulded by hand, found 
at Little Chester, near Derby : the last letter is uncertain — 

v I V I V I 2 . 
- Published by Mr. John Ward, Derbyshire Archceological 
Journal, xi, 86, and Reliquary, April, 1889 (iii, 65) with 
a plate ; hence in some foreign papers. If this has (as I 
presume) been rightly read, I can offer no explanation, 
for the letters look like an ornament, rather than a name, 




The way in which they are done is curious, and may well 
be unique. 

XXII. York. 

55. [Eph. vii, 928.] I am able to give what I believe 
to be a somewhat better interpretation of part of a 
remarkable inscription found at the Mount in 1884, and 
now in the York Museum {Arclueological Journal, xlii, 
152). The annexed collotype plate, being prepared from 
a photograph, is as accurate, I hope, as a plate can be. 
The upper part of the inscription is quite plain. 

I)[eo Sancto] Silva[no sacrum] L. Celerin[i]us Vitalis, 
corni{cen [or co7"ni{cularlus)] leg[ionis) IX Hispanae v{o- 
tum) s{olvit) l{ihens) m(erito). 

Below this are two lines scratched rudely on — 


Canon Eaine and Professor H bner read this Fido 
mim{ini) hoc donum adperiineat : cautum attiggam, " Let 
this gift belong to the faithful deity : let me take care 
how I touch," comparing the old Latin cave vestem 
attigas. The reading Fido is possible, for though the 
stone has certainly E t , the letters have been recut 
deeper, and may have been cut wrong the second time- 
But Professor Hirschfeld suggests for the first part. Ft 
donium) hoc do : num{i7ii) adpertineai : " And I give 
this gift : let it belong to the deity." Professor Mommsen 
remarks on the last two words, * cautum attiggam is 
caute atti[n]gam, words put into the mouth of a passer-by, 
"I will touch cautiously.'" The latter does not differ 
much from Canon Baine's interpretation, but it seems to 
me to give a slightly better grammatical construction. 

In the Ephemeris, the word adperiineat is accidentally 
misprinted ad.piirtniat. 

56-57. [Eph. vii, 1182-1183.] Two fragments found 
(as Mr. F. A. Ley land tells me) at York, now in the 
Halifax Museum — 

15 by 8 in. ^J S V R V M 

' S L V E R V N 


10 by 14 iu. 

/T R 

ip N . 

/s A L V '"E^ 
Iv M . L I B E ]| 



Copied by myself. Apparently votive inscriptions, 
erected " for the snfety of themselves and their family." 
The concluding words in each case were lihenter solveinmt. 

58. [Eph. vii, 1155.] Glass bottle inscribed round 
the bottom — 

P ATRIM ... 
Edited incorrectly by Mr. Watkin. The stamp is the 
same as one found in Gaul at Aries (C- xii, 5G96) 
PATRIMO Ni VM, which Hirsclifeld considers to be 
simply the Latin word patrimonium and not P{iiblii) 
Atri(i) Mom{mi). A fragment found in Sussex, at 
'Densworth, had probably the same stamp (C. n. 1276) 

59. [Eph. vii, 1160.] An eagle like the one found at 
High liochester (C. n. 1290, Bruce lapid, n. 578) is in 
York Museum. The only letter remaining is 


Copied by myself. The High Rochester specimen reads 
C o H o p T I M I M A X I M , or Something like it. Meaning 
and use are unknown. 

XLYL Chesters. 

60. [Eph. vii, 10 16. J Two parts of an inscription 
which was probably 34 in. high by 40 long — 

I{ovi) Oii^thno) M{axmo) Dol{iclieno) 
~~ fro sal{ute) [Au]g{usiorum) niostrorum) 

Gal{erws) Vcr{ccundus .? fosuit] 


Published (wrongly) by Mr. Watkin (Archceological 
Journal xlii, 1113, and xlv ,118) and others ;' rightly in 
the Archcpologia Ackana, xiii, 357, with a j^rint. Mr. R. 

^ Tlxe cut ia uot quite accurate : the A in line 2 sliould be Aj , i.e. A L. 


Blair and myself corrected the reading and connected the 
fragments while on a visit at Chesters. The annexed 
cut and those to nos. 61, 62, 63, 66 are reproduced by 
permission from the Arch. Aeliana. They are drawn 
one-eighth of actual size, except no. 66^ which is full size. 

From the lettering, the inscription seems to belong to 
the early part of the third century. The Emperors are 
possibly Elagabalus and Alexander Sever us, who appear 
to be commemorated on two other Chesters inscriptions 
(C. n. 585 ; Eph. iii, n. 100). Alexander was apparently 
raised to the title of Augustus before the murder of 
Elagabalus (a.d, 222), as Mommsen pointed out long ago 
(C. iii, p, 892) or Augusti may be put for ' Augustus et 
Caesar,' in flattering fashion, as sometimes happens {e.g. 
in a Roman inscription of a.d. 221). However, it is 
also possible that both this and Eph. iii, n. lOO refer to 
Septimius Sever us and Caracalla who were Augusti 
between 198 and 211 a.d. 

Juppiter Dolichenus is an Eastern god, so called from 
Doliche in Commagene (not from Doliche in Thessaly), 
who was worshipped very widely in the second and third 
centuries. At Kome he had a shrine on the Aventine 
and a sodalitas or brotherhood of priests, and is repre- 
sented as standing on an ox, with a thunderbolt and an 
axe. Some connection with iron has been recently con- 
firmed by a bronze tablet found at Pfiinz in Germany, 
inscribed /. 0. M, Duliceno uhi ferum [exorit]ur ( West- 
deutsches Korrespondenzblatt, 1889, p. 71). But it is not 
to be supposed that an inscription to him shews that the 
Romans found iron at the spot. The best account of the god 
is given by Dr. F. Hettner de love Dolicheno (Bonn, 8, 1877.) 

61. [Eph. vii, 1018.] Small altar, Bin. high, found in 
1889 in the North Tyne, near the Roman bridge at 
Chesters — 

s^y' [di\bus 

V \E T E R I 


B V S ^^ 

Sent to me by Mr. R. Blair, r.s.A., who edited it after- 
wards in the Archceologia Aelicma xiii, 362. Altars to 
the di veteres, or deus vetiris, are common in the north of 



England (there are over thirty known), but seem to occur 
nowhere else. There is no evidence to shew who they 
were ; it has been plausibly conjectured that they are the 
"old (i.e., heathen) gods," superseded by Christianity. 
The names of the dedicators, when given, aiford no clue 
to any national worship. The conjecture that the Teu- 
tonic Vidrir (a name of Odin in the Edda) is the origin, 
seems impossible on phonetic grounds. 

62. Eph. vii, 1019.] Fragment found in 1889, ap- 
parently in the N.E. angle of the camp — 

lla]dr. A[)itoaino Awj. 
Pt]o P{atri) Fiatriac) 
legio] VI [victrix [? 

Sent me by Mr. Blair, edited by Dr. Bruce, Archmologia 
Aeliana xiii, 376. In Eph. vii, 1019, I printed the first 
line DRiA, from a drawing, but it appears that tlie small ^ is 
really a stop. The expansion is not affected by this. 

Inscription to Antoninus Pius (a.d. 138-161), set up 
possibly by soldiers of the sixth legion. 

63. [hph. vii, 1030.] Frag- 
ment 22 in high, in the yard 
of the schoolhouse at Wall, a 
hamlet a little to the east of 
Chester — 

Edited by Mr. Blair, Archceo- 
logia Aeliana xiii, 360. 

No certain sense can be made 
'of this, possibly the numerals 
shewed the years of service and 
Hfe of some soldier. At least, 
it is difficult to account for them 

64. [Eph. vii, 1145.] Graffito, 
6 in. long, on a broken tile in 
Mr. Clayton's collection at Ches- 
ters — 



Copied by myself. Edited by Mr. Blair, Archceologia 
Atliana xiii, 363, along with other graffiti, mostly on 
pottery of various kinds. 

6.5. [Eph. vii, 1152.] Thin round lead plate, If in. 
in diameter, in Mr. Clayton's collection at Chesters — 


Copied by myself. Edited by Mr. Blair, Arch, Ael. 
xiii, 363. 

QQ. [Eph. vii, 1152.] Lead seals found at Chesters, one 
bearing the head of Septimius Severus and his two sons, 
the other inscribed : — 

+ G + CI 

on one side : al /v on the other : i v l a s 
Q O 

Edited by Mr. Blair, with a photograph, Arch. Ael. xiii, 
362. Al(a) Au(gusta) and Julius have been suggested as 
expansions ; the second, certainly, is most improbable. 
These seals resemble those found at Brough, Bremenium, 
South Shields, Felixstowe, &c., about which I hope to say 
more at another time. I may say here that the lead seal 
mentioned by Prof. Hlibner as found in 1873 at York 
(Eph. iii, n. 129 and vii, 1153), is really medieval. 

I may also add that these seals are not confined to 
Britain, as has been supposed. Several similar specimens 
were found some twenty-five years ago at Mainz, at a 
point on the Bhinebank where a Boman custom-house is 
thought to have stood. The originals are in the museum 
at Mannheim (ref. nos. D. 321 foil.) and there are casts in 
the Eomano-Germanic Museum at Mainz (Nos. 4105, 
4107, 4339 foil.) 



D. 321 L A T 

Z I 

D. 322 SOP A These are all in oval 

frames, the reverses are 
blank but shew holes 
for string. 

D. 324 I F D 

Copied by myselP, I print 

D. 328 Mars to r. marching Only tllOSO whicll Can be 

with shield and spear, easilv deciphered. 

Leaden seals have also been found at Eusicade (Philiv- 
peville) in the Roman province of Africa and at Lyons. 
The former have devices, inscriptions such as qvintiani 
RVFiNi, LCA, xci, and string-holes. The latter have 
emperors' heads with avgg dd nn, or leg with a numeral, 
or various names, all with stringholes. Both are thought 
to be customhouse seals (Cagnat Impdis Indirects pp. 67, 
72 ; C. viii, 10484 ; C. xii, 5699,. I do not know how 
far they really resemble the British *' seals," but there are 
some marked resemblances. Emperors' heads with avgg 
have been found at S. Shields, seals with leg ii at Brough. 

67. Lamps in Mr. Clayton's collection : — 

^- ^^^ Atd 

3. CVNB^IT^^ Aufi(dii) Fron(tonk) 

Copied by myself. 

X L V 1 1 Carrawburgh. 

68, [Eph. iv. n. 680, vii, 1032] . Altar, found at ProcoUtia 
preserved by Mr. Clayton at Cbesters, 9in. by 4in., the 
lower part lost : — 

mat viatribus 

R I B V com{innnibxis ? ] 

S • C o M 

Copied by myself. This is the right reading of an inscrip- 
tion published by Mr. Watkin in this Journal xxxiv (1877), 

The reading is interesting because it fits in with a 
Chesters inscription (Arch. Journ. xlii, 142, Eph. vii, 1 017), 
beginning : — 



In the latter, Ihm {Bonner Jahrhucher^ 83, p. 174) 
proposed to read L]arihus Com\_pitalibus, although these 
" Crossway Lares " do not occur elsewhere in Eng- 
land. The inscription given above shews clearly that 
ribus is to be completed mat]ribi(s. The explanation of 
c o M is less clear. The " Augustae Comedovae" have 
been suggested, but they are not Matres in the proper 
sense of the word, and are known only from an inscription 
in Southern France (C. xii, 2443). It seems simplest and 
best to read com[munihus\, as, indeed Dr. Bruce has done, 
in his Handbook to the Wall (ed, 3, p. 103) in deal- 
ing with Eph. vii, 1017. 

69. [Eph. vii, 1037.] Altar 37 in. long, 15 in. high, 
with very faint lettering, found in 1889, near the well of 
Coventina — 

I _ 

MPHS + CoVENTINiE ny]mphis et Coventinae 

TIANVSDEC. ... ... tianus dcciurio)! 

VO . . . R 


Sent me, with a squeeze, by Mr. Blair, who has edited 
it, Arclueologia Aeliana xiii, 363 ; a somewhat different 
reading was forwarded to me through Mr, Wallis Budge. 

The word Coventince seems quite certain, and the word 
dec I thought very probable when I saw the squeeze. 
The stone was, therefore, put up to the goddess by the 
decurio- commander of a turma — of a cavalry squadron. 
The garrison of Procolitia was an infantry cohort, so the 
dedicator must have been a stranger. 

Full accounts of the Well of Coventina have been pub- 
lished by Mr. Clayton {Arclueologia Aeliana, 1878), and 
Professor Hiibner {Hermes xii, 257 foil.) Some minor 
corrections which I have been able to make in Professor 
Hiibner s readings may be omitted here (Eph. vii, 1033-0.) 

XLIX. Chesterholm. 

70. [Eph, vii, 1189 foil] In 1885 a group of mile- 
stones, five fairly perfect, and two fragments, were dis- 
covered on the Crindledykes farm, close to the " Stane- 
gate " and a little to the east of Vindolana. They were 
published in the Archceologia Aeliana (xi, 130) and in this 



Journal (xliii, 277). Three of the readings require 
corrections. I have collated all myself. 

The milestone of Severus (n. 1 in Mr. Watkin's list) 
had seven lines ; line five, now illegible, w^hicli contained 
the legate's name, is not represented in the books as 
missing, and should be marked as between the lines 
cos ppcvii and . G a v G . There is space for it. 

, The true reading of Mr. Watkin's No. 5 is (I have 
pointed out in the Proceedings of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, iv, 35) — 

IMP C A E S Imp. Cues. 

F L A V V A L Flav{:io) Val{eno) 

Constantino Constantino 

P I F / / N B Pio F[_el{icl)] Nob{ili) 
5 CAESARI Caesari 

D I V I Bivi 

CONSTANTI Constanti 

P II A V G Pii Augiusti) 
F I !i Filio 

The reading of line five is not quite certain ; p i o . r e l . 
NOB would be the ordinary formula. The stone was 
put up while Constantino, afterwards the Great, enjoyed 
the inferior title of Caesar, i.e., between 306 and 308 
A.D,, in which latter year he was created Augustus. 

Thirdly, the fragment L i denotes probably not leuga I. 
but the number of miles, M{illia) P(assuuin) being broken 
off above it, or perhaps omitted altogether. 

L. Caervoran. 

71. [Eph. vii, 1057.] Altar, 9 in. high, found appa- 
rently at Caervoran, now at Chesters — seemingly unpub- 
lished — 

D I B V S Dihm 

N I I T I I R Vcteribus 

I B V S v{o)t{u)7n 

Copied by myself 

The abbreviation vtm for votuin belongs to the later 
period of Roman contractions. In early times the initial 
letters were used p r praetor, L or leg legio ; in later 
times consonants were picked out, M c p nmnicipium^ 
G L R s M V s gloriosissinnus. 


LY. Carlisle. 

72. Lamp found in excavating the new markets — 


R S. Ferguson, Proc. Soc. Ant. xii, 424, and Trans, of 
Cumh. Arch. Soc. 1890, p. 101. The name has been found 
on lamps in Switzerland (Mommsen Inscr. Heluet, n. 350), 
in Southern France (C. xii, n. 5682), in various parts of 
Austria (C iii, n. G008 and 0286), and in Germany 
(Frohner, p. 46, n. 1181). Mr. Roach Smith (quoted by 
Mr. Ferguson) calls it a potter's name, but I cannot find 
it recorded on any pottery, and, as Mommsen has pointed 
out (C. iii and v), one and the same maker seems not 
to have made both pottery and lamps. 

LIX. Netherby. 

73. [Eph. vii, 1087.] Altar found at Netherby in 1882, 
seemingly unpublished — 

D E iJ Deo 

H • V E N{umini) 

T I R I Vetiri 

Sent by Mr. F. Graham to Dr. Bruce, and by him to 
me. The H in line 2 represents a late and bad form of N, 
of which other instances occur. See the engravings in 
Dr. Bruce's Lapidarium of n. 280 h.viteribvs (C. 
n. 5026) and n. 312 (C. n. 502a). 


Little Chester (Derby) [pottery] 54 



- 19 

Bossens [pewter, &c.] 

- 71 

Carrawburgh - 
Castor (Northants) 

- 68 

- 22 

- 31 


- 70 


- 60 


- 20 


- 24 


- 30 


Kent [silverspoon] 

- 51 

- 7 

- 47 



Peterborough - 

- 7 

- 22 

Eecidver [pelvis'] 
Eichborough [lead seal] 

- 6 

- 5 

- 23 

- 50 

Southcave [lead pig] 
Staincrossmoor - 

- 53 

- 52 

Trogeare [pelvis'] 

- 4 

- 3 

Wall (Northumberland) 

- 63 

- 55 

[Where nothing is added in brackets after tlic name, tlio finds 
include inscribed stones ; where a square bracket is added, the huds 
recorded above do not include stones.] 



I shall, ill the few words in which I am about to address 
you, confine myself to those topics which have come within 
my personal observation during the past year, taking each 
of them as a sort of starting point, for I think that my 
address should, in part at all events, be a sort of resume of 
the past year. 

It might be thought that in such a well worked field as 
that of England it was not possible to find any new or 
startling thing, but any one who heard a paper which was 
read by Mr. A. J. Evans, the distinguished son of a 
distinguished father, at the Society of Antiquaries, in 
March last, must have at once had any such feeling 
dispelled. Mr. Evans, who has been pursuing certain 
excavations at Aylesford, in North Kent, came across a series 
of groups of interments containing urns of a class which 
had hitherto b.^en called by the name of late Celtic. The 
description of the interments and the ornamentation of the 
urns led hitn to the conclusion that these interments 
were entitled to a separate and distinct denomination. I 
cannot do more than in the most general way describe 
what he shadowed out in his paper, which will be printed 
in ArchcBologia. It was to the eflect that this species of 
interments could be identified as that of a separate and 
distinct race, wdiich he believed to be Belgic. It was, of 
course, no new thing to be told that there was an incursion 
of Belcjas into Eno-land. The noveltv of Mr. Evans's dis- 
covery was to be able to identify the interments of this 
race. He connects this class of interment in various 
ways — partly by the manner in wdiicli the urns are 
Cfrouped, partly by the forms of the urns, and partly 

^ Read at the Aunual Meeting of the Institute, at Glouceoter, August r2th, 1890. 


by their contents with similar interments on the other side 
of the Channel. Coupling this with the peculiar forms of 
the vases in which the interments were made, he traces 
the race through the north of France to the upper part of 
the Adriatic, following pretty much in the same route 
as a person travelling from London to Venice by the 
Saint Grothard route would now travel. Mr. Evans is 
not a person to leave so interesting a subject without 
having thoroughly investigated it, and we may look for- 
ward to a distinct addition to our knowledge of the inhab- 
itants of this country at a time shortly preceeding the first 
Koman Invasion, to a knowledge also of the history of the 
people who went to compose the English race who resisted 
Julius Csesar on his landing. 

I believe it is not likely that traces of the Belgos will be 
found so far westward as this. We, in the east of England, 
are, of course, more directly interested in them. Some 
authors have attributed to them the construction of the 
great wall which turned the northern half of Eomney 
Marsh into the fertile plain which it now is. 

Upon this plain many Eoman remains have been found, 
so that it is quite certain that the wall existed in their 
time, but it is, of course, possible that it may be their 
work and not that of the Belgaa ; however, as I have said 
before, Mr. Evans is not the man to leave any subject 
which he has made his own incomplete, and we may look 
upon this discovery as only the opening page of the history 
of the Belgas in England. Here I find I am trespassing on 
the historical ground of my dear friend the Dean of 

I will only add that for my part I am looking forward 
to something of this sort. When I was a boy I was 
taught that the ancient Britons who resisted Julius Ccesar 
wore flowing white robes, and were dressed in the skins of 
animals. I expect every day to be told that the flowing 
white robes were smock frocks, and the skins of 
animals were leather gaiters. I have seen some ancient 
Britons still in this uniform in the eastern part of England. 

Speaking of digging I am led to mention a project 
which has been set on foot by the Society of Antiquaries 
and is now in active work, and to which I, for my part, 
intend to give my cordial assistance — I mean the excava- 


tion of Silchester. This is no place to discuss whether 
Silchester is Calleva or some other town ; I shall refrain 
from expressing any opinion for fear it should lead to a 
discussion. Of one thing there is no doubt, that in the 
fields under the surface there are the remains of a large 
Eoman town, divided, like all Eoman towns, into squares. 
It is at all events worth while to uncover this space to see 
what the foundations will teach us. For my part I do 
not expect to find anything startling. I shall be surprised 
if the result is not to disclose the fact that a Eoman town 
must have looked very much like, say, such a town as 
Cordova does now — that the shops were gathered together 
in bazaars like the remaining Imperial Bazaar at Constan- 
tinople, and that the houses themselves were not unlike in 
their shape and arrangements to the houses of a French 
provincial town, only the modern houses have no bath and 
are much less comfortable and not so well warmed. 

The excavation is in good hands, but I may be permitted 
to express a hope that as the sites are uncovered perfect 
plans and drawings will be taken of everything, and an 
accurate description of what is found made, and that each 
site will then be covered up again before the frost gets to 
the masonry and destroys it. I do not know a more piti- 
ful sight than the Roman mosaic at Bignor presents. 
Most probably we shall settle for once and all what Sil- 
chester was and what its name was. 

I have said that arrangements have been made not only 
for commencing the excavation at once, but for proceeding 
with them in the summer. I am sure the Committee 
which has been formed for the purpose will welcome 
the assistance of any Members of this Institute and of 
the -two Societies who may wish to take part in this. 
They will at all events learn something to aid them in 
the excavations they may hereafter make nearer at home. 

I will now turn to a very different subject, though it, too, 
in a sense, is in the same connection. Most of us here 
present will have heard, and some of us will have seen 
the most extraordinary collection of archiepiscopal vest- 
ments which were found in a tomb at Canterbury, which 
I now think is sufiiciently identified as that of Archbishop 
Hubert Walter. On opening what was believed to be a 
cenotaph the authorities discovered the remains of an 


Archbishop in full dress and undisturbed. One of two 
courses remained, either to close the tomb at once, or to 
do what the authorities did, to reverently remove the 
vestments for preservation. I think in a learned society 
like this we can have no hesitation in saying that in the 
circumstances the authorities adopted the right course. 

The Archbishop was dressed with a mitre on his head 
with a crozier by his side, portions of the chasuble, amice 
and stole were found. The fastenings of his pall were 
there, and sufficient of the pall to prove its existence. He 
had long stockings or buskins of silk, and slippers of the 
same material. He had a ring on his finger and a paten 
and chalice by his side. The only regret I feel is that he 
was not photographed immediately on discovery. 

The whole of these interesting antiquities have been 
lent by the authorities to the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, and it is the intention of the society to illustrate 
the whole of these vestments in a part of the Vetusta 
Monumenta, and I hope to compare them with similar 
vestments which are in existence. 

Hubert Walter was Archbishop of Canterbury during 
the reign of King Eichard I. and King John, and died in 
1205, nearly at the time when King John lost his Norman 
possessions. He had been a personal friend of and com- 
panion of King Richard to the Holy Land, and had 
negotiated his ransom. During his reign he occupied a 
position in England, during the King's absence in Nor- 
mandy, similar to that now occupied by the Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. He was, therefore, in addition to his 
high ecclesiastical rank, a person of very high position, 
and at all events he possessed this merit, that none of the 
turmoils which marked the archiepiscopates of his prede- 
cessor and successors took place in his time. He was 
succeeded as Justiciar by Geoflrey FitzPeter, and the 
extent to which the two restrained King John may be 
gathered from the King's remark on the death of the 
latter — *' When he arrives in hell," said the King, " he may 
go and salute Hubert Walter, for, by the feet of God, now 
for the first time am I King and Lord of England." — 
Stubbs's Const Hist., vol. i, p. 591. But here again I am 
touching on historical ground. 

One thing that interested me much was the extent to 


which, even in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, we drew 
upon other countries for our supplies. As I have said, 
the whole of the dress of the Archbishop was of silk with 
some portions of cloth of gold. The silk, of course, is a 
foreign product, and the ornamentation of some of it 
seemed to me to be of foreign, probably Byzantine, work- 
manship. The slippers of embroidered silk were orna- 
mented with carbuncles and amethysts, neither of them 
English products. The pall was, T suppose, made of 
Italian wool. The crozier staff* of cedar wood. 

Upon the Archbishop's finger was a ring, the stone of 
which, a hard ereen stone, is ens^raved with a j?nostic 
emblem, a serpent with a fiery head with the word 
"Knuphis" written under it, most probably brought by him- 
self from the Levant. Other engraved stones were upon the 
top of his crozier. The border of the chasuble is of cloth 
of gold, beautifully embroidered with a design which seems 
to me to be Byzantine, but at all events not of English man- 
ufacture. I do not know that I ought to have been, but I 
was surprised to find the whole of the Archbishop's dress 
of silk. 

This brings me to another class of Antiquities from 
Canterbury which was exhibited at the same time at 
the Society of Antiquaries, namely, a large collection 
of pieces of silk which had been the envelopes of royal 
letters. It appears that in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries it was the habit for the kings, in sending letters 
to the monastery, to enclose their epistles in pieces of silk. 
These pieces are all of them oriental, and one of them has 
a most unmistakable Chinese head upon it. It would seem 
from this that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries silk 
was imported from China to Europe and found its way to 
England. It seemed to me that the silk in which the 
Archbishop was dressed was either Indian or Chinese, it 
looks very much like the silk which comes from India to 
England and is called Tussa silk. This is still the 
practice with the Sultans of Turkey. The firman, for 
the Turkish loans came to London in a bag of Crimson 
silk, probably a relic of a Byzantine custom. It is to 
be hoped that now the subject is under discussion it will 
be thoroughly exhausted. 

With regard to the Archbishop's monument there is 


still a good deal to be said, and I feel sure that the able 
hands to which the whole matter has been entrusted, will 
not allow it to be dropped until all that can be said has 
been. Most probably the Archbishop's monument was 
made by his executor, and this consideration will probably 
lead to the fixing of the name of the person by whom it 
was erected, The following memorandum which is written 
by my friend, Mr. F. J. Baigent, of Winchester, a real 
antiquary, leaves, I think, no doubt, that Elias de 
Derham was the Archbishop's executor, and our know- 
ledge of him will, I think, leave still less doubt as 
to the origin of the beautiful monument : — 

" You are quite correct as to my having mentioned to 
you that Elias de Derham (or Dereham, as it is sometimes 
spelt) was one of the executors of the Archbishop's will. 
His acting executors were James de Sauvage, or Salvage, 
who was one of his chaplains and rector of Wrotham in 
Kent; and Master Elias de Derham, rector of Melton 
Mowbray, cannon of Sarum, &c. The Archbishop died 
13th July, 1205, and the King appears to have gone down 
to Canterbury at once, probably to attend the funeral, 
where he arrived on Friday l5th July, and remained until 
the 20th, on which day exequies of the octave of the 
Archbishop's death were, as usual, solemnly kept. 

" On the 13th August — the day of ' the month's mind ' 
— the King caused a closed letter to be written to 
Reginald de Cornhille, sheriff of the county of Kent, on 
behalf of James Salvage and Master Elyas de Derham, to 
wit, that he should deliver to them all the chattels 
of the wardships (de wardes) which the Archbishop 
possessed, in the Sheriff's bailiwick, on the day which 
he died, &c. [Close Roll 7 John m. 7.) This was done 
because they claimed them as the Archbishop's ex- 
ecutors. On the 2nd January, 1205-G, there was issued 
a Royal Mandate — Rex, &c. Jacobo Salvagio et Magistro 
E[lie] de Derham, &c., execute ribus testamenti domini 
H[uberti] Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi, &c., Mandamus 
vobis quod omni occasione et dilacione postpositis fixciatis 
habere domino P[etro] Wintoniensi per manus W[illelmi 
de Wrotham] Archidiacono Tantonie et W[illeluii] de 
CornhuUe centum libras quas predictus II[ubertus] 
quondam Cantuariensis Archiepiscopus habuit die qua 



obilt de pecunia S[avarlci] quondam Bathoniensis Episcopi, 
pro centum libris quas prefatus P[efcrus] Winttoniensis 
Episcopus habere fecit de prestito, per plegium suum 
eidem S[avarico] Bathoniensi Episcopo habere faciatis 
H[ugoni] Archidiacono Wellensi et W[illelmo] Archidi- 
acono Tantoniensi, custodibus Eplscopatus Bathoniensis 
ad quietanda debita predicti S[avarici] Episcopi. Teste 
me ipso apud Clarendonam ij [die Januarii. Close Roll 7 
John, memhrane 6. 

" On the 4th April, 1206, the King ordered the follow- 
ing letters patent to be issued, which further illustrates 
the fact of their being the Archbishop's executors : — 
Rex Jacobo Salvagio et Magistro Elye de Derham, 
salutem. Mandamus vobis quod liberetis Beginaldo de 
Comhillej mille et centum marcas de fine quem nobiscum 
fecistis, pro debitis domini H[uberti] quondam Archie- 
piscopi Cantuariensis. Et in hujus rei testimonium, has 
litteras nostras patentes vobis mittimus. Teste me ipso 
apud Dovre, iiij. die Aprilis. Patent Roll 7 John m. 5., 

" I think I have given what is quite sufficient to show 
that when I mentioned the circumstance that this eminent 
architect was executor to Arclibishop Hubert, and that I 
was inclined to attribute to him the design of that inter- 
esting tomb from his close association with the Arch- 
bishop and in the winding up of his affairs, I was not 
speaking at random. And if what I have written proves 
of interest to you and is satisfactory, I shall feel much 
gratified to think that I mentioned it to you, and that 
you have honoured me by asking for further information 
and takin^i' an interest in it." 

The whole of the articles found in the tomb were 
collected and cleaned by a person known I dare say to 
some of you, but to whom we Antiquaries ought to be 
very much indebted — I mean Dr, Sheppard, of Canterbury. 
T do not know how far I am at liberty to talk about what I 
see at the charming visits which I from time to time pay 

Nothinof can be more interestinoj than a visit to his 
sanctiUTi (an inner library) in the Catliedral where he is. 
The unrivalled collection of letters, some dated in the 
twelfth and thirteen centuries, in his custody is most 


Upon the last occasion of a visit there Dr. Sheppard 
showed me a document which I hope he will some day 
describe. I shall only here hint at it. It was a record of 
a Prior who was in the fifteen ih century being instructed 
in Greek by a Greek who had come from Constantinople 
after the taking of the town by the Turks. In sorting 
the records, Dr. Sheppard found some of the original 
lessons in Greek given by this Greek master to his 
reverend pupil, and also other Greek fragments which 
must have been brought over at the same time. 

Whether anything of great value will be found among 
these is another matter, but the story is interesting, and 
to find traces of thes3 early Greek lessons still more so. 

The only thing which I can compare with it is a small 
fragment which used to be preserved in Winchester 
Cathedral Library. It was a page of a writing lesson 
wFiich a nephew of the Dean was having at the hands of 
one of the notaries of the Cathedral at the time when the 
town was about to be occupied by the Parliamentary 
troops in the Great Rebellion. The writing lesson came 
to an end together with the notary and other things. 
But this again begins to savour of history. I wish there 
was a Dr. Sheppard in every Cathedral library ; I hope 
there is one at Gloucester. 

The subject of records is one in which I am especially 
interested, though more from an historical point of view 
than looking at them in the light of simple antiquities. 
Moreover the records in which I am interested are of but 
a low sort — parish registers, churchwardens' accounts, and. 
vestry minute-books, and such like things. 

In this connection some of you are no doubt aware that 
a special report has been made by a Select Committee of 
Antiquaries upon the best methods of preservation and 
publication of parochial registers and other parochial 
records. To my mind valuable as parish registers are 
they are the least interesting of all parochial records. 

They are interesting only for particular purposes, and 
are not to my mind of the same general interest as other 
parochial books, the vestry minute-books and account 
books. The vestry minute-books of a parish, taken with 
the registers, may of course be specially interesting, parti- 
cularly in the case of a large town. When the three sets 


of books exist together it is possible, as I think I have 
succeeded in showing in one or two parishes in the City 
of London, to form a directory of the parish at any 
particular period. Besides this one can ascertain by this 
means what part of the parish was healthy and what 
unhealthy, particularly in the times of plague. 

The whole of the period between ]560 and 1665 was 
subject to violent outbreaks of plague, and as it is just 
during this period that the parish books were most 
accurately kept, it is not unlikely that some useful 
information may be derived from their study. 

Plagues and similar visitations follow the same laws, 
and the parishes which were most severely visited in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with plague are the 
same which were most severely visited in this century 
with cholera. 

The three sets of books together give also a most 
complete insight into parochial life during the above- 
named period. 

Our parish records in the City of London are now 
pretty well known, and sufficient interest has been 
aroused in them to insure their preservation. From the 
fact that I sometimes see portions of the records of 
country parishes for sale in the various catalogues of 
books that are sent me, I am afraid that the same does 
not altogether hold good in the country. The way in 
which this happens is somewhat as iollows. The clergy- 
man, a bachelor, for safety's sake keeps the records in his 
own rectory. When he dies, his executors, whose duty 
it is to realize his effects, sell everything they find, and so 
it happens that in this way parochial property sometimes 
gets dispersed. I do not think the property is lost 
during the lifetime of the clergyman, but it does get 
dispersed on his death. This shows how undesirable it 
is for a clergyman to keep parochial property, even for 
safe custody, in his house. 'J'he same cause also operated 
in a measure with another species of interesting jJarochial 
records, I mean monumental brasses. I suppose, most of 
us who have been interested in brass rubbing can tell of 
how they have found a brass which had got detached 
from its matrix kept for safe custody in the rectory. 
But to return to the records. It seems to me that the 


duty of looking after these records is essentially the work 
of a local society. A Society like this, or a Society like 
the Society of Antiquaries, can have very little power in 
the preservation of country parish records, but the local 
knowledge possessed by the secretaries and members of 
local societies ought to give them a very great advantage 
in doing this. I hope it will not be considered out of 
place if I press this upon the attention of gentlemen 
present, particularly those who are members of the 
Gloucester and Bristol Archa3ological Society, I know 
very little of the records of Gloucester, but I am quite 
sure in a city so ancient and so important there must be 
found in the ecclesiastical, municipal, ynd parochial 
archives a large number of very valuable records interest- 
ing both for preservation and for publication. 

To begin with, there are the Bishops' registers, which 
are always important and valuable documents. Some 
day we may hope to see all the Bishop' registers generally 
printed in the same way as those at Exeter have been. 
Not only are the registers interesting in themselves, but 
they throw light upon all sorts of matters of antiquarian 

I remember an instance of this. There is a curious little 
church near where I live, in Surrey, which tradition points 
out as the church in which the first reformed Prayer-book 
of King Edward VI. was first used. 

It is a little out-of-the-way church in the Surrey downs, 
about five miles due south of Croydon. Croydon was 
Archbishop Cranmer's country residence. Warlingham, 
the little church to which I allude, was in the Diocese of 
Winchester. The tradition is that Archbishop Cranmer, 
wishing to see how the service would go off) had a full 
rehearsal in Warlingham Church. 

But how could this be Warlingham, being in the 
Diocese of Winchester? Stephen Gardener, Bishop of 
Winchester, was at that time in suspense for not 
accommodating himself to the new state of tilings, and 
the Bishops' register showed that the living of Warling- 
ham was then vacant. I do not mean to say that this 
carried us very far on our journey, but as far as it went 
it showed that there was nothing in the state of tilings 
in opposition to the tradition. 


With regard to municipal records a calendar might be 
printed of the most important of them, and that at little 
cost, similar to the calendar made of the documents at 
Winchester. I understand there is a most excellent 
calendar of the documents here. 

I admit that the cost of printing records makes their 
publication a formidable undertaking. If however, the 
funds of a local society do not admit of the publication of 
records, still a local society may do a great deal by 
making a calendar of them, For instance, there ought to 
be no great difficulty to make a calendar descriptive of 
the registers and parochial books in each parish in a given 
county. The preparation and printing of sucli a docu- 
ment ought not to be either difficult or costly. To a 
certain extent it might be extracted from county histories 
and from the publications of the local societies. This is a 
work which all could help in. When such a calendar has 
been made it might be checked from time to time, and 
there would in this way be a check upon the gradual loss 
which perhaps unavoidably takes place in these documents. 

In addition to these records, I presume that every 
diocese possesses a collection of wills which is worth 
calendaring. I am not sure that I have any great sym- 
pathy with wills, partly from prejudice, but the recent 
publication by Dr. Sharpe, of the Calendar of Wills, 
registered in the Court of Hustings, of the city of London, 
has made me rather change my mind. Certain it is that 
you occasionally get charming little particulars of the 
manner and customs of the times. I take leave to illus- 
trate this by an extract from a register of wills kept in 
my own parish of St. Christopher le Stocks. There is 
among the number a will in the fifteenth century, where- 
by one John Plonket gave certain lands to endow an obit. 
I was not aware that the customs of the city of London 
necessitated any particular formula in the execution of a 
will with such a provision, but from the extract I am 
about to give it would seem that this was the case. At 
the end of John Plonket's will there is the following 
note : — 

"This testament of John plonket Shoreman of the lands 
and tenements for tlie sowle of John Gedney etc. to 
Mortuary vse as bequetlied was sealid by the same John 


plonket the xiiij*'^ dale of the moneth of fiebruary In the 
yere of our Lorde god m° c c c c Ixxxiij And in the first 
yere of the Keign of King Eichard the thirde (that ys to 
say) on the day of saint Valentine the martir bitwene the 
honres of fyve and sixe of the Clok at aftir noone of the 
same daie within the Chirche of saint Christofer within 
wretyn in the north ysle of the same chirche with a scale 
of laten gilted graven with a lef caUid a trefoyle Tiie 
same John plonket than amongs other stondyng in the 
same north Isle of the said chirche wering than a gowne 
of woUen cloth of Russet colour and a blak hat on his 
hed, with a blak typpet of wollen cloth about his neck 
than and there being present the worshipfull man Mr. 
William Stokker knight and the discret f)ersonnes William 
Holme Thomas Rerisby James Wellys, Drapers, Richard 
Eryk, vpholder, Eeyaold Ruttor John Croke thoinger, 
Roger Acheley, Drapers, Robert Eyrk, ffelmonger, John 
Ginswell and John fforster witnessies on to the premissies 
callid and specially Required." 

Up to this time I have been speaking exclusively of 
matters in England, but I must be permitted to say a few 
words about foreign countries, and as I am speaking about 
records I will begin by speaking about foreign records. 

I wish to mention a field which has not been, as far as 
I know, much explored, but which contains abundant 
materials for future Antiquaries — I mean the records of 
the Cathedrals in Spain. 'J he Spanish clergy are always 
willing to show strangers their libraries and muniment 
rooms, and nothing is more distressing than to see the 
complete manner in which the records of their properties 
were kept, in many cases the completeness of the records, 
aud then to remember that the whole of the property has 
been confiscated. At one of the out-of-the-way cathedrals 
on the borders of Aragon and Castile I came across a 
record which is of great interest to an Englishman and 
reminds him of the intimate relations which existed in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries between this country and 
Spain. In visiting the cathedral of Siguenza last autumn, 
which is of itself a building of great interest, I learnt 
from Murray's Handbook that there had been a chapel in 
the cathedral dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury. On 
inquiring from the Canon in residence I found that not 


only was this the case, but that they had in the cathedral 
a contemporary account of the murder of Thomas Becket, 
which he believed had been presented to the cathedral by 
a Bishop named Jocelin. The Canon did not know who 
Bishop Jocelin was, or the manner in which he happened 
at Siguenza, but the date was 1208. 

The following seems to be the history : — Eleanor, or as 
she is called in Spain, Leonora, one of the daughters of 
King Henry II. of England, married Alonzo, King 
of Castile. Jocelin, Bishop of Bath, had been a friend of 
King Richard, her brother, and was in the confidence of 
King John. King John promoted him to the Bishropic of 
Bath. In the quarrel which the King had with the monks 
of Canterbury the Pope put the kingdom under an inter- 
dict. One of the Bishops who had to publish this was 
Jocelin. Having published it, he ran away, and went first 
to Bordeaux and aftewards to the King's sister, Eleanor, 
at Burgos, and accompanied her and her husband to 
Siguenza when the cathedral was dedicated. He took the 
opportunity of leaving there a record of Thomas Becket's 
murder, which is still preserved in the cathedral archives. 
The Canon told me that he intended to publish this docu- 
ment, and I told him I would assist him if he wished ; 
but by 1208 the account of Thomas Becket's murder 
must have been stereotyped, and so that but for the 
interest of the thing I do not expect any new light would 
be thrown upon the transaction by its publication. In 
passing you will not forget that this Bishop Jocelin was a 
contemporary and friend of Archbishop Hubert Walter, 
of whom we have spoken of already. There are other 
churches and chapels in Castile dedicated to Thomas 
Becket, and no doubt an investicjation of each case would 
produce a history as interesting as that I have just told, 
but here a^jain I am treadinoj on the limits. 

In a little tumble-down, out-of-the-way town, between 
Seville and Huelva, at the south-west corner of Spain, 
named Niebla, on the Rio Tinto, a town both in its present 
and past circumstances not unlike Winchelsea, I found an 
interesting? series of records consistinj? of the charters 
granted to the town in the thirteenth century by Alonzo 
el Sabio, the son of San Fernando, and contemporary and 
friend of our King Edward I. 


These charters are in Spanish, and reminded me of the 
observation made by the Bishop of Oxford in one of his 
lectures on medieeval history, to the effect that the Eng- 
lish in negotiating a treaty with the Spaniards found that 
the Spanish diplomatists were unacquainted with any 
other language than their own, and the treaties which the 
English diplomatists had prepared in Latin had to be 
translated for the benefit of their Spanish colleagues into 
their own language. 

It is interesting to observe that in one of these charters 
the Mohammedan Kings of Granada and Murcia, who 
were parties to the documents, are spoken of as vassals of 
the King of Spain — Eey de Granada, Vassallo del Eey, 
Eey de Murcia, Vassallo del Ee}^ 

As we are now abroad I wish to turn to quite a 
different subject and country. 

Some of you may have heard of the British School at 
Athens. I am going to speak of a portion only of its 
work — naturally that portion which is interesting to 
me. This institution has been doing a quiet and unosten- 
tatious but extremely valuable work for an Ecclesiastical 

Young students at the school have been visiting the in- 
teresting churches scattered throughout the northern part 
of Greece and the Morea, and have been making very 
careful studies of them. These churches are of course 
in the highest sense interesting to the students of Oriental 
ecclesiology ; they have never, as far as I know, been 
properly examined, much less illustrated. In some of the 
out-of-the-way Greek churches and monasteries, out of 
the way of the Turk, internal decorations and articles of 
furniture which cannot be found in any other part of the 
Levant are preserved. 

The study of Oriental ecclesiology has been a plant of 
slow growth, but it has made some progress since the time 
when I, a lad, first visited those countries and was taken 
with it. Up to that time there was some general informa- 
tion, but Dr. Mason Neale's book upon the Orthodox 
Church of the East had not been written, and English 
students were dependent upon authorities who viewed the 
subject through Western spectacles. 

The first great sympathetic writer was Dr. Mason Neale, 



and he lias been followed in that part of his book which 
treats upon the Ecclesiastical Antiquities by various pub- 
lications, principally French and German. Among these 
may be mentioned Count de Vogue's beautiful books on 
Palestine and Syria, and the magnificent German publica- 
tion of Saltzenberg. This book gives plans and elevations 
of a few of the Christian buildings still remaining in 
Constantinople, but its main object was to describe the 
church of Aghia Sofia. Of the other Greek churches 
remaining' in the town the writer does not mention more 
than six. To these have now to be added at least thirty. 
Some of these have been described by an Austrian 
architect, named D. Pulger, but by far the greatest authority 
upon the subject is my friend, Dr. Paspati, the greatest 
Byzantine Antiquary living the world has. 

One of the most interesting features in a Greek church 
is the picture-screen, or ikonostatis. This screen, which 
is a picturesque feature in ever}' Oriental church, dis- 
charges an important function. 

Its position is exactly that of the chancel rails of an 
English church, only an Oriental church invariably ter- 
minates in three apses, and this screen divides the apses 
from the body of the church. The three apses and the 
ikonostasis are intimately connected with every action in 
an Oriental Liturgy. The ikonostasis is one of the first 
things which strikes a western visitor in an Oriental 
church, and directs his attention to the difference between 
an Oriental and a Western Liturgy, This screen reaches 
to the vaulting of the church. To show how little is 
known upon the subject of this piece of ecclesiastical 
furniture, I remember the late Dr, Stanley, the Dean of 
Westminster, on his return from Ptussia, informing me that 
he had been told there that the height of the ikonostasis 
was increased on each occasion of the Russians winning a 
province until it reached the present height. No doubt 
he had learned this from some high ecclesiastical authority 
in Russia, nevertheless it is not the fact. Since tiien the 
subject of Ecclesiastical Antiquities has been more studied 
in Russia, and a magnificent work upon the churches of 
Kiefl" has been published by the St. Petersburg Society of 

Among the discoveries recently made in Greece are two 


perfect specimens of the picture-screens in the chnrcli of 
St. Luke at Stiri. These picture-screens must be, I think, 
of the ninth or tenth century, and the discovery of them 
is of the highest interest. As I have explained on various 
occasions at the Society of Antiquaries, I was fortunate 
enough to discover what I beUeve to be a portion of the 
screen of the Church of Aghia Sofia at Constantinople, and 
a considerable portion of the screen of a church now 
called the Mosque of the Callenders in the same city. I 
also identified two small portions of other screens, one in 
the Church of the Mone tes Choras, the Monastery in the 
Fields, and another in the Church of the Pantocrator, all 
at Constantinople, xhere is also a very small portion of 
the screen left in the Church of St. Sosipater at Corfu, 
sufficient to show that it was made, or at all events orna- 
mented, with slabs of coloured marble. I think that these 
specimens together would enable one to reproduce to some 
extent what the general form and ornamentation of a 
picture-screen in a Greek church about the tenth century 
must have been. The screens in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries were made of carved wood ; there 
are many specimens of these remaining at Smyrna and 
throughout the Levant. The modern screens are generally 
made in imitation of classic designs. 

The subject of this particular ornament of Greek ritual 
is one that is worthy of a great deal of study. There is 
no doubt that it was always intended as a screen to shut 
off the sanctuary from the rest of the building, answering 
to the altar rails in an English church. From the account 
given of the Church of the Apostles built by the Emperor 
Justinian at Constantinople, the altar was under the centre 
dome of the building, which was not unlike St. Mark's at 
Venice in shape. There was a screen which enclosed the 
altar in what was then and is still called the hpareiov^ or 
sanctuary. Professor Hayter Lewis told rne that he had 
visited a few days since, just outside the Damascus Gate 
of Jerusalem, a church which was being excavated by 
some Americans. In this church he found the traces of a 
screen enclosing the eastern apse of the church. In this 
case the church had only one apse. This fixes the date 
of the building as being- not later than the reign of the. 


Emperor Justinian ; had it been later tlie churcli would 
have had three apses. 

Unfortunately the energies of antiquaries in the east, 
when they have used them on excavation, have generally 
been addressed to uncovering classic temples ; but there 
are three buildings which, if treated in this way, would I 
think give us some valuable information upon the subject 
of which I am speaking. In the first place there is the 
ruined Church of St. John at Ephesus, which I myself on 
one occasion tried to operate on with this particular object, 
but failed through the jealousy of the Greek population. 
There is another church, opposite Laodicea in Hierapohs, 
which, from its proximity to the line of the Ottoman rail- 
way, can without difficulty be investigated, and a still more 
distant church on the same railway, at Dineir, the ancient 
Apamea. These two latter churches have never been 
used by the Mohammedans as mosques, but were destroyed 
partly by time and partly by earthquake, so I should 
expect to find some sufiicient traces of the screen in each 
of them. It is not unlikely that a similar discovery would 
be made in the church at Ephesus. This would be the 
most interesting of the three. The Church of St. John at 
Ephesus was built in imitation of the Church of the Apos- 
tles at Constantinople. The altar no doubt stood under 
the central dome, and most probably sufficient would be 
found of it to show what the arrangements of the screen 
round the sanctuary was like. At all events the British 
School at Athens have made the first start. I should like 
to think that I should be able to follow up the investiga- 
tion ; I am afraid I must content myself by showing what 
has been done, and how one of the most interesting and 
one of the least known objects of ecclesiastical furniture 
in the east can be investigated. 

Two gentlemen from the school are now about to visit 
Salonica and Mount Athos. At the former they will find 
abundant material to interest them. I do not think they 
will find any traces of the ikonostasis in any of the 
churches, but there are five marble reading-desks or 
ambones of different forms now lying in the courtyards of 
the churches and mosques to which they belonged. As 
far as I know only one of these has ever been drawn, 
though I have jihotographs of all of them. I am afraid 


that the demon of restoration has penetrated even to 
Mount Athos, and I do not expect they will find many 
remains in the direction in which I have been speaking, 
but they will find other deeply interesting details, and 
these monasteries, though often visited by English, have 
never yet been examined by a skilled architect or indeed 
at all satisfactorily. I hope that the funds of the society 
will enable it to pubhsh the result of these researches. 

I do no like to leave Greece without mentioning another 
great discovery which has recently been made. In the 
Plain of Marathon there is a large mound ; tradition 
pointed this out as the site of the burial-place of the Greeks 
who fell at the celebrated battle, but the discovery some 
forty years ago of stone arrow heads in the mound, decided 
antiquaries that this monument belongexl to an earlier age 
and was existing at the time of the battle. 

Within the last few weeks the mound has been fully 
examined, and tradition has, as it generally does, vindi- 
cated itself. In the middle of the mound were found 
a series of interments which have gone far to establish the 
fact that this is the tomb of the Greeks who perished in 
that battle. The investigations are still being continued, 
but I have no doubt they will satisfactorily prove the 
truth of the tradition, and the history of the battle will 
again have to be written. Recent historians have assumed 
that the mound was existing at the time of the battle, and 
have accordingly shifted the position of it. 

While speaking of foreign matters it would not be right 
not to mention the efforts that have been made to stop 
the destruction of antiquities in Egypt. Unfortunately 
Eno'land seems to me to be behind other nations in the 


protection of objects of antiquity. We never have suc- 
ceeded in protecting them in our own country, and from 
what I hear it seems doubtful if we have been or shall be 
able to protect them in India, and it is hardly probable 
we shall be more successful in Egypt. Something how- 
ever the Society of Antiquaries has been doing in this 
direction, and it may be hoped that at all events we shall 
leave the antiquities of Egypt, if and when we do vacate 
that country, in no worse condition than we found them. 
This is, I think, saying a good deal, for wherever the 
English go, and there is safety for travellers, there must 


follow a certain class of English-speaking persons who do 
not like not to leave some remembrance of them behind. 
Either they will cut their names, and this is the most 
harmless, or they will carry off souvenirs, which is worse. 
Any one who knows Bishop Fox's monument in Winches- 
ter Cathedral can, as I can, testify to the destruction that 
our own folk and our American cousins every year cause 
in the carved work which ornaments it. 

The preservation of antiquities brings me to mention 
our own. I am bold enough now to say a few words 
about the preservation of ancient monuments in England. 
In a crowded country such as this is antiquities must be 
constantly destroyed, there is no help for it. The cultiva- 
tion of the ground destroys old roads, earth-works and 
sepulchral mounds. 

With regard to churches it must never be forgotten 
that the Church of England is a going concern, and 
churches must be kept up and enlarged. It has always 
been so. It is no doubt very much to be regretted 
that the nineteenth century has no style of architecture 
of its own, and apparently has no means of making 
one. The consequence is we must content ourselves with 
copying some older style for church building. This also 
leads to the attempt to restore, but this cannot be helped. 
The Church of England cannot stand still to suit the 
wishes of us antiquaries. The utmost we can hope to do 
is to improve the taste of those to whom the care of a 
church is entrusted. But this is very uphill work, and 
the more distinguished the architect is the less is he 
tolerant of interference. I commend to your notice the 
chapel of Winchester College and the church of St. Cross, 
near the same city, as examples of how an ecclesiastical 
building should not be treated ; and yet the architect who 
carried out these works is a man of the highest position 
and ability, but no great lover of antiquities. 

Secular objects of antiquity, unless they can be made 
useful, generally get improved away altogether. When I 
first rememl)er, a great portion of the wall of the City of 
London could be seen ; now I only know of three small 
portions. The most important secular buildings belong to 
municipal authorities, and these are not generally good 
antiquaries, and it is very little that we can do to 


preserve a record of it. It can be photographed, drawn 
and measured — this is the next best thing to being able to 
preserve the original. 

I hear with pleasure that the municipal authorities at 
Leeds have consulted our good friend Mr, Micklethwaite 
about the preserving of Kirkstall Abbey. They have 
already had a most excellent report from another friend of 
ours, Mr. St. John Hope, the learned and at the same time 
most obliging assistant secretary of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London. They could not have done better than 
consult these two. Only I hope Mr. Micklethwaite will 
recommend it to be repaired and utilized as the cathedral 
of the town. It is many years since I saw it, forty 
I think, but it looked then as if it might have been 
repaired. I am very sceptical about the preservation of 
ruins, except the}^ be Roman, in which case their durability 
enables them to preserve themselves. Ruins must go, 
particularly gothic ruins. I believe an Indian proverb 
says that an arch never is at rest. All we can hope to do 
is to keep an accurate account of them by excavation, 
measurements, and drawing, and by a liberal use of 

As a rule local societies discharge their duty with regard 
to ancient monuments in a satisfactory manner, and I have 
no doubt the Societies of Gloucester and Bristol are no 
exceptions. I only hope that when a building is doomed 
they will have an accurate record kept of it. 

And now I wish to touch on another subject which 
especially interests me. llow can we all be Antiquaries ? 
I see here educated people of all sorts, some of them real 
Antiquaries, some of them only taking the subject up, as I 
do, as a pastime, and some others are here only like the 
men of Athens — curious to hear some new tliino*. To the 
two former classes I need say nothing, to the latter I would 
say with the Roman poet, though in a very diflerent 
connexion — " Macte virtute puer." 

The real way to become an antiquary is to follow up 
that subject which comes to a man's hand. We all of us 
live in a town or village, and most of us have a profession 
or business. There is no town or village in England that 
has not its own history; there is no trade or business a man 
follows that cannot teach the person who follows it some- 


thing of history and its own antiquity. Let each man 
take that which comes to his hand, and he will soon find 
how far reaching is the study of antiquities in his 
own person. 

I may perhaps introduce some of my personal experi- 
ences. Circumstances in my youth took me to the Levant, 
and my first lessons in antiquarian studies were there. 
These were my first and consequently my most agreeable 
studies, and whenever I can, I revert to them. When I 
came to my own business it was not unnatural that the 
antiquities of my own profession should occupy some part 
of my thoughts. The subject is not an inviting one, but, 
nevertheless, it has a very curious interest of its own. 

In time I became a churchwarden of a city parish. I 
had no fancy for this post, and parochial matters were 
distasteful to me, but it fell out in the way of business, 
and those who know my life for the last twenty years 
know how completely I have thrown in my lot with my 
enforced position, and how much instruction, pleasure, 
and satisfaction I have derived from it. As I walk 
through the parish in which my place of business is, I 
know every inhabitant in it from the middle of the six- 
teenth century and where he lived and what he did. 

In the course of events I became a member of, and 
ultimately master of, the Worshipful Company of Scriveners 
of the City of London. This Company is the College of 
Notaries of London, and as you may imagine, when I was 
able to do so, I examined their records and found among 
them a complete list of the city notaries and of their 
notarial marks from the reign of King Edward II. to the 
present time, and a very interesting record it is. 

But whenever leisure comes to me I go back to my first 
love. I never could have believed that I could have 
interested myself in parochial and municipal records ; 
but they came to my hand, and they have interested and 
engrossed my attention more than I could have expected 
or believed. 

I would therefore urge upon all my friends here, and 
particularly those who are commencing the study of anti- 
quities, to take up that subject which comes across them 
in their daily path, and I would like to wind this address 
up with another personal experience. I live in Surrey, at 


the top of the North Downs. One day while I was 
churning this address in my mind I went for a walk over 
Walton Heath. Any Surrey person knows this as the 
finest heath in Mid-Surrey. In the middle of the heath 
is a Eoman summer camp, with the colonel's house adjoin- 
ing it. Somehow my steps naturally took me there. It 
was an out-of-the-way part of the heath, and I had some- 
thing of a scramble to find my way home. 

As I walked across the heath I thought of how there 
are antiquities worthy of study in every man's path if he 
would only look for them, and I determined in my address 
to impress it on you here to-day. Almost as it were in 
fulfilment of my own idea, in the middle of the heath I 
came suddenly upon the traces of an ancient Eoman way 
which I knew must be there, which I had long looked for 
and always missed ; and as I looked along it, and traced 
the faint remains of it covered with heather, the thought 
came doubly strong upon me — there are abundant oppor- 
tunities for the study of antiquities in the path of every- 
day life which is before you if you will only keep your 
eyes open and avail yourself of them. 

I have only one more word. I have made this address 
personal to give encouragement to others who, like myself, 
have very few, if any, really leisure hours. If I with so 
little leisure have found so much instruction and real 
pleasure from the study, what may not others of you get 
from it who have more time at your disposal than I have ? 




Within a circle of about twenty-five miles in diameter 
we have in this well favoured district six religious found- 
ations of great size and importance : — Worcester, Glouces- 
ter, Pershore, Evesham, Malvern and Tewkesbury.^ 
We have now arrived at the one which, in some respects, 
surpasses all of them. Not, indeed, in size, but in the 
exceeding solemnity of the interior, the majesty of the vaults, 
the richness of the tombs, the brilliancy of the glass, and 
the very striking Norman arraugement of the plan. 

At Tewkesbury we have a plan which, in the main, 
retains the general features of a great Romanesque church, 
for we have the Norman nave, aisles, and transepts, in their 
original inception ; and, inasmuch as the piers of the choir 
are also Norman, it is obvious that it was, as at present, 
surrounded by an aisle ; consequently the only difference 
between the plan of the Eomanesque church in its intirety, 
and the plan as we now see it, is such as has arisen from 
alterations in the size of the choir aisles, or ambulatory, 
and the addition of the chapels forming the chevet. The 
Lady chapel has been removed, but the general arrange- 
ment may be compared with the much larger church of 
Westminster where we have this peculiarly French plan. 
We are not called upon here to show how a large monastic 
church grew from a small one, but we shall eventually see, 
as we run through its history, how a large church grew 
into a larger. 

^Read cat Tewkesbury, August 13th, " See The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury, 
1890. by J. L. Petit, 1848. 


Now, first as to documentary evidence ; this is very- 
limited, but we have two records : — The Annals of Tew- 
kesbury^ written about the middle of the thirteenth century, 
purports to give an account for each year of affairs con- 
nected with, or affecting the monastery. It begins with 
the Conquest (1066), and breaks off in 1263. But unfor- 
tunately, in its whole course, little light is thrown upon 
the church and monastery. The other record is the 
Tewkesbury Register which appears to be a copy of an 
earlier one, and written about 1545. This has value, and 
contains a summary of the foundation, as well as bio- 
graphical notices of the Earls of Gloucester, and patrons 
of the abbey. 

As to the architectural history of the church it is said 
that " Dudda " first founded a monastery here in 715, in 
conjunction with Odda. It is difficult to get at the exact 
truth, but Odda died in 1056, and both the Annals and 
the Register have mixed up, apparently, two periods and 
two persons. However, it is not of much importance now 
because there is nothing visible at Tewkesbury as early as 
1056, and we are specially concerned only with what we 
can see. 

From Mr. Blunt's excellent work on Tewkesbury Abbey 
we gather that the first church must have been of very 
slight importance, and by the latter part of the tenth cen- 
tuay it had become a cell to the monastery of Cranbourn 
in Dorsetshire. In 1083, when Cranbourn passed into the 
King's hands. Abbot Gerald set about a re-construction of 
the Tewkesbury establishment. 

Three years later, in 1087, Eufus granted the Honour of 
Gloucester, which included the Lordship of Tewkesbury, 
and the patronage of the monastery, to Fitz Hamon. 
There can be no doubt that now began the great work, 
and that the foundations of a church of the usual Norman 
type were laid, or decided upon. This plan consisted of 
a nave, aisles, central tower, transepts with semicircular 
apses, and an apsidal choir, not round, as at Peterborough, 
but polygonal, a form necessitated by the width of the 
pier arches, and in order to avoid that very unpleasing 
feature, the double curvature of the lines of the arch. All 
this we can see at the present day, and no doubt the 
Eomanesque plan, with its characteristic long nave, was 


completed by a north transept apse, and choir aisles or 
ambulatory running with the lines of the choir, and from 
which,perhaps,branched out other semicircular apses,whicli 
are now representedjto a certain extent, by the present chapels 
at the east end. It was a great undertaking which must 
have progressed slowly. The beginning of it is put down at 
1102, by the Annals^ and this date is important and seems 
to agree with the character of the work, which is very plain 

Fitz Hamon was slain at Falaise in 1107 and could 
therefore hardly have seen the completion of any part of 
his great church. His remains were temporarily laid in 
the Chapter House, probably of the old monastic build- 

Eobert Consul, Earl of Gloucester, a great man, and 
a great builder, who set his mark upon the Walls of 
Cardiff Castle, and who had married Mabel eldest daughter 
of Fitz Hamon, carried on the work, and in 1123, accord- 
ing to the Annals, the church was consecrated. It is 
improbable — impossible — that the whole church from the 
east end to the west front was finished at this early date, 
indeed, there are indications at the west end of a change 
in the plan at that part. It would be the choir, the 
ecdesia proper, that was consecrated in 1123 ; but the 
plainness of the Norman work throughout is noticeable, 
as is also the great height of the naves piers, as well as 
the remarkable smallness of the triforium, usually a 
considerable feature of a Norman church. The triforiums 
of Ely and Waltham are notable examples which occur 
to the mind. The great plainness of large Eomanesque 
churches seems to imply, as Mr. Petit has pointed out, that 
simplicity and grandeur of design in abbey or cathedral 
superseded elaborate workmanship such as one finds in 
the parish church. Here, as at Ely, the same plainness of 
Norman was adhered to as the work progressed towards 
the west end. 

The current of these observations has brought us 
to that very remarkable composition, the west front. 
With its unique arch it is still but a portion of a larger 
design the full consideration of which might induce' 
a careful scrutiny of the composition of a great Eoman- 
esque church, not only in England and Normandy but 


also in Germany. To put the matter in a few words, it 
seems that the architect of Tewkesbury, perliaps the 
second architect, found himself at first bound, by the 
original plans, to carry out a design which included 
not only a great central tower, but also two western ones. 
There are indications that western towers were contemplated, 
and Professor Willis has shown that this was the case at 
Winchester ; and it will be borne in mind that the grouping 
of towers received much attention in Norman times. For 
some reason it was found necessary to abandon this scheme, 
and we may not much regret it because, while the change 
has left us a noble recessed Norman archway, it has also 
produced two elegant western turrets which, although their 
extreme upper portions are of modern date, group most 
admirably with the central tower, itself as Mr. Petit truly 
said " one of the grandest ever designed in the Eomanesque 
period ; " it is certainly the finest Norman tower in Eng- 
land. Perhaps it is to the adaptation of this peculiar 
outlineat the west end, and the consequent saving of funds, 
that we owe the increased height of the central tower, of 
which the upper stages exhibit a composition and details 
that carry us to the verge of Norman proper. The pin- 
nacles were put up in the seventeenth century, and have 
therefore a certain romanesque character wdiich, for such 
inappropriate finishes of a Norman tower, harmonize well 
enough with the Eomanesque of Norman times. 

More particularly with regard to the west front, several 
theories have been advanced to explain what it was origin- 
ally intended to be. One of these, which found some 
favour many years ago, was that it was originally designed 
to be a vast open entrance porch, or Galilee, with an inner 
wall through which a doorway would be pierced. The 
stone work, however, of the lower part of the west front, 
within the archway, has been more carefully examined 
in late years, and, a part of the modern casing outside 
having been taken down, conclusive evidence is given that 
the imposts of the great arch had seven shafts, the seventh 
stopping against a plain wall face with returning stones 
forming^ the ans^le, and ffivins^ the start to this wall. 
Within the church are evidences of the springings of the 
discharging arch of the Norman doorway, and no doubt 
the upper part of the great arch w^as pierced with a 


series of small windows. But the joints of the nave walls, 
at the inner angles at the west end, do not hit those of the 
cross wall. This neither proves or disproves the question 
as to whether the great arch forms part of the first scheme 
or of the second ; but probably of the first, if the plain- 
ness of the details are taken into account. 

Ko excuse would be necessary for dwelling at length 
upon these Norman chapters, because, grand and imposing 
as the later work is, Tewkesbury would be nothing with- 
out its Norman work. Before leaving this topic it may 
be recalled that the three great arches of Remigius, at 
Lincoln's stern west-end, are three quarters of a century 
earlier, and the great striding arches of Peterborough, 
nearly a century later than that at Tewkesbury. They 
form a fine series for the study of persons who like wide 
arches. An astounding rumour has floated out from 
Northamptonshire that some wild people still have the 
wish, but fortunately not the funds, to extract from the 
central arch 'of Peterborough the little chapel that was 
planted into it in the fifteenth century.^ 

It will be observed that all the Norman windows have 
been altered throughout the church ; the barrel-vaulted 
porch, with the tympanum of the church doorway filled 
in with three tiers of joggled voussoirs, remains intact. 
In its original state the nave must have been lighted 
by a row of small round-headed windows — there are 
slight indications of them between the roof and the 
vaulting of the nave — as at St. Peter's, Northampton, with 
long splays for expanding and softening the light, and 
covered by an open timber roof, or barrel-vaulted in wood, 
or, as at Peterborough, flat-ceiled. Such wide spaces 
were not vaulted in stone so early in England. No 
doubt the nave aisles were vaulted, but in what precise w^ay 
is, perhaps, not apparent. Mr. Petit, whose opinion 
will always be received with the utmost respect, and 
nowhere more so than at Tewkesbury, thought they 
took the quadrantal form, and there are suggestions 
of this in the shape of the arches leading from the nave 

^ This is a grotesque revival of an old man's Magazine, 1798, Part ii., pp. 
cry wliicli was denounced a hundred 764-765. 
years ago by John Carter. — See Gentle- 


aisles into the transepts. The nave has evidently lost 
its fine Norman proportion by the intrusion of the 
14th century vaulting, but the conspicuous quality of 
the church is still, as in Norman times, its breadth. 
The Norman had this in his mind when he carried the 
imposts of the tower arch straight through in a line with 
the nave piers, and rested the arches upon brackets, or on 
the caps of short columns engaged high up in the imposts, 
as in the south transept. 

The inside of the tower, originally designed as a lantern, 
now masked by the vaulting, exhibits arcading on the 
north, east, and south sides ; this was specially arranged 
for the eastern point of view. 

Eobert Consul, or Fitzroy, died in 1147, and it may be 
taken that the work of the Norman church up to, say, the 
porch, and including the lantern, the plain portion of the 
tower, were carried out before his death. Being succeeded 
by his son WilUam Fitz Count, who lived till 1183, it may 
be to this man that we are indebted, as we have suggested, 
for the west front, and it must be to him that we owe the 
completion of the tower, with its three externally deco- 
rated stages. Thus, the plain and the decorated parts of 
the exterior of the tower correspond respectively with 
the ornamental and the simple masonry within. 

Earl WiUiam was a great builder, and founded the 
Abbey of Keynsham, which has now entirely vanished. 
His third daughter Amice, married Richard De Clare, 
Earl of Hertford, whose son Gilbert, succeeding on the 
death of his father, came in, as lineal successor of Fitz 
Hamon, to the earldom of Gloucester, on the death of 
Almeric Devereux, fifth Earl, in 1221, thus uniting in his 
own person the earldoms of Gloucester and Hertford. 
He was the first De Clare buried at Tewkesbury ; he died 
in 1230. His son Eichard succeeded at an early age, and 
died in 1262. During his time the only Early English 
parts of the Abbey now remaining were built, namely, the 
chapel of St. Nicholas, north-east of the north transept. 
The Decorated chapel of St. James adjoins it, occupjdng 
the site of an apsidal Norman chapel. 

We learn from the Annals of Teicheshury that in 1232 
many cures were effected by means of the Relics, and that 
in 1235 it was agreed that there should be a service, night 


and morning, " de Eeliquiis." The chapel called of St. 
Nicholas consists now of a chancel only ; the south wall 
has been removed in Decorated times in order to connect 
it directly with the chapel of St. James, but the Early 
English arcading remaining round the north and east sides, 
show it to have been originally a chancel complete in 
itself. The chancel arch consists of a wide double entrance 
divided by a central column, after the manner of an 
entrance to a chapter house, as at Westminster and 
Wells, and hence, it seems, the name this building long bore 
of "Chapter House." The double entrance leads into 
a nave now destroyed, and of which the south wall was 
the north wall of the north transept of the great monastic 
church. This chancel and nave formed, in fact, a small 
church planted against the large one. It is not improba- 
ble that this was the church or chapel of the Eelics, and 
that these venerated objects were exhibited in the chancel 
to the faithful assembled in the nave. 

The building of this little church was the first addition 
of any importance to the Norman work, and it appears to 
be the only thing that was done during the eighty years 
sway of the four De Clares, whose male line ended in 
1314 with Gilbert, slain at Bannockburn. 

On the death of Gilbert De Clare his estates went to his 
three sisters, and Tewkesbury, as part of the Honour of 
Gloucester, to the eldest, Eleanor, who married in 1321 
Hugh Despencer " the younger." He was slaughtered in 
1326, and his widow married William la Zouche of 
Mortimer, and died in 1337. 

Again, these dates are very important, because, between 
1321 and 1359 the choir, the most Norman part of the 
church in its plan, was rebuilt from the Norman capitals 
upwards, including the aisles and the chapels, replac- 
ing whatever Norman work stood upon their sites ; aud 
a Lady chapel was also thrown out, of which a small 
part only remains to attest its magnificence. At the 
same time the vaulting of the choir was begun, and fol- 
lowed successively by that of the transepts, nave, and 
tower, all of which great works were carried out in their 
entirety — including the vaulting of the tower, which just 
takes us into the fifteenth century — during the ninety- thre 
years stay of the five Despencers at Tewkesbury. Thes 


men have left enduring marks indeed, not only upon the 
fabric of the Abbey Church, but in the windows and mo- 
numents which shall be touched shortly upon presently. 
The subject of vaulting is too large and intricate to handle 
at all now, so these stately constructions must speak for 
themselves. The vaulting of the tower bears upon the 
bosses the arms of Bryan and Despencer. 

Eichard, the last of the Despencers. married but left no 
issue ; his widow married the Earl of Northumberland, 
son of Hotspur, His sister Isabel, born in J 400, to whom 
Tewkesbury went, married Richard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Abergavenny ; he was killed at the siege of Meaux in 
1421, and in 1423 his widow married his cousin, the great 
Earl of Warwick, " Brass Beauchamp." This carries us 
into the history of another family, whose castle, monuments, 
and effigies we dealt with two years ago at Warwick.' 

To Tewkesbury also attaches the interest of having been 
a divided church. The monks' choir, as was usual in 
Norman churches, was under the tower, and extended 
two bays into the nave. The remainder of the nave was 
the parish church, the two being separated by the rood 
screen. At the Dissolution the monastic church was 
mentioned by the Commissioners among " buildings 
deemed to be superfluous," and this part the men of 
Tewkesbury, to their lasting honour, bought from the 
king, and added to what was their own already. 

The monuments divide themselves roughly into two 
kinds, — those with effigies, and those without. Attention 
may be called to the most important. In the north aisle 
of the nave is the effigy of a man of the middle of the 
fourteenth century. This has been commonly but wrongly 
attributed to Lord Wenlock who was killed at the battle 
Tewkesbury in 1471. The figure exhibits some curious 
points of costume. He wears a pointed bascinet with a 
camail of " banded mail," fastened with a lace in the usual 
way, and the thighs are protected by one of the numerous 
varieties of studded defence, of which the construction 
cannot be clearly made out. The feet are said to be naked, 
but this seems a mistake. Banded mail is constantly re- 
presented in MSS, brasses, glass, seals, &c., and it has long 
been one of the puzzles of antiquaries, for we cannot make 

^ See Archoiological Journal, vol. xlv, pp. 238, 464. 



out how banded mail was made, and only five sculptured 
examples are known in England, this being one of 

In a letter to the Rev. T. Kerrich, in the writer's 
possession, dated December 22nd, 1813, Mr. C. A. 
Stothard speaks of this effigy as follows : — " Among other 
curious things I have met with is a figure called by mistake 
Lord Wenlock, at Tewkesbury, which has some remark- 
able points about it, but for the discovery of which I 
devoted a whole day in clearing away a thick coat of 
whitewash which concealed them. The mail attached 
to the Helmet was of that kind so frequently repre- 
sented in drawings and of which you have had doubts 
whether it was not another way of representing that sort 
we are already acquainted with. I am sorry that I know 
no more of its construction now than before I met 
with it, the lowest row of rings finish in the way I have 
represented, without the band or cord. I must advertise 
you that the original is but a coarse representation. I 
have an impression of a small portion where I found it 
sharpest. The cuisses of the same figure are remarkable." 

The armorial bearings on the surcote, a chevron between 
three leopards' faces, seem to be those of " Monsire de 
Lusfhtburo-h," whose name and arms occur inaRoll ol'Arms^ 
of the time of Edward III. — " Monsire de Lughtburgh, de 
gules, a une cheveron d'argent, entre trous testes de leop- 
ardes d'or," but there is no record connecting this man 
with Tewkesbury. 

The effigies of Hugh Despencer, who died in 1349, and 
his wife Ehzabeth Montacute, lie under a magnificent 
canopy on the north side of the altar. The effigy of the 
man is tenderly sculptured in white alabaster, and shows 
him in a round bascinet which is not characteristic of 
this period. His widow married Guy de Bryan, and died 

The figure of Edward Despencer, died 1375, represents 
him kneeling on a cushion, under a curious open canopy, 
on the top of the Trinity Chapel. This figure is quite 

1 1. Tewiesburi/, engraved in Stothard's Arc/ucological Journal, v. xl, p. 296, paper 

Monumental Eftigies ; 2. Tollard Royal, by A. Hiutshorne; 5. Dodford, Nortliump- 

Wilts, in Bowles' History of Chalk ; toushire, in Monumental Effigies of Nor- 

3. Newton Solney, Stafford, in Archw- thamptonshire, by A. Ilartahorne. 

ologieal Journal, v. vii, p. 360, ])aper by, - Edited by Nicholas Harris Nicolas, 

Hewitt ; 4, Kirkstead Lincolnshire, ia 1829. 


unique, and it is extremely valuable because it is painted 
all over to the life, and gives the back of the man as care- 
fully finished as the front. With the exception of " Brass 
Beauchamp " at Warwick there is no other mediasval monu- 
mental efBgy that does this. We gather one good piece of 
information from this figure, namely, that there was no 
hook or like support at the back to keep the baudric 
from slipping over the hips. These belts must, therefore, 
have been sewn on to the jupon, which, in this instance 
is beautifully painted, both back and front, with the 
arms of Despencer. The fields of the quarters are 
diapered. The latter decorations have not often been 
spared for us, because, being usually only painted, they 
have generally been washed off by the process of church 
cleaning. The double picture of arms on a jupon was 
the precursor of the four-fold representation in knightly 
tabards. The Trinity Chapel has further high interest in 
the painted fresco over the altar, representing the Holy 
Trinity flanked by angels swinging censers with graceful 
ease, while Edward and his wife Elizabeth are shown 
kneeling in adoration below. 

The efligy of Guy de Bryan, died 1390, has some 
features in the armour that are rarely seen in English 
effigies. The mail hose covering the legs is strengthened 
and protected by strips of steel laid upon it, or imbedded 
in it, after the oriental fashion. The mail of the upper 
part of the arms shows a number of iron pegs taking the 
outline of a demi-brassart. They appear to have held in 
place actual brassarts of iron or cuir-houilU. The fore-arm 
remaining shows a defense in parallel strips, gilded and 
silvered alternately. On both sides of the leg strips are 
wooden pegs at regular intervals, which have either held 
some decorative covering of the splints, or fastened 
horizontal bands at those points. It is a very curious 
example of mixed armour, and is rather a German than 
an English suit. The whole of the mail, which is of three 
sizes, the rings in the camail being the largest, has been 
worked in gesso^ and the field of the arms diapered in the 
same way. Stothard has recorded that the armour, plate 
and mail has been covered with leaf silver ; the effigy has 
also been painted, as well as gilded in parts. The vaulting 
of the canopy has trefoil-arched, instead of plain cells, 
which give an appearance of great intricacy. 


The " founder's chapel " is plainer but contains the 
tomb with the matrix of a military brass, of the usual 
form, of the first years of the fifteenth century. 

The chapel of Isabel, Countess of Warwick, has two 
stories with fan vaulting, and a very rich canopy. It 
appears probable that the upper story sustained two 
kneeling figures in wood looking towards the high- altar. 
This would have been an idea taken from the monument 
of Edward Despencer. 

The monument attributed to Abbot Wakeman, last 
Abbot of Tewkesbury (1531-1539) must be a century 
earlier. The *' lively picture of death " has reptiles 
crawling over it, which is a very unusual, if not a unique 
feature ; it reminds us, rather too rudely, of our kindred 
with corruption. 

There are several plain tombs of Abbots ; and three 
canopied ones, side by side in the south aisle, show ad- 
mirably the gradual growth of such memorials during 
about a hundred years. All the Tewkesbury tombs and 
chapels would require a thick volume to properly describe. 

Happily, safe in two glass cases, are some beautiful frag- 
ments of small figures in armour, and other details, which 
are worthy of very close study. They apparently formed 
part of the decorations of the high altar. 

The painted glass in the choir is quite unsurpassed for 
its briUiancy, and it is rendered still more interesting by the 
eight military figures contained in it. They stand under 
rich canopies, and all carry lances and wear ailettes. The 
mixture of mail and plate in their harness fixes the date 
ot" these effigies to the early part of the second quarter 
of the fourteenth century, the most important period of 
military costume. All the figures can be clearly identified 
by the heraldry on their surcotes ; we have Robert, Earl 
of Gloucester, Fitz Hamon, four De Clares, a Zouche, and 
a Despencer. 

The four effigies of De Clares are the memorials of the 
immediate ancestors of the widow of Hugh Despencer 
" the younger," namely, — Gilbert De Clare, died at Penros, 
in Brittany in 1230 ; Eichard De Clare, died at Eschmers- 
field in Kent, in 12G2 ; Gilbert De Clare, died in Monmouth 
Castle, in 1295, and Gilbert her father slain at Bannock- 
burn in 1314 : — all were buried in the choir of Tewkes- 


bury. The figure with the Zouche arms represents WilUam 
la Zouche, of Mortimer, and that which exhibits on the 
surcote the arms of Despencer impaling De Clare certainly 
represents Hugh Despencer " the younger," slaughtered 
with such shocking barbarity at Hereford in 1326. His 
mangled remains were gathered up and brought for burial 
to the abbey church ; — as the Register has it — " Enormiter, 
pertitiose et crudehter sine j udicio et responsione, suspen- 
sus, distractus, et in quatuor partes divisus fuit; et in 
nostra ecclesia diu postea sepultus." No doubt these 
striking and precious memorials were put up by Eleanor, 
eldest daughter of the last Gilbert De Clare, widow of 
Hugh Despencer " the younger," and wife of William la 
Zouche of Mortimer. 


Gloucester— Its name and many coloured memories 
sends us back to the early years of the Christian Era. 
During the Eoman occupation it was an important Frontier 
City. I have been taken over "the Gloucester of the 
last decade of the xix century " by a distinguished local 
antiquary, with the sole aid of Yiollet le Due's sketch 
map of the Praetorian camp at Rome, for Roman Glou- 
cester was strictly laid out on the same plan. Saxon 
(English) Gloucester— the city of Alfred's daughter, 
^thelflaed, somewhile Lady of the Mercians, the city of 
Athelstan and of Harthacnut, the home so often lived in 
by the saintly confessor king and his great Theigns such 
as Godwine Leofric and Harold — was built exactly on the 
same lines as the old fortified camp. The streets of 
medigeval and modern Gloucester, one and all still follow 
the lines of that great fortified camp of Claudius and 
Hadrian built upon the banks of the Severn waters over 
against the wild and turbulent tribes of the Silures of 
Southern Wales, that great place of arms which so soon 
became the chief city and emporium of all the fair Severn 

The Roman city is with us stilly beneath our feet, a 
spade or pickaxe can, at this moment, be scarcely used 
for a few minutes in our city without disclosing the 
mighty wall built by the Italian conqueror, the vast sub- 
structure of a temple, or of a great municipal building, 
or the scarcely discoloured mosaics of a pavement, where 
once, stranger Italian wanderers worshipped, worked, and 

With this cultured many sided life, in which men and 
women, boys and girls of an old world shared — men and 

^Read at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, at Gloucester, August 14th, 1890. 


women who might have talked with St. John — I have 
not to deal with specially in this little study, my work 
belongs to another and a later age- Suffice it to say 
that the Eoman life, with its constant passing to and fro 
between Italy and the great southern cities, with its 
legionaries and civic functionaries, with all its brilliant 
surroundings — costly dress, splendid houses, magnifi- 
cent temples, gardens, art in its highest development — 
somewhat abruptly came to an end in the beginning of 
the fifth century. 409 is a good date. The strange 
appearance of clouds of barbarians from the North and 
East threatened all the provinces, and even Italy and 
sacred Rome. All the outlying legions were recalled — 
and what may be termed the story of Roman life in 
Britain came to an end. Then settled over tlie Island and 
our Gloucester — for with Gloucester we have to do to-day 
— an impenetrable mist. What happened to our pros- 
perous city and to the county dotted over with beautiful 
homesteads, and with not a few palace-like residences like 
the Chedworth villa, or the far more lordly and magnifi- 
cent house of Woodchester, only some ten miles distant? 
It seems as though Britain after the legions left was 
divided out into numerous little kingships. In the final 
crash which took place in our part of Britain some 160 
years later, Bath, Cirencester, and Gloucester had each 
their petty king. We have a few scraps of legendary 
history, but nothing dependable. Probably the old Eoman 
provincial life went on much as before, though on a 
narrower and less magnificent scale. Then came the end. 
Through the dim mist which had settled over our city 
and county after 409 for a century and a-half, we catch 
sight of a terrible battle between the British Provincials 
and the English invaders. These were West Saxons 
under Ceawlin. At the battle of Deorham the three 
British kings — the successors of the Eoman Governors — 
the three kings of Bath, Cirencester, and Gloucester, were 
slain, and no doubt directly after, these cities became the 
spoil of the invading army of Ceawlin. The battle and 
rout took place in 577. The native British rule had 
lasted in Gloucester about 160 years. Deeper and darker 
now did the mist settle over our city. For some 100 
years we are absolutely in ignorance what happened to 


US. Some of the great Koman cities of Britain which fell 
at that period were simply sacked and deserted, and 
remained empty and desolate for a hundred or more 
years. This we know was the fate of Deva (Chester) our 
neighbour Bath (Aquae-Solis). Others such as Anderida 
m tlie Pevensey district in Sussex have lain still and 
desolate now for 1350 years. Of this once great city 
portions of the walls and massive towers still remain. 
But since the dread day when the Saxons stormed and 
sacked the once fair city of Anderida, no human being 
has found shelter there. Was Gloucester like Deva 
(Chester) Bath and Anderida — desolate and empty for a 
century, or was it dwelt in by the conqueror ? If so, no 
doubt the sites of the Pagan temples and new Christian 
churches were occupied by the wild worship of Woden 
and Thor, for we must not forget that this conquest meant 
the uprooting of Christianity. 

Gloucester emerges out of the thick dark mist some 100 
years later. 

The following table, shewing some of the principal 
events (with approximate dates) which had Gloucester for 
their scene, will be useful: — 

Honorius,A.D. 409, Evacuation of South Britain by Eomans. 


168 years of Petty (probably native British) Kings. 

A.D. 577, Ceawlin, the West Saxon, slays the British King 

Coninagil at Deorham. 

Darkness for a century. 

King Penda of Mercia. 

King Ethelred, 
Osric, Oswald (nephews of Ethelred.) 

A.D. G89, founded Gloucester Abbey, founded Pershore 

Abbey, killed by 
Osric, A.D. 729. 

A.D. 689-823. Osric's foundation was an abbey of nuns. 
Ladies of the highest dignity were abbesses, such as 

Eadburga, Lady of Mercia. 
The last was Eva, of Mercia, widow of King Wulphere, 

of Mercia. 


A.D. 823-1022. Under Beornwulpli, King of Mercia. 
(The nuns are said to have fled in the confusion of Mercia's 
troubles). St. Peter's Abbey at Gloucester became the 
home of secular canons. 

A.D. 918. St. Oswald's Priory, close to the Severn, 
founded by ^thelflaed, daughter of King Alfred, Lady of 
the Mercians, at present St. Catharine's Church, Gloucester. 

A.D. 940. Athelstan died in Gloucester ;: buried at 

A.D. 1022-1539. Benedictines established under Wulf- 
stan, Bishop of Worcester. — 1. Abbot Eadric (the waster of 
goods). 2. Abbot Wulfstan (monk of Worcester). 3. 
Abbot Serlo (monk of Mont St. Michel in peril of the 

The Gemots of Gloucester are now endless. Among 
the most notable are : — 

A.D. 1041. Gemot under Harthacniit, midwinter, at this 
Gemot the king sold the bishopric of Durham. 

A.D. 1043. Gemot under Edward the Confessor decided 
upon the confiscation of the goods of his mother. Lady 

A.D. 1051. Gemot of Gloucester on subject ot Edward's 
favouring Normans, especially Count Eustace of Boulogne. 

A.D. 1052. Head of Welch rebel prince brought to King 
Edward the Confessor at Gloucester Gemot. 

As a rule when William the Conqueror was at peace 
and in England he kept his Christmas feast at Gloucester. 

A.D. 1085-6. Gemot under William the Conqueror was 
held which ordered Domesday Book to be drawn up. 

A.D. 1093. At this Gemot Piobert Duke of Normandy 
challenged William Eufus. Mr. Freeman says," In the reign 
of William Eufus almost everything that happened at all 
somehow contrived to happen at Gloucester." 

A.D. 1092. Anselmwas appointed Archbishop of Canter- 
bury against his will by William Eufus, tying (apparently) 
sick to death. 

A.D. 1100. The death of William Eufus by an arrow 
was prophesied by Fulcherius, Abbot of Shrewsbury, in a 
sermon in Gloucester. This same year Serlo's Abbey, 
well-nigh completed, was consecrated. 

A.D. 1216. Henry III. crowned in Gloucester Abbey. 
A.D. 1378, Eichard II. held the famous Parliament 



within the Abbey walls, in which the House of Commons 
won to itself the control of the finances of the nation. 

A.D. 1533. Henry VHI. spent eight days with Queen 
Anne Boleyn in Gloucester Monastery. 

Gloucester Cathedral awakens many memories — stirs 
np many and varied thoughts. Its very name sends us 
back before the days of Claudius, the Emperor, before the 
Christian Era. In England a few natural objects, a few 
ancient cities, like London and Gloucester, still retain 
names older than the Eoman, the Angle, or the Saxon. 
So old is the famous first syllable " Glou," the storied 
city's real name, that as yet our most learned philologists 
hesitate about its real meaning. We think probably 
Glou-Cestra signifies " The Fair City," but it is only at 
best a surmise. At the time of the Conquest the city of 
Gloucester occupied the third position in the realm. 
London and Winchester and Gloucester seem to have been 
the three official meeting places for the King and the 
great council of the nation. 

Look at the pile a moment from the Cloister Garden. 
Observe its twin unmistakeable Norman towers, flanking 
the tall north transept. They remind us of the invariable 
feature of these transepts in all the vast Norman churches 
from scarred mutihated Fecamp to the serene beauty of 
Canterbury. They tell us — though comparatively .little 
else tells us in this fair view from tlie Cloister Garden — 
that the same people built and planned this great church 
as built and planned Fecamp Abbey and Canterbury and 
many other such lordly piles. 

Look a moment at the round-headed windows along the 
nave. They tell, too, the same story of their Norman 
parentage as do the transept towers, though the mullions 
of these windows help to disguise their real character — 
speaking as they do of another age and of a different 
inspiration. Then the great windows of the transept, 
the elaborate battlements, the exquisite tracery of the 
cloister v/indows, speak of the new spirit of architecture 
which arose in the days of the third Edward — arose, we 
think, in these sacred walls, and suggested a new school 
of Gothic architecture which for some two centuries was 


the favourite style of English builders — the well-known 
Perpendicular. Then the great central tower, which 
marks the slight changes which a hundred years or more 
brought with it in this style, and tells us how men built 
and designed in the stormy epoch of the War of the Eoses. 
The eye for a minute leaves the great church. Nestling- 
close under the transept towers is a large plain massive - 
building, quite unadorned, unmistakeably Norman of ah 
early date. In those old grey walls, probably somewhat 
enriched about three or four years later, the Conqueror 
sat, and held that deep speech with his Witan which 
resulted in the compilation of Domesday Book. 

What a solemn changeless witness to English history is 
our great church, with its varied schools of architecture, 
one succeeding the other ; with its many traditions, with 
its storied coloured glass, its under church, its great 
chapter room. How many scenes of the history of Eng- 
land have been acted in these sacred enclosures, such as 
the death of Saxon Athelstan, the anxious day passed by 
the Confessor when the conflict between his Norman 
friends and the English host under Godwin was at its 
height. The forms of Edward and Earl Godwin, of Harold- 
and the Norman Count Eustace of Boulogne, of Tostig 
and Siward, of Gurth and Stigand, seem to pass before us. 
So much of these stirring scenes passed here. The under 
church — many of us think still — was built in the Con- 
fessor's days. Then William the Conqueror, not once or 
twice, wore his crowned helm as he presided in the old 
chapter room over his barons at the great Christmas feast. 
I should think all those mighty men-of-war — the half- 
brothers Odo of Bayeux and Eobert de Mortain, William 
EitzOsbern, Roger de Montgommeri, Geoffrey de Mowbrai, 
Eoger Bigod, Gundulf of Rochester, and greatest of all, 
Lanfranc, the loved friend and counsellor, the archbishop 
— household words with many of us — many times have 
held deep speech with their stern lord, William, have 
feasted in the refectory, and have prayed in the church,' 
and taken counsel in this chapter room of the great 

Some of them and their sons are buried, we beUeve, 
beneath the chapter room floor. Robert the Crusader, 
the Duke of Normandy, the unhappy eldest born of the 


Conqueror, we know, lies in front of the high altar. 
William Kufus spent not a little of his time here. It 
was in the halls of Gloucester, when he lay sick unto 
death, that he thrust the staff of the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury into the unwilling hands of Anselm, who 
received his hurried consecration in the neighbouring 
minster. The nave — save that the present stone roof 
replaced the older one of wood in Henry II. 's days — 
was, when Anselm was consecrated, very much as we see 
it now, only a little whiter and more new looking. Our 
Minster Church, among other stirring scenes and stately 
ceremonials, witnessed the coronation of King Henry III. 
and the sadder sight of the somewhat hurried obsequies 
of King Edward II., who lies beneath the exquisite cano- 
pied tomb hard by the high altar. 

This same royal tomb received more ornamentation at 
the hands of King Eichard II., who, curiously enough, 
round the massive Norman pillars which overshadowed 
the beautiful tomb of Edward II. blazoned his favourite 
device of the white harte couchant. The same device 
— we find it on the two contemporary portraits of that 
monarch, worked on his robe, one of which is in that most 
solemn sanctuary of Westminster Abbey, and the other on 
the famous Dyptich of Lord Pembroke at Wilton House 
— appears to have been the cognizance of his mother, 
widow of the Black Prince, once known as the Fair Maid 
of Kent. It was in Gloucester that this King (Kichard II.) 
held the famous " Money " Parliament. Tradition has it 
that the Commons sat in the Chapter Eoom, and the King 
rndthe Peers met in the beautiful guest chamber of the 
Deanery — the Deanery for 200 years the Abbot's Camera 
— then the dwelling-house of the Prior — the lodging must 
this Deanery have often been of many of the kings of 
England — the scene of many a stirring event in the History 
of our County. 

Ke turning to the tomb of Edward II., there is a special 
interest surrounding this splendid canopied tomb and its 
beautiful recumbent effigy of the murdered King. The 
neighbouring Abbeys of Bristol, Malmesbury, and Kings- 
wood refused to give the body of Edward burial within 
their walls, fearing the resentment of Queen Isabella. The 
fearless Abbot of Gloucester, Thoky, cared nothing for the 


wicked Queen or the unpopularity of the dead King, but 
gave the dead Edward a royal funeral, and laid the body 
tenderly and reverently close to the high altar of his 
Abbey. Within a very short space of time a reaction set 
in. To the tomb of Edward, the unpopular murdered 
monarch, flocked crowds of pilgrims, each with their 
offerings more or less costly. Soon we hear that through 
these offerings the treasury of the Monastery became so 
enriched that had the Monks pleased they could have 
rebuilt the whole of the vast Abbey. Among the more 
costly of the earlier gifts at the tomb were " ships of 
gold," " a gold cross with a piece of the true Cross set in 
it," " a ruby," &c., &c. These precious offerings were from 
King Edward TIL, Queen Phihppa, the Black Prince, and 
others. With this well-stored treasury the great archi- 
tect-Abbots Wigmore, Stanton, and Horton, recast the 
whole east limb of the Cathedral, including the lantern, 
the two transepts, and the choir and the noble and per- 
fect cloister. They prepared, too, for the raising and 
rebuilding in another generation of the present matchless 
tower. The exquisite Lady Chapel was the work of 
nearly a century and a-half later. The costly and 
splendid work of the three great Architect-Abbots was 
commenced 1327. The south transept was completed by 
1337, and is by several years the oldest piece of Perpen- 
dicular work we are cognizant of. The choir — its superb 
vaulting, its soaring roof, its matchless window — was 
finished before 1350, before which date the exquisite 
glass which nearly in its entirety still delights and 
charms us, was all fixed in its place. The cloisters, 
north transept, and the rest of the stalls were all finished 
before the end of the fourteenth century. The great east 
window, the framework and muUions of which contain 
a few more square yards than the great York window, 
and is, therefore, the largest in England, and as far as I 
know the largest in the world, has a peculiar historical 
interest. Mr. Winston, one of the greatest experts in 
ancient stained glass, after careful investigation into the 
undoubted genuine heraldic shields, and into the peculiar 
character of the colours used — after, too, caUing attention 
to the stone framework being an early but decided ex- 
ample of the Perpendicular style and the stained glass 


a pure example of the Decorated, taking these three 
points especially into consideration : — (1), the date of 
the armorial bearings (some twelve undoubtedly genuine 
ones are in the window) ; (2), the sort of colours 
used ; (3), the difference in stjdes between the stone 
framework and the stained glass, Mr. Winston unhesi- 
tatingly dates the completion of the window before a.d. 
1350, and shows us that we have here a group of the coats 
of arms of the army of heroes connected most certainly 
in some way with this county and engaged in the cam- 
paign of Edward III., which is famous for the battle of 
Cressy. We should now speak of this glorious window, 
simply matchless in colour and size, as a memorial of the 
battle of Cressy. The " Cressy " window we should now 
term it. 

I have forborne — in this little sketch of historical 
memories, to touch upon — what will be far more effi- 
ciently handled by one of your members who has 
honoured the gathering with his presence, and whose 
great European reputation will enable him to speak with 
far more authority than any to which I could pretend — 
on the peculiarly inventive character of the three great 
building Abbots — Wigmore, Stanton, and Horton, and 
their immediate predecessor Thoky, He will, in another 
department of our work, point out to us how these 
great builders not only introduced, but most probably 
invented. Perpendicular architecture, that form of Gothic 
so loved in England — almost peculiar to our island — how 
that graceful and perfect form of roofmg usually called by 
the name of fan-tracery first appeared in the matchless 
cloister of Gloucester. My task has been to evoke a few 
of the great historic memories connected with this storied 


By the Rev. A. S. PORTER, M.A., F.S.A. 

No Church in England can show a greater number of Ancient En- 
caustic Tiles than the cathedral of the city in which we are now met. 
They are probably all of "Worcestershire manufacture, and most of them 
date from 1400 to 1460. 

The most interesting is the pavement in the area before the High 
Altar, one half of which remains as it was originally put down in 1455 
by Abbot Sebroke. It is foimed of several compartments of which the 
most remarkable is composed of nine tiles. The centre one bears the 
arms of the Abbot "Ermine a cinquefoil," with the words "Dompnus 
Thomas Sebrok Abbas." On the upper tile will be seen the arms of the 
Abbey of Gloucester, " cross keys with a sword in pale." They were 
adopted as the arms of the See on its creation in 1541, and continued 
in use till the sword was taken away by Bishop Frampton in 1681. 
On a scroll are found the names of six of the monks who had assisted 
the Abbot in his undertaking, and the bearings of one of them, Brugg 
or Brydges, is introduced in the angles, his arms being " a cross charged 
Avith a lion's face in nombril point, differenced by a pine cone in dexter 
chief ; " these arms also occur in one of the north windows of the 
church of Longdon, in Worcestershire. On a band is the appropriate 
first verse of the 133rd psalm " Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum 
liabitare fratres in unum." 

Among these tiles will be found the two coats of arms of Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, the second son of King John, one the well-known 
lion rampant for Poictou, in a bordure bezantee, for Cornwall, and the 
other the eagle displayed which he bore as King of the Romans. Tiles 
bearing these arms are found not only here, but also at "Worcester, 
Bordesley, Dale, Windsor, Holt, Malvern, Exeter and Dublin, and it 
might naturally be supposed that these tiles would all date between 
1256, the date of Richard's election as King of the Romans and his 
death in 1271. This, however, is not the case, as they are evidently 
of much later date ; and it is certain that, though these and other 
armorial designs were originally made for some one building, to which 
the person whose arms they represent had been a benefactor, yet they 
were later on freely supplied to other churches, and were used merely 
with a view to their decorative effect. 

1 Read in the Architectural Section at the Annual Meeting of the Institute, at 
Gloucester, August 14th, 1890. 


This observation probably also holds good with regard to many of the 
tiles which will be observed in different parts of the Church. There is 
one tile which was certainly originally made for the Abbey of Bristol, 
and while the noble families of de Bohun, de Warenne, Maltravers, 
Beauchamp of Powyke and others may have been benefactors to the 
Abbey of Gloucester, it is not safe to conclude that they were so 
without corroborative evidence. 

Some of the arms, however, were doubtless introduced as marks of 
respect to friends of the Abbey. The three covered caps point either to 
Abbot Boteler, or to Boteler, Lord of Sudeley, who was made a K.G. in 
1439, and died in 1473 ; the arms of de Clare remind us of the genera- 
tions in which the earldom of Gloucester was in that great family, and 
their successors the Despencers are similarly commemorated. There are 
several tiles bearing the arms of abbots, and one of these commemorates 
the great Abbot Parker, who bore " Sable, a buck trippant arg between 
three pheons or, within a bordure engraved of the third." Some of the 
armorial tiles in the Lady Chapel were brought from New I-anthony on 
the dissolution of that Priory. Conspicuous among these is one bearing 
" on a chevron three pastoral staves between three Cornish Choughs,' 
impaling the arnid of the See of Canterbury. These are the arms of 
Henry ""Dene, who was Archbishop 1501-1503. He was prior of 
Lanthony to the day of his death, having been allowed to retain that 
office in commendam during his episcopate at Bangor, Salisbury, and 

Other tiles worthy of notice in the Lady Chapel are one bearing the 
arms of the See of Worcester, another bearing the words " Croys Christ 
me spede. Amen," and a very beautiful design with the inscription 
" Orate pro anima Johannis Hertlond." Perhaps some local antiquary 
may be able to tell us who this John Hertlond was. 

In a room in the Deanery is a fine pavement partly composed of a 
splendid pattern of griffins, which is also to be found at Tewkesbury, 
and forms a prominent feature in the magnificent pavement at Broadwas 
in the neighbouring county of Worcester. Here will be found also 
several examples of a tile which is frequently found in churches in this 
part of England, quite thirty examples being known to me. It is 
evidently the lower tile of a set of four, the whole set giving the arms of 
Kichard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and his wife Isabella. The 
bearings on this scutcheon were quarterly Beauchamp and Newburgh 
impaling quarterly de Clare and Ic Despencer. 

It is a remarkable fact that though so many of this lower corner tile 
are known, the other three of the set can nowhere be discovered. It is 
possible that the set was originally made for Hanley Castle, the great 
house of Malvern Chase, where according to Leland the Earl and his 
Countess " lay much." Of that castle not one stone remains upon 

The arms of the great Earl and his Countess seems to have been very 
difterently marshalled at various times. In the example before us he 
impales his wife's arms ; on a seal attached to the Llautrissaint Borough 
Charter, dated 1424, his arms are quartered with those of his wife, 
the contents of each quarter being impaled, while on the monument at 
Warwick the Countess' Arms are borne on a 'scutcheon of pretence. 

Dallaway figures in his " Heraldry in England " a set of four tiles 


which must have been designed by the same hand as those which I have 
just spoken of. He says that the}' are in the Library of the Catliedral 
at Gloucester, but I have been nuable to find them, though they exist in 
a very perfect state at Middle Littleton near Evesham. The arms are 
those of the great Earl of Shrewsbury, who quarters the arms of his 
first wife (Furnival) and impales those of his second wife (Beauchamp) 

Mr. Bazeley has called my attention to some very remarkable thir- 
teenth century tiles which are now in one of the upper chapels. They 
represent a Knight tilting, and arc similar in character to others which 
have been observed at Romsey, Lewes and Tintern. Ho wears a flat 
topped helmet, and carries a heater shaped shield and a spear with a 
triangular pennon. 

I have thus glanced at a few of the more interesting tiles in this 
Church, and commend all of them to careful, examination. 





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April 17tli, 1890. 
The Earl Percy, F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

Miss E. H. Busk communicated a paper on " Tlie Forthcoming Sixth 
Centenary of Dante's Beatrice, at Florence." 

Mr. J. J. DoHERTY read a paper on " Bells : their History, Uses, and 

Votes of thanks were passed to Miss Bask and to Mr, Doherty. 

May 1st, 1890. 
The Rev. Sir T. II. B. Baker, Bart., in the Chair. 

Mr. Chancellor Ferguson read a paper on " Picture Board 
Dummies," dealing specially with the figures of two grenadiers at Car- 
lisle. These, he said, represented grenadiers of the 2nd, or Queen's 
Kegiment, between the years 1712 and 1727. This regiment was raised 
in 1661 for service in Tangier, and according to Lord Macauhiy, because 
it had been intended for engagements against the heathen, bore the badge 
of the Paschal lamb. The Chancellor, however, pointed out that iu 
1684 the regiment had no badge at all ; though later, as these dummies 
clearly showed, it bore a lamb pure and simple, while the Paschal lamb 
was not granted to it as a badge until the general v/arrant of 1751, which 
recites that the " ancient badge " of the regiment was a lamb, and there- 
fore, by a curious non sequitur, ordained that it should carry on its 
colours the Paschal lamb. 

Mr. Ferguson also described a Picture Board Dummy in the possession 
of Sir Henry Dryden at Canons Ashby. The paper will be printed in 
a future Journal. 

Mr. J. Park Harrison read a paper on " Anglo-Norman Ornament, 
compared with Designs in Anglo-Saxon MSS." He said he had already 
mentioned in the first part of his paper " On Anglo-Norman Ornament 
compared with Designs in Anglo-Saxon MSS," — (1) the evidence 
obtained by Mr. J. H. Parker and M. Bouet at Caen showed conclusively 
that the style now termed Norman did not exist in Normandy at the date 
of the Conquest ; and (2) that there were numerous architectural details 
in illuminated MSS. of prc-Norman date which, it could scarcely bo 
doubted, were derived from existing buildings. Photographs were ex- 


hibited of Saxon churches which exhibited similar features. He believed 
that Britten's view, that the ]S"ormans, when rebuilding English churches 
on a larger scale, adliered, both from policy and choice, to the severe 
style of architecture they brought with thcni, was generally correct. 
Whilst, however, Remigius built the three great portals at Lincoln in 
identically the same style as the Conqueror's church at Caen, the narrow 
arches on cither side, if of contemporary date, afford an early instance of 
the adoption of roll mouldings and ornamental labels such as occur at 
Stow, as well as in the picture of " Dunstan " in the Cottonian MS. 
Claudius A 3, the date of which is c. 1000. Numerous features derived 
from Csedmon's *' Paraphrase " and other illuminated MSS. of the same 
period were shown to correspond with details in Anglo-Norman churches. 
In Oxford Cathedral this was especially the case. And as the weathering 
of the majority of the choir capitals contrast with the sharper lines of the 
carving believed to be of twelfth century date, this, Mr. Harrison said, 
would appear to alibrd sufficient proof that the interlacing stalks and other 
peculiarities in four of them, and the acanthus foliage in two, a revival of 
Avhicli, according to Prof. Westwood, took place in the tenth century, 
belong to the period which documentary evidence would lead one to select 
for them, viz., the beginning of the eleventh century. The " break of 
joint " Avhich has been detected in the eastern half of the cathedral, and 
the fact that vaulting ribs were not contemplated when the choir aisles 
were built, point to the same conclusion. 

Votes of thanks were passed to Mr. Ferguson and to Mr. Park Harrison. 

JVntiquities anb Silorks jDf ^xi €xhibitcD. 

By the County Hotel Company, Carlisle. — Two Picture Board Dummy 

By Sir H. E. L. Dryden, Bart. — A Picture Board Dummy Grenadier. 

The Eev. Greville I. Chester exhibited a large collection of bronze 
weapons and implements, more than a hundred in number, Avhich he had 
collected last winter in Greece, Asia Minor, Northern Syria, Egypt, 
Sicily aufl Itidy. 

Especially remarkable were a celt, a rare objjct to be found in Asia 
Minor. ?nd a singular implement of nearly circular shape discovered on the 
site of .the ancient Colophon, inland from Smyrna, a place which has 
already contributed an ivory-handled bronze knife and a massive silver 
pin to the collection of Canon Greenwell of Durham. 

Ten javelin heads of elegant form and a short spear came from Zahleh 
on the edge of the plain of Ciele-Syria and a line bronze chisel from 
Baalbek. The haft of the spear is turned into a kind of crook, following 
in that respect the Syrian type and that of the opposite island of Cyprus. 

From Egypt were exhibited specimens of great variety and interest. 
Foremost amongst these is a beautiful small axe found at Tel-el-Amarna, 
the capital of the heretic King Kliu-en-Aten, who abandoned the worship 
of the ancient gods of Egypt for that of the Disk of the Sun. One side of 
this remarkable axe, which is covered with a patina which leaves nothing 
to be desired, is ber'utifully engraved with a cartouche. The inscription 
reads, Nidar Nr/ri; [Ila, Tafluo Aiikli] Ta Ankli, i.e., " Beautifid God, 
Ka-Tattoo-Ankh, giver of life." The hieroglyphs within the parenthesi? 
being, as it seems, the name of an unknown king. 


Two falchions of rare type come also from Tel-el- Amarna. The largest 
of these is attached to its original stick, which, however, does not appear 
to be of any known Egyptian wood, but was probably brought from the 
Land of Punt, be that Ceylon or elsewhere, from whence the ancient 
Egyptians were wont to import rare kinds of wood. The bark of the 
stick still retains the marks of the twine by which the weapon, which 
probably was official or processional, was originally attached. Two tiny 
axes from Thebes may have been either toys or foundation deposits. A 
very curious group of weapons or implements found in a tomb in the 
Gebel behind Erment, South of Thebes, present several new forms, and 
the use of another implement from Tel-el Amarna remains up to this time 

From Italy many curious types were exhibited, both of the Pre-historic 
and Etruscan periods. Amongst the latter is an Etruscan Ear-ring orna- 
mented with three knobs, which is believed to be an object of very rare 
occurrence. Some Jifndce of peculiar form are beautifully engraved with 
various patterns including the Svastika and the Maltese cross. They were 
found near Rome, and exactly resemble examples in the new Etruscan 
Museum in the Villa Papa Giulio outside the Porta del Populo in that 
city, which were found on the site of the ancient Falerii near Civita 
Castellana. An Etruscan collar formed of bronze pendants is of such 
ponderous weight as to lead to the belief that it formed the decoration of 
a horse rather than of a man. 

H^otkcs ot Archaeological |3i\blk;ttton0. 

RENTAL OF ALL THE HOUSES IN GLOUCESTER, a.d. 145o, from a rull in 
the possession of THE CORPORATION OF GLOUCESTER, compiled by 
Robert Cole, Canou of Llauthony, edited with a translation by W. H. 
Stevenson. Issued under the authority of the Corporation of Gloucester, 
Gloucester : Printed by John Bellows, 1890. 

Sir John Dorington, in the admirable Inaugural Address which he 
delivered before the recent Meeting of the Institute, at Gloucester, 
mentioned the valuable parchment roll or rental of 1455, which the 
Corporation of that city has just permitted to be printed and issued to 
subscribers. A copy is now on our table, printed by Mr. John Bellows : 
the beauty of the type and paper, and the excellence of the work afford 
additional proof, if such was required, that one and the same individual 
may combine in himself the qualities which make a successful man of 
business, and those which make an enthusiastic, painstaking and 
accurate archaeologist, such as the members of the Institute were 
delighted, at Gloucester, to recognise under the unassuming garb and 
modest demeanour of the master printer, who was their cicerone round 
Roman Gloucester. 

The roll itself was exhibited at the conversazione given by the Mayor 
to the members of the Institute : it is in good condition and well 
preserved, nearly fifteen inches in width by thirty-three feet in length, 
and written in a bold and legible hand. The manuscript is arranged 
in two parallel columns with a blank space bettvcen : this denotes 
the street, and has the name written thereon. This blank space 
is further ornamented, here and there, with spirited sketches in black 
and red of the various churches and crosses of Gloucester, and also of 
the pillory, which was on a liberal scale, calculated to accommodate at 
the same time the heads and wrists of a brace of delinquents. These 
valuable sketches, valuable because we believe them to be accurate, 
though rough, are well reproduced in the book before us. Each column 
of manuscript represents a side of a street, and contains in due order 
the tenements therein with the names of the owners and occupiers, their 
avocations, some particulars as to their title, and the amount they pay to 
the landgavel (if anything is paid). lUanks are left for the dimensions 
of the various tenements in front, i.e., to the street, which blanks have 
never been filled up. The roll, is in fact, a street directory to mediteval 
Gloucester, but fuller in its particulars by many items than modern 
directories are. It is compiled from older rolls, and Mr, W. TI. Stevenson, 
the able editor, shews that the oldest roll, Robert Cole, the compiler, 
makes use of, is one of the time of Henry III, It would also seem 
that these older rolls were landgavel rolls, as in the case of tenements 


paying lanclgavel, Cole traces their titles back, which he does not do in 
the case of tenements paying no landgavel. Of these latter, Cole 
enumerates 346 as against 310 paying landgavel, which is very nearly the 
number of houses, 300, given in an earlier roll, now in the British 
Museum, as standing on the King's demesne in Gloucester. As the 
landgavel was a seigneurial and not a crown due, it must not be supposed 
that the owners of the 846 tenements paid no landgavel at all. They 
paid it to their chief lords, while the owners of the 310 paid to the 
bailiffs of Gloucester, who farmed the city from the King. Cole is 
described in the roll as " Fratrem Rohertum Cole, Canonicum Lan- 
t]wn\ice\ juxta Gloii[cestriam] Rentarium ibidem." He was probably 
the rent-collector of landgavel under the bailiffs. 

The back of the roll is occupied by an elaborate pedigree of the kings 
of England, which is printed with the other matter. A good general 
index concludes the book, which commences with an introduction by ISIr. 
W. H, Stevenson full of most valuable matter. 

We hope that many other municipalities will be encouraged by the 
appearance of this to do likewise, though Gloucester is far from being 
the first in the field. Good work would be done by any one who would 
compile and print a list of those municipalities whose records can be, 
more or less, consulted in print. London, Oxford, Manchester, Carlisle, 
St. Albans, Nottingham, Macclesfield, &c., occur to our recollection, but 
many more names could be added. 

THE MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS of the Church, Churchyard, and Cemetery 
of S. MICHAEL'S DALSTON, CUMBERLAND, by James Wilson, M.A., 
Vicar: Dalston, Cumberland, W. R. Beck, Octavo pages, xvi, 163. Price 5s. 

The fashion for publishing Monumental Inscriptions appears to have 
" caught on " in the north. In 1878 Mr. Wake published those in 
Brigham and Bridekirk parishes, in Cumberland ; in 1888 and 1889 Mr. 
Bellasis {Lancaster Herald) did the Avhole of those in the old parishes of 
Westmorland; and in 1889 Miss Ferguson did those of S. Cuthbert, 
Carlisle. An energetic vicar and a patriotic parish clerk now combine 
to do those of Dalston, near Carlisle ; the first edites, and furnishes an 
interesting preface and notes, while the second prints and publishes at 
his own risk. No great county families are recorded on these monu- 
ments : there was little room for such in a parish that held the bishop 
of Carlisle and his palace of Eose, but there are many substantial families 
of intermediate rank between county families and " statesmen " (yeomen 
they are called in the south), wdiose pedigrees should be put on record 
by the local genealogists ; to that end this book is valuable help. Only 
two bishops of Carlisle, Kainbow and Percy are buried and have monu- 
ments at Dalston, but the near relatives of many others have found 
sepulchre there. 

The book is well printed and got up, and does credit to Dalston and 
its parish clerk. We believe that the Monumental Inscriptions of the 
neighbouring parish of Wigton are in the press. 


From Picturk Bo.ard, No. i, County Hotki,, Carlisle. 

Archaeological 3^ournal 

DECEMBEE, 1890. 



By R. S. FERGUSON F.S.A. (Chancellor of Carlisle.) 

Some of the members of the Institute, who attended 
the successful meeting at Carhsle in 1882, may recollect 
two Picture Board Dummies, or life sized figures of 
grenadiers, which were exhibited in the temporary 
museum then formed. These figures are painted on 
planks or boards joined together, and are cut out, 
or shaped to the outline, like figures cut out of card- 
board. They are the property of the County Hotel 
Company, Carlisle, and, as they usually occupy positions 
on the main staircase of the hotel, they are well known 
to travellers to and from the north, and enquiry is often 
made at the ofiSce, as to who and what they represent. 
The usual answer is that these figures represent two of 
the Dake of Cumberland's guards, and that they are in 
some way or other relics of the campaign of 1745. That 
these figures are of an earlier date, and that they repre- 
sent grenadiers of the 2nd or Queen's regiment of foot, 
now the Koyal West Surrey regiment, we hope presently 
to show : meanwhile we propose to give a detailed account 
of the uniforms, accoutrements, and arms, distinguishing 
the figures as Nos. 1 and 2. 

No. L 

No. 1, a grenadier, total height to top of the tuft or poropon of his 
mitre shaped cap, 7 feet 3 inches : as the cap is one foot 5 inches high, 
and covers the forehead down to the top of the line of the eyebrows, 
the wearer is 5 feet 10 inches in height to that line, and must be at least 
6 feet 2 inches in total height, particularly as he stands with his feet 18 

1 Read at the monthly meeting of the Institute, May 1st, 1890. 

'vol xlyii (No. 188). 2 s 


inches apart, which was at the date of these figures the position of 

He is dressed in a long broad skirted red coat, piped, or edged with 
white, now turned by age, or varnish, into yellow : the piping is nearly ^ 
inch in breath. His chest, down to his waist belt, is covered by o. plastron 
of green cloth, piped or edged as the coat : it has six buttons on either 
side, set two and two at the ends of loops of white piping, nearly 2|- 
inches long. The buttons are plain, and whether of yellow or white 
metal, it is difficult now to say. The coat has large deep cuffs of green, 
slit below the arm, and piped or edged as the coat : each cuff is 9 inches 
in depth below the arm, and 6 inches above it: each has a row of buttons 
(four are shown) near the upper edge of the cuff, going round the arm: 
parallel to the piping is an ornamental band, a broad white stripe between 
narrower stripes of white and green. There are pockets in the front of 
each coat skirt covered by immense pentagonal flaps, each nearly a foot 
in breath by 10 inches in depth, and ornamented with two rows of the 
same ornamentation as on the cuffs. One of these pocket flaps is well 
seen: the other is almost covered by the buff leather pouch presently to 
be described. Below the waift belt, the upper parts of the skirts are 
buttoned together by two buttons, set at the end of loops as on the plastron: 
the lowest of these buttons is about six inches below the waist belt.^ 

The ccat is cut low at the neck, and there, and at the wrists, the shirt 
is well in evidence. A cravat goes round the man's neck, and its twisted 
ends (as seen in the other figure) hang down in front, but are concealed 
in this case by the grenadier's hands and fusil. 

The breeches are covered by the skirts of the coat, but will be either 
green or red : Cannon's Historical Records of the 2nd foot show that in 
1685 that regiment wore green breeches, and in 1741 red ones.^ 

The stockings are white, and drawn over the knees, and so over the 
ends of the breeches, or Venetians, as Grose calls them ^: they are gar- 
tered below the knee, and apparently rolled over at the tops. The 
garters are either black or green. The stockings are actual 
stockings, not leggings such as the grenadiers and drummers wear in 
Hogartli's " March to Finchley ", and " England ", as proved by the white 
strap going under the foot, distinctly visible in these pictures. In the 
case of these dummies there is no foot strap, and the stockings go inside 
the coverings of the feet, which are ankle jack boots.* 

1 Three buttons are visible in this posi- merely a collection of coloured figures : in 
tiou on the second figure : probably the all about three varieties of foot and four 
number is four, set two and two, the of horse of each regiment coloured pro- 
upper ones being concealed by the hands, pcrly and the arrangement of lace, buttons 
belts, etc. &c. shown. The press mai-k ia 142 E. 

- In a series of 286 coloured drawings 11, I am endebted to the Hon. H. A. 

illustrative of the Complete History of Dillon F.S.A., for this information, 
the British Standing Army from 1660 to ■* Military Antiquities, 2nd edition, vol. 

1700 drawn by Colonel Clifford Walton, 1, p. 313. 

C.B., and exhibited at the Itoyal Military ■* It is clear that during the last half 

Exhibition 1890 Royal Hospital Chelsea of the 17th century and the early part of 

(No. 1940 in the catalogue) a figure repre- the 18th, the English army did not wear 

senting a soldier of the (Queen's regiment leggings or gaiteis over their stockings, 

wears green breeches. I do not know Col. But by the middle of the 18tii century 

Walton's authority for his very interesting they had adopted long white leggings or 

drawings. Cannon for his iegiuient;d gaiters coming high up the thighs 

records took his pictures of unifoi-m from buttoned up the sides, and strapped 

a coloured book in the Biitish Museum. uniier the feet. 
This book has net been published, but is 


The mitre-shaped cap, I foot 5 inches high, is of red cloth with a green 
flap or frontlet over the brow. The tuft on the top is apparently green, 
but ages of varnish have made the paint almost black. On the frontlet 
is the figure of a lamb, not a paschal lamb, but a plain lamb, Avith a tail 
like a fox's brush. Round the edge of the frontlet is the motto : — 


Above the frontlet is the feather badge of the Princess of Wales, and 
above that again a crown. 

The accoutrements consist of waist belt of buff leather : a sling from 
the front of this carries the sword and bayonet : a second sling from the 
back must be required to further support the sword. A buff leather pouch, 
about one foot square, hangs on the right front by a cross belt which 
passses over the left shoulder, and comes outside of the waist belt. This 
cross belt has a plain buckle in it about the level of the waist belt. 
From the second figure we find it has another buckle at the level of the 
shoulder : we do not at present see the object of two buckles in one cross 
belt. The pouch is plain, that is to say it has not the royal cypher and 
crown displayed, as on the pouches of the guardsmen in *' The March to 
FincMey in 1745" : at that date the cross belt of the pouch passes under- 
neath the waist belt and not outside of it, as may be seen by reference to 
the plate in Cannon's Historical Records of the 2nd foot : see also figure 
of a Grenadier of the First Regiment of Foot Guards, reproduced in 
the Archaeological Journal vol. xxiii. from " The Grenadiers' Exercise of 
the Grenado in His Majesty's First Regiment of Foot Guards," by 
Bernard Lens. The date of this figure is 1735. 

The arms consist of fusil with buff leather sling, socket bayonet, 
and basket hilted sword, which last hangs in slings from the waist belt at 
the left side. The bayonet is carried in front of the left thigh (a very 
awkward position one would imagine) by the foremost sword sling, pass- 
ing through a loop, we fancy, on its inside. In the pictures just referred 
to, sword and bayonet are carried in a double frog at the left side slung 
from the waist belt. The fusil is a snaphance, or flint lock, with bright 

The position is not known to the present manual and platoon exercise : 
the feet are separated by about 18 inches •} the butt of the fusil rests on 
the ground, barrel to the right, lock to the front. The hands rest, palms 
downwards, right hand uppermost, on the muzzle of the fusil, elbows 
squared level with the shoulders, head slightly turned to the right. 

The pouch will contain three grenades, and probably the cartridges for 
the fusil, unless they are in one of the coat pockets. The grenadiers 
of the footguards in 1684 carried a cartouch box and a " Granada pouch." 
See A General and complcat List Miliiarij, &c., of that date, printed in 
Appendix X. to Grose's Military Antiquities, first edition. 

The face is clean shaven and seems to be a portrait, the hair is close cut 
at the sides of the head ; what it may be behind it is impossible to say. 

^ The English Army did not,in the 1 7th Antiquities, 'Es.ercKcs for pike, musket, 

century and the early part of the 18th halbcrt, &c. Standing at attention with 

century, bring their heels together at at- the heels closed, was introduced from 

tentiou : see the plates in Grose's Military Prussia about the middle of last century. 


No. II. 

No. 2, a grenadier, originally of the same height, 7 feet 3 inches, as 
No. 1, but it has lost its feet, and stands only 7 feet high. The figure is 
uniformed, accoutred, and armed exactly as the other. The fusil is 
slung on the back, and is not visible with the exception of its sling, 
•which passes over all, i.e., outside of waist belt and cross belt. The 
barrel of the fusil should appear over the right shoulder, but has been 
broken off. The right arm is extended downwards at the right side, 
knuckles outwards, and holds a grenade. The left arm is doubled at the 
elbow, left hand in front of the centre of the body, knuckles to the 
front ; head a little to the left. The basket hilt of the sword appears at 
the left side. 

Like the other, the face is clean shaven and seems a portrait. 

Little is known of the history of these two figures : 
they were brought in 1853 to the County Hotel by Mr. 
Breach, from the Bush Hotel when he moved, as landlord, 
from one house to the other. The Bush Hotel was a 
famous place in the coaching and posting days : how 
these figures came there no one seems to know, but there 
they had been as long as memory of them runneth. The 
late Lord Lonsdale (Earl St. George) professed to have 
found at Lowther Castle, some menioranda shewing that 
these figures were made from the ' wood of a tree grown 
in Lowther Park. It is to be feared that this clue to 
their history is now lost. 

The lamb and the motto Pristince virtutis memor.^ 
clearly identify these figures as belonging to the Queen's 
or 2nd regiment of foot, now the Boyal West Surrey 
regiment : the tall caps identify them as belonging to the 
grenadier company. The limits of time are defined by 
the feather badge on the caps, which this regiment carried 
from 1714 to 1727 : during this period the regiment was 
styled " The Princess of Wales' Own Eegiment of Foot", 
and bore the feather badge. ^ The figures are thus identi- 
fied as grenadiers of the Queen's or 2nd regiment of foot, 
between the years 1714 and 1727. From Cannon's His- 

^ The motto, Priatince virtutis meir.or not having a Queen Consort available, the 

was given to the Queen's regiment for regiment (the Queen's) was called after 

gallant conduct at the reduction in 1703 his daughter-in-law "The Princess of 

of Tongres on the Saar in Limburg, Wales' Own Regiment of Foot." When 

Belgium, wheu the regiment was forced she came to share the throne on the 

to surrender after an obstinate defence death of George I, in 1727, its appella- 

of 48 hours, but was made Royal. tion was again changed to "The Queen's 

Sir Sibbald Scott, The British Army, Own Regiment of Foot." 

vol iii, 436. Sir Sibbald Scott, The British Army, 

2 On the 1st August, 1714, George I vol. iii, p 437. 


From Picture Board Dummy, No. 2, County HoTiii,, Carlisle. 


torical Records we learn that the Queen's regiment was 
on service in England from 1712 to 1729. It is probable 
that it was in the north ol England, and at Carlisle about 
the time of the rising of 1715. 

The regiment, whose grenadiers are represented by 
these figures, the Eoyal West Surrey regiment, was 
raised in 1661, as the first Tangier regiment ; it arrived 
at Tangier on the 29th January, 1662.^ After that place 
was abandoned, the regiment, consisting of two battalions, 
and 560 men, returned to England in 1684, its colonel 
being the well known Piercy Kirk. The 2nd Tangier 
regiment also returned, and, as the designations of these 
regiments as Tangier regiments now became meaningless, 
fresh designations were required : the first Tangier regi- 
ment, consolidated into one battalion became " The 
Queen's," and the second Tangier regiment became the 
" Duchess of York's." They also adopted the colours of 
those ladies for their facings, viz., green for the Queen's, 
and yellow for the other regiment, whose fortunes do not 
concern us.^ 

What the uniform of this regiment was when first 
raised may be doubted : in all probability they were 
armed with pike and musket, and wore buff coats and 
cuirasses. In 1685 " John Synhouse " occurs as ensign in 
the list of officers of the regiment given in A General and 
Compleat List Military, dc, printed in appendix to 
Grose's Militarij Antiquities. This gentleman was one of 
the Senhouses of Netherhall in Cumberland, and nephew 
to Captain Richard Senhouse, who, from having served in 
Tangier, is known in the family as the " Tangier Captain." 
His portrait is at Netherhall, and as the nephew would 
probably select his uncle's old regiment, the portrait is 
probably in the uniform of the First Tangier regiment. 

^ A most elaborate and valuable history blue loops tufted -with yellow upon red 

of the regiment is being published by coats, &c." 

Col. John Davis, F.S.A., 3rd Batt. the Queen's Own Troop. 

Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment.) The grauadiers paid clad and armed as 

" Blue, green, and yellow were in the the King's differcenc't by ^recn /oops with 

times of Charles II the colours respec- yellow tufts on their coats, 
tively of the King, the Queen, and the Duke's Troop. 

Duke of York. "Thus " A Oeneml and Granadiers difFerend by coat loops of 

Compleat List Military, d-c," jjrinted in yelloiu upon their breasts. 
Appendix x to Grose's Military Anti- The three troops were themselves dis- 

quities gives — tinguished by pouch belts, covered res- 

" King's Own Troop of Horse Guards." pectively with blue, gi'ceu and yellow 

"The granadiers of this troop have velvet. 


The portrait only shews the head and chest : the 
" Tangier captain " is represented in cuirass, gilt gorget, 
white cravat, red coat richly laced with gold, and black 
full bottomed wig.^ Colonel Davis in his History of the 
Queen's gives full length front and back view of an officer 
of the regiment taken from two figures of officers in a 
view of Tangier by Wenceslaus Hollar in 1669: these 
figures are dressed in long full skirted and richly laced red 
coats, but wear neither cuirass nor gorget.^ 

Cannon's Historical Records of the regiment gives a 
coloured picture shewing the uniform of an officer, a 
grenadier, and a private sentinel in 1685. All wear red 
coats with broad skirts, green breeches, and white 
stockings : — the officer and private wear flapped and 
plumed hats : there is little, but the arms, distinctively 
military about the costume of these two. The grenadier 
wears a tall conical fur cap with a red jelly bag hanging 
therefrom. Grenadiers were first introduced into the 
English Army in 1678. Evelyn in his Diary under date 
of June 29, 1678, writes. 

Returned with my Lord by Hounslow Heath, where we saw the newly 
raised army encamped. . . . Now were brought into service a new 
sort of soldiers, called Grenadiers, who were dexterous in flinging hand 
grenades, every one having a pouch full : they had furred caps with 
sloped crowns like janizaries, which made them look very fierce, and 
some had long hoods hanging down behind, as we picture fools. Their 
clothing being likewise piebald, yellow and red. 

Yellow and red were the livery colours of the House of 
Stuart : they did not long continue to be the grenadier 
uniform. By 1684 grenadier companies were attached to 
most of the regiments of infantry, and also to the three 
troops of horse guards. They wore the uniform of the 
regiments with certain differences which are specified in 
the old grenadier song : — 

Come let us fill a bumper, and drink a health to those 
Who carry caps and pouches, and wear the looped clothes. 

^ I am indebted to the late Mrs. goons," which served in Tangier. la 

Senhoiisc of Netherhall, for kindly mak- 1G83 Richard Senhouse was " Pratique 

ing xne a water colour sketch of this Mr." at Tangier, see Col. Davis's History 

portrait very shortly before her lamented of the Queen's Regiment, p. 231. 

death. Col. Davis considers that Captain '^ Exhibited by Col. Davis, at the Royal 

Richard Senhouse's portrait represents Military Exhibition 1890, No, 1983 in 

him in a cavalry uniform, that of the the catalogue. 
*' First or The Royal Regiment of Dra- 


This song is according to Chappell (cited by Sir 
Sibbald Scott), at least 200 years old, and must come 
very near to the date of the picture in Cannon's Historical 
Records, &c. The differences between a grenadier, and 
a private sentinel or battalion company man were well 
marked, when grenadiers were first brought on the 
strength of the British Army. The grenadiers wore caps, 
the " furred caps with sloped crowns " of Evelyn ; the 
private sentinels wore hats, hats very like the ordinary 
hats of contemporary civil life.^ This distinction was 
long maintained, through the grenadiers very soon ex- 
changed the " furred caps " for the tall cloth caps, which 
reigned so long, and which Hogarth has made so familiar. 
From a " General and Complete List Military^'' which 
we have cited before, we find that in 1684, the grenadiers 
of the Foot Guards were dressed like the musketeers 
but distinguished by " caps of red cloth lined with blew 
shaloon, and laced about the edges : and on the frontlets 
of the said caps (which were very large and bigh), was 
imbroidered the King's cipher and crown". When the 
Queen's Regiment discarded the furred caps for their 
grenadiers does not appear, but these Dummies have 
"caps of red cloth . . . very large and high," certainly. 
These tall cloth caps had a long reign but ultimately 
gave way to the bearskin caps, which were introduced 
from Prussia into the French army in 1740,^ and at a 
later period into the English. 

^ The bills aud estimates for soldiers' moud by recipients of the Peninsular 

clothing, given in Grose's Military An- War Medal. No. 745, Ihid. 

tiquitics shew the authorities recognised ^ Planche's Cyclopedia of Costume vol 

the difference between a private sentinel's ii, p. 361. Authorities differ as to when 

" hat " and a " grenadier's cap." It was the pointed grenadier cap was introduced 

only in modern times that the " hat " into the English Army : Plancho in one 

gave way to the "cap." A general order place {Ibid. 359) states it was introduced 

in 1800 directed that the use of "hats " between 1713 and 1740, while in another 

be abolished throughout the whole of the place Ibid. 363, he states it was not 

infantry and "caps" worn instead, see invented until 1730. But these Dummies 

Grose ii, p. 195, 2nd edition. But prove it was in use in the English Army 

subsequently to this date some officers before 1727, for were it introduced after 

(query, staff officers) wore in uniform the that date, the Queen's Regiment would 

ordinary tall round hat of civil life, not have put it uj)on the feather badge 

decorated with cockade, cords of gold or which they abandoned in 1727. It is 

silver lace, and a red and white plume: clear from Sandford's Account of the 

see Stothard's death of Sir Italph Aber- Coronation of James II., that these 

cromby, No. 688 catalogue Royal Mili- jjointed caps were then in use in the 

tary Exhibition, 1890, De Loutherbourg's English Army. Writing of the first 

Battle of Alexandria, No. 687. Ibid. troop of Horse Grenadiers he says, " the 

and other pictures — see also a Silver crowns of their caps were r.iised high to 

Centre Piece given to 5th Duke of Rich- a point, falling back at the point in a 


The second distinction was that grenadiers carried 
poaches for their grenades, while the battalion company- 
men carried their ammunition in collars of bando- 
leers : these were presently discarded by all ranks for 
pouches, as much more convenient. We do not quite under- 
stand where these Dummies carry their cartridges and 
the match for their grenades : there is ample, but incon- 
venient storage in the pockets of their skirt fronts, or 
they may have a cartridge box on the waist belt behind. 
The grenadiers of the Foot Guards in 1684 (see A General 
and Compleat, &c., carried a " cartouch-box, bionet, 
granada-pouch, and a hammer hatchet." 

The third distinction specified in the couplet, the 
" looped clothes " refer to the loops at the end of which 
the buttons of the coat are set. We at first supposed the 
reference was to some arrangement for looping up the 
skirts of the coats for convenience, but the explanation 
will be found in the account of the grenadiers of the 
three troops of horseguards, cited from Grose, 1st edition, 
in a previous note : — thus the grenadiers of the Duke's 
troop have " coat loops of yellow upon their breasts," 
these of the Queen's, " green loops with yellow tufts on 
their coats/' Whether this distinction continued long or 
not, we are unable to say : it probably originated in the 
coats of the newly invented grenadiers being fastened by 
buttons and loops, instead of by buttons and button- 

It may here be remarked that the distinction between 
civil and military attire, so thin in the period immediately 
succeeding the disuse of defensive armour, and now so 
much accentuated, first began with the grenadiers on 
their first institution. The citizen in one of the plates of 
Hogarth's Marriage a la Mode wears a red, broad skirted 
coat with pockets and cuffs, much like those worn by 
these two Dummies, and the pattern has survived to this 
day as the livery of a state coachman. Of course, while 
armour was in use, the armour and a coloured scarf and 
plume formed sufficient uniform. 

capuoch (capnchon ?) which were turned of the same"; cited by Planche, Ibid 

up before and behind triangular and 282. See also the account of the caps of 

faced with blue plush : and on the back the grenadiers of the Foot Guard, '' very 

of the crowns a roundell or granado ball large and high," given ante. 


It has already been pointed out that the lamb on the 
caps of these Dummy grenadiers is a white lamb, pure 
and simple, and not the white lamb passant and carrying 
the red cross banner or pennon of St. George, known in 
heraldic language as " The Paschal Lamb", which is now 
used as a badge by the Queen's Royal West Surrey 
Regiment (late the 2nd Foot). Lord Macaulay in a well 
known passage attributes the badge of " The Paschal 
Lamb" to this regiment at a very early date. He 
writes : — 

When Tangier was abandoned, Kirk returned to England. He still 
continued to command his old soldiers, who were designated sometimes 
as the First Tangier Regiment, and sometimes as Queen Catherine's 
Regiment. As they had been levied for the purpose of waging war on 
an infidel nation, they bore on their flag a Christian emblem, the Paschal 
Lamb. In allusion to this device, and with a bitterly ironical meaning, 
these men, the rudest and most ferocious in the English army, were 
called Kirk's Lambs. The regiment, now the second of the line, still 
retains this ancient badge, which is, however, thrown into the shade by 
decorations honourably earned in Egypt, in Spain, and in the heart of 

Sir Sibbald Scott has shown (vol. iii, p. 433) that the 

First Tangier Regiment was never styled the Queen's 

while at Tangier, and that it was not until its return to 

England in 1684 that it got that designation. At that 

date it did not bear the device of the Paschal Lamb or 

any other lamb on its flag, A General and Compleat List 

Military, tj'c, from which we have so often quoted says 

that — 

The Queen's Regiment consists of ten companies exclusively, besides 
the granadiers, fiyes a red cross bordered white and rays as the admirals 
in a green field with her majesties royal cypher in the centre.^ 

Nothing is said about any badge ; if the Queen's in 
1684 had had a badge at all, it would certainly have been 

^ In the Royal Military Exhibition, The colour is green, in the centre the 

1890, is a colour thus described in the paschal lamb, below it the motto Pris- 

Catalogue " 531b Colours, presented by tincc Virtutis Memo):, and below that 

Catherine of Breganza to the 1st Tangier "II. or Queen's Royal Regiment." 

Regiment (now 'The Queen's Royal Above is " From the Queen 16ul." The 

Regiment') in 16G1, when the regiment colour stands self-convicted as an im- 

was raised for protection of Tangiers, poster ; it purports to be of the date of 

part of her dowry : lent by the 2nd Queen's IGOl, and it bears a title (the Queen's) 

Regiment." not conferred on the regiment until 

SVe viewed this colour with interest and 1G81, another title (Royal) and a motto 

suspicion ; as it was gathered up, we could not conferred until 1703, and a number 

not see what was on it. We are indebted (II.) not conferred until 1761. 
to Col. H. E. Malet for a rough sketch. 



caiTied on the colour, and it would certainly have been 
mentioned in " A General Compleat List Military tfec," 
which purports to give the badges of all the regiments in 
the English service, and does give them for other 
regiments with great minuteness. The conclusion is 
irresistable that in 1684 the Queen's had no badge, and 
this is confirmed by Cannon's plate of the uniforms in 
1685 : no badge is shown on clothing or accoutrement. 
So Lord Macaulay's explanation turns out to be pure 
imagination. That the Queen's enjoyed the soubriquet 
of Kirk's Lambs, we do not doubt : that they were 
proud of it, we do not doubt ; and when they wanted 
a badge to put on their grenadier caps, we fancy 
they assumed the lamb pure and simple.-^ A 
second Piercy Kirk, son of the first, served in the 
regiment from ancient to lieutenant colonel and com- 
manded it from 1711 to 1741. He probably put the lamb 
on the grenadier caps, and in course of time the lamb 
came to be the "ancient badge," of the regiment. The 
general warrant of 1751, issued when regiments were first 
numbered, for regulatnig clothing &c , recites more than 
once that the lamb is the " ancient badge " of the Queen's 
regiment and therefore authorises it to bear " in the three 
other corners of the second colour " The Paschal Lamb," 
a strange non seqititur. The story of the badge of the 
Paschal I^amb now carried by the Poyal West Surrey 
Ptegiment would seem to be that it arose out of the 
soubriquet of Kirk's Lambs, and was improved in 1751 
from a lamb into the Paschal Lamb. 

It is to be regretted that so little is known of the 
history of these Dummies : probably some ex-grenadier of 
the Queen's settled at Carlisle as landlord of some or 
other hostelrie, and after the quaint flishion of the early 
part of the 18tli century adorned his hostelrie with 
Picture Board Dummies of his old comrades, v/hich have 

^ As a general rule the colonel of a and the White Horse of Hanover sub- 
regiment imt his crest or coat of anus on stituted for the colonel's crest or coat of 
the front of the grenadier caps: we have arms, but I fancy tiie militia were not so 
seen a grenadier's cap in Cumberland, restricted until a later date, thus in the 
belonging no doubt to the C'umlieiland Royal Military Exhibition 1890 No. 
or We.-tmorland Militia, withtlie Lowihfr '' 605 Grenadier's Cap, Oxfordshire, about 
arms on its front. In the roguLu- army 1750 " has on its front a peacock in pride, 
this practice was sometime in the first and must record a Duke of Rutland, or 
half of the 17tli century put a slop to, some member of the Manners family. 


had the luck to survive to this day, — to excite our 
wonder and admiration. They are most valuable 
land marks in the history of Enghsh military costume. 
In that history there is a great gap between 1700 
and 1745 : these figures, being certainly between 1714 
and 1727, are most valuable pieces of evidence. The next 
piece of evidence is Lens' Exercise of 1735, which has 
already been mentioned ; it gives figures of guardsmen. 
Further evidence is to be found in Hogarth's pictures ; 
then we come to a valuable and curious collection of 
pictures of British soldiers of various regiments by David 
Morier, the property of H,M, the Queen. These were 
lent tothe " Koyal Military Exhibition,! 890," Xo, 1914 in 
the Catalogue, but were mostly skied, or so placed as to 
render a careful examination impossible. As the most 
of the figures in these pictures had regimental numbers 
under them, their date must be subsequent to 1751, 
in which year numbers were first assigned to the 
regiments ; as Morier died in 1770, the date 
must be prior to that year.^ As the figures are all 
represented at attention with their legs apart, the 
date can be further contracted to between 1751 and 1757, 
in which last year the Prussian system of drill was 
introduced, and the British army closed its heels at 
attention. Some- of the sketches, without regimental 
numbers under them, clearly represent foreign, probably 
German soldiers. But throughout the l8tli century, 
English, German and French foot soldiers wore much 
the same type of uniform, though differing widely in 

The Gentleman's Magazine, 1845, p. 591, gives an 
illustration of a dummy grenadier at the Black Boy Inn, 
at Chelmsford. The G.R. on his cap and his stockings 
(not leggings) assign him to the first George. His 

^ "David Morier, born at Berne about logue" Royal Military Exhibition 1S90,' 

1705, portrait aud animal painter : he came also assigns to Morier a series of sketches 

to England in 1743, and was introduced of British soldiers in 1832, see catalogue 

to the Duke of Cumbe)land, who settled No. 1961. 

upon him a pension of i' 200 a year. He " Grose's Military Antiquities 'Jud 

painted portraits, horses, dogs and battle edition vol. ii. p. 185. 

pieces, and met with great encourage- •* See a plate " Uniform of the French 

ment. . . He died in January 1770." Army " in Lacroix's "France: The xviii, 

Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists. Century.'' 
In spite of Morier's death in 1 7 70, the cata • 


cap is not so high as in the Carhsle instances, and 
instead of a ]jlastron of difterent coloured cloth over his 
chest, the edges of his broad skirted coat have, as far as 
his waist belt, a broad stripe of cloth, matching his cufis, 
and adorned with buttons and lace in a zigzag pattern, in 
a manner which may be seen in some of Morier's pictures. 

On the general subject of Picture Board Dummies — 
two papers by Mr. Syer Cuming will be found in 
the journal of the British Archaeological Association 
vol. XXX. Sir Henry Dryden possesses a grenadier 
similar to those now exhibited : another of a grenadier is 
enOTaved in the Gentlemen's Mas^azine for 1845 : others 
are mentioned by Mr. Cuming. A favourite subject for 
representation by a picture board dummy was a house- 
maid wielding a broom, of which Mr. Cuming gives 
several instances ; I am told there is a very fine one of a 
housemaid at Castle Howard. Some of us may recollect 
seeing in one of the rooms at Chirk Castle picture board 
dummies of two quaint Dutch-looking children, standing 
right and left of the fire place. 

These dummy figures are made feather edged from the 
back, and have a projection behind so as to make them 
stand away from the w£ill, against which they are 
placed : this adds to the delusion. They are secured 
in their place by a hook and staple. 


Sir Henry Dryden's Dummy Grenadier. — A Grenadier, total height 
to the top of his mitre shaped cap, which has no tuft or pompon, 7 feet 
inches : as the cap is 1 foot 3 inches high, and covers the forehcatl 
down to the top of the line of the eyebrows, the wearer is 5 feet 9 inches 
in height to that line, and must be nearly G feet in total height, particu- 
larly as he stands with his feet 18 inches apart. 

He is dressed in a long broad skirted red coat, lined with blue, having 
no piping or edging, and no iilastron of different cloth on the chest. 
The coat is cut low at the neck and it is worn open, but has three large 
buttons above the waist and corresponding button holes by which it can 
be closed ; also three large buttons and button holes below the waist, by 
Avhich the skirts can be buttoned together, It is buttoned at the waist, 
but the button is covered by the belt, though the distinctive grenadier 
loop is visible on the button side of the coat ; these loops are also visible 
on the buttonhole side of the coat skirt, but are concealed or covered 
elsewhere by the roll over of the coat edge. The coat has deep cuffs of 
bUie, (in each of which two large buttons set at the end of loops are 
visible. The open coat discloses a long red waistcoat, also open, but 

From Picture Board Dummy in the possession ov Sir H. Drvden, Bart. 


having seven small buttons and button boles above tbe waist, and four 
below. ^ The waistcoat shows at the wrists, and discloses a small part of 
a white shirt, which is seen on the chest through the open coat and 
waistcoat, A cravat is round the grenadier's neck, but has no hanging 
ends, as in the case of the grenadiers of the Queen's ; nor has the coat 
the great pockets in the skirts, which we find in the Queen's men's 

The breeches would be blue, but are not seen. The stockings are 
white and draw over the knees and over the ends of the breeches ; the 
stockings are gartered below the knee. The coverings for the feet are 
shoes with buckles. 

The mitre shaped cap, 1 feet 3 inches high, is of red cloth, and has no 
tuft or pompon at the top. The letters G.R. are on the frontlet, and 
above them a star, and above that a crown, all surrounded by thistles (?) 
hence an idea that this figure represents a grenadier of the Brd or Scots 
Guards : it is a litlle doubtful, if the foliage really represents thistles ; it 
may represent oak leaves and acorns." 

The accoutrements are puzzling, no waist belt is shown, but it may be 
covered by the cuffs and left hand, and the sword suspended by slings 
from it. The grenado pouch hangs in front of the right skirt of the 
coat, from a belt over the left shoulder ; no buckle is shown in it. The 
front of the pouch has the letters G.R. and foliage similar to that on 
the cap, and probably also has the crown, but the butt of the fusil 
prevents that from being ascertained. 

The arms consist of fusil and sword. The sword has a basket hilt, 
and a black leather scabbard with brass chape of falchion shape. ^ The 
fusil has no sling, which was an essential part of a grenadier's equip- 
ment, part of the barrel is broken away : no bayonet or scabbard for one 
is to be seen. The absence of sling and bayonet is puzzling. The 
drawing of the lock of the fusil is indistinct, apparently it is on the left 
side of the piece, an impossible position. This must be an error. The 
position is that of " present arms " at the general salute. 

The face is dean shaven, with strongly marked lines on each side of 
the nose, and, as in the other two instances, seems a portrait. The 
figure either wears a wig, or the hair is dressed and powdered l,o resemble 
one. From this, and the absence of sling and bayonet, we were inclined to 
consider the figure was one of an officer carrying a light fusil, ■• but other 
details are more suitable to a private sentinel, and we have quite abandoned 
the idea that it represents an officer. 

This figure is feather edged from the back as the others, and is valu- 
able on account of having the apparatus for placing it free from the wall, 
viz., a projecting ledge or frame behind, six inclies deep. This and the 
feather-edge add much to the delusion, and life-like appearance of the 

^ This waistcoat was made out of the an engraving of a simihir sword, but 

soldier's coat of the j^revious years, see with a difi'ereut hilt, 

Grose, 2nd edition, vol. i, p. 317. ''Officers occasionally carried fusils 

^ See the figure of " a Grenadier of the instead of spontoons. See in Sir S. 

First Regiment of First Guards 1735," Scott's book a picture of " An officer of 

by Bernard Lens. Archccoloyical Journal the Norfolk Militia marching past"; he 

vol. xxiii. carries a fusil, and the practice is mcn- 

^ See Grose, 2nd edition, vol. i, plate tioued iu the text, 
opposite p. 153, titled '■'Infantry," for 


By E. W. BECK. 

To rightly understand what these keys are we must go 
back to the earUest ages of Christendom, to the Martyr- 
dom, in fact, of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, which it 
is needless to remind you took place in Rome on June 
29th, A.D., 67. The bodies of these Apostles rest in the 
two Basilicas dedicated in their honour on the Vatican 
Hill and the Ostian Way respectively ; their heads being 
placed together in the Cathedral of Rome, the Basilica of 
S. John Lateran omnium ecclesiarum iirhis et orbis mater 
et caput. So great was the veneration of the Koman 
Christians for these sacred remains that for centuries the 
Popes themselves did not venture to disturb them." 
Something had to be done, however, to satisfy the craving 
of Catholics in other parts of the world, who from time 
to time asked the Popes to give them some relic of the 
two great Apostles. For example, early in the sixth 
century Justinian, nephew to the Emperor Justin I, and 
himself afterwards Emperor, made such a request to S. 
Hormisdas ;^ as in due course did the Empress Constantina 
to S. Gregory the Great,'* The custom arose of sending 
hrandea,^ that is linen cloths which had rested on the 
bodies of the Saints ; and perhaps some here present may 
remember a very beautiful mosaic altarpiece in the 
Vatican Basilica referring to this subject. Another 
custom was to send relics of the chains of the Apostles, 
and this is the one which directly concerns us. 

The chain which the Prince of the Apostles wore in 

' Read at the Monthly Meeting of the ^ Epp. Et Dccrcta Hormisdcc Papce in 

Institute, July 3, 1890. Migne's Patrol. Lot., vol. 63, col. 47? 

' Cf. Epp. S. Greg. M. iv., 30 (Migne's * Epp. S. Oreg. iv., 30. 

edition.) ' Ihid. 


the Mamertine Prison was treasured among the most 

sacred relics of Christian Kome. Of tiie veneration paid 

to it we have evidence in the Acts of S. Alexander, 

who was martyred in the second century ; acts which 

though probably not by a contemporary are yet of early 

date. To this chain was in time added one of those 

which the Apostle wore in Jerusalem when he lay bound 

by order of Herod the King. When this chain was 

brought to Eome is unknown, but it was certainly not 

later than the beginning of the sixth century ; for, in the 

reign of Justinian, Arator, subdeacon of the Holy Roman 

Church, wrote a poem on the Acts of the Apostles, in 

which he mentioned that one of the Jerusalem chains was 

in Eome : — 

His solidata fides, Ms est tibi, Roma, catenis 
Perpetuata saliis ; harum circumdata nexu 
Libera semper eris ; quid enim non vincula preestent, 
Quae tetigit, qui cuncta potest absolvere ? Cujus 
Hsec invicta manu, vel religiosa triumpbo 
Moenia non ullo penitus quatientur ab hoste 
Claudit iter bellis, qui portam j)andit in astris.^ 

It is commonly believed " that Eudocia, wife of Tlieodo- 
sius the younger, in 439 brought from Jerusalem the two 
chains ...... and having given one to a church in 

Constantinople sent the other to Eome to her daughter 
Eudoxia, who was married to Valentinian IH."^ But the 
evidence of this is not of a very satisfactory nature. Since 
the fifth century they have been kept in the church of 
S, Peter's Chains ; more commonly called the Eudoxian 
Basilica after the Empress Eudoxia who built it. The 
chest which contains them has three locks. One of the 
keys is kept by the Pope ; the second by the Cardinal 
Titular of the Church; and the third by the Abbot 
General of the Austin Canons of the Lateran congrega- 
tion, to whom the Basilica belongs. They are exposed to 
public veneration on July 3rd and during the octave of the 
feast of S. Peter's Chains ; which feast is kept in the West 
on August 1st, though in the East from early times 
January 16th has been assigned to it. 

^ Arator, de Actibus App. lib. i., vv. that the second line runs as follows, 

1070 ss. (Migne's edition). Among the Simplicio nunc ipse dcdil sacra jure tcncrc, 

poems of Blessed Alcuin, O.S.B. (Migne's and in the fifth we have manus for manu 

edition) is one almost identical with the {Aluini opp., vol. ii., col. 770). 

above; in fact the only differences are '^Bwil^r, Lives of the Saints, Aug. 1st, 


The chains of S. Paul do not so much concern us, 
though, as reUcs of them were sometimes placed with those 
of the chains of S. Peter, it may be well to mention that 
they are preserved in the sacristy of the Basilica of S. 
Paul-without-the-walls on the Ostian Way. They are ex- 
posed on January 25tli and June 30th; but permission to 
see them may at all times be easily obtained from the 
Abbot of the Benedictine convent adjoining the Basilica. 

The earliest written evidence we have of a gift of a 
relic of S. Peter's chains relates to that made by S. 
Hormisdas to Justinian, at the same time that he refused 
him a part of the body. The practice of sending such a 
relic in a key must have been in vogue before the end of 
the sixth century ; for S. Gregory the Great (the thirteenth 
centenary of whose ordination occurs on September 3rd of 
this year) mentions that one was sent back to Eome, to 
Pelagius 11. , by a pagan Lombard king named Autharith 
who had been struck with fear on account of the sudden 
and, as he believed, miraculous death of another Lombard 
chieftain who had wished to profane it.^ S. Gregory him- 
self sent a small cross containing relics of the chains of 
one or both apostles to Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria ;^ 
and to the Patrician Dynamius.^ The same Pope also 
sent a number of keys to various dignitaries ; but to pass 
over for the present these and other instances in which the 
relic was enclosed in a ke}^, we find that early in the 
eighth centur}^ Pope Constantine sent a relic of the chains to 
Evaldus, Archbishop of Yienne, though there is no evidence 
to show what form the reliquary took. And then to come 
to more modern times a few instances can be given on 
the authority of Monsacrati, an Austin Canon, whose 
classical work de catenis Sancii Petri was dedicated to the 
erudite Benedict XIV. " Leo X. it seems gave a link of one 
of the chains to the Cardinal Albert of Magdeburg, 
Archbishop-Elector of Maintz ; Paul IIL gave another 
to Cardinal Gambara ; in the last century Cardinal 
Albano, presumably the Titular of the Church, gave 
one to Frederic, Prince Eoyal of Poland ; and Benedict 

^ Epp. vii, 26. abbatis ex ordiue canoiiicorum regvila- 

- Efp. xiii, 42. rium S. Salvatoris de Catenis S. Petri 

'^ Ibid, iij, 33. dissertatio ad Beuedictiim XIV, P.O.M. 

* D. Michaelis Angeli Monsacrati, Iloma), MDCCL. 


XIV. sent some relics to Bologna, of which he had 
been Archbishop when Cardinal Lambertini. At the 
present day it is the custom for the custodian of the 
relics to collect some of the rust when the chains are ex- 
posed, and to scatter it on linen which is given away with 
a proper authentication from the Abbot. 

To return to the keys. From his epistles we learn that 
S. Gregory the Great sent one to each of the following : 
Anastasius, Patriarch of Antioch ;' Theodore, a physician 
of Constantinople ;^ a nobleman named Andrew f a noble 
lady named Theoctista/ who was charged with the educa- 
tion of the sons of the Emperor Maurice ; to John,^ patri- 
cian, quaestor and ex-consul ; to Leontius,^ also an ex- 
consul ; to a certain Gaulish noble, Asclepiodotus^ by 
name ; and to Savinella.^ To Eechared,^ King of the 
Visigoths, he sent two, of which one, it has been sug- 
gested, was meant for S. Leander, to whom he sent the 
pallium by the same messenger ; though possibly the keys 
belonged to two different classes, as one was said by S. 
Gregory to contain a relic of the chain, whilst no such 
statement was made of the other. To Columbus, '° bishop 
of Numidia, and to Childebert,^' king of the Franks, he 
sent more than one, but how many is not known. It may 
be noted that relics of the Apostles — almost certainly 
either brandea or ke3^s — were sent to the last-named by 
Pelagius 11.'^ 

S. Vitalian, who ascended the Pontifical Throne in 657, 
sent one, containing relics of both chains, to his spiritual 
daughter, the wife of the Northumbrian King Oswy, over 
whose piety, he said, the whole Apostolic See rejoiced. 
The letter written on the occasion has been preserved for 
us by the Venerable Bede.'^ 

About a hundred years after this S. Gregory III. sent two 

^ Epp. i, 26. '2 Migue, Patrol. Lat. Ixix, Ep. 9. 

' Ibid, vii, 28. ^^ . . . Nam et conjugi vcstiw, nostra; 

^ Ibid, i, 30. spiritali filise, dii-eximus per pnefatos 

* Ibid, vii, 26. gerulos crucein claveni auream habentem 
^ Ibid, i, 31. de sacratissimis vinculis beatorum apos- 
*• Ibid, viij, 35. tolonim Petri et Pauli : de ciijub pio 
' Ibid, xi, 14. .studio cognoscentes, tantum cuncta sedea 

* Ibid, xii, 7. apostolica una uobiscuni Iwtatnr quau- 
^ Ibid' ix, 122. turn ejus pia opera coram Deo fragrant 
'" Ibid. iii. 48. et veruant. . . . Bedce Hist. £ccks. 
" Ibid, vi, 6. iij, 29. 



of these keys to Charles Martel ;^ half a century later S. 
Leo III. sent one to B. Charles the Great,^ four years before 
he crowned him Emperor of the West, on the memorable 
Christmas-day of the year 800. The last instance which 
can be cited brings us to the year 1079, in which S. 
Gregory VII., the illustrious Hildebrand, sent a golden 
key to Alphonsus Y.^ of Castile, saying in the accompany- 
ino- letter that in so doinc; he followed the custom of the 

In several of the Epistles of S. Gregory we find the 
phrase " we send you a key from the most holy body of 
S. Peter."^ A similar phrase occurs in the ritual which is 
followed to the present day, when the pallium is conferred 
on those archbishops and bishops that have the right to re- 
ceive it. On such occasions the officiant says, "We deliver 
to you the pallium taken from the body of Blessed Peter," 
and it is hardly necessary to say that the pallia are kept 
in the confession or crypt under the high altar of S. 
Peter's, which contains part of the body of the Holy 
Apostle. From this we may infer that the keys sent by the 
Popes were either kept in the confession or placed on the 
shrine of S. Peter before being given away ; and to 
this circumstance we may probably trace the legends of 
various Saints having received a key from S. Peter. 
Another point to be noticed is that S. Gregory points out 
that these keys, which in fact were reliquaries, should be 
worn hanoino- from the neck.^ 

As to the relic of tlie chain. In the key at Liege this 
is enclosed in the hollow of the handle ; it can be seen, 
and is in no way fixed. This must have been a common 
mode of dealing with the relic, and is indicated by the 
phraseology of several of S. Gregory's epistles. Some- 
times, however, in place of sending detached portions of 
the chain, some filings of it were mixed with the molten 
metal when the key was being cast. 

There is another kind of key which should be mentioned 

' Epp. S. Gregorii III. i\\nn\ Migiio * I have read somewhere, but caniKjt 

Patrol, xcviii, No. 22 ; and Frcdeyarii now put my hand on the reference that 

Scholastici C/>ro>iicon, a pud Migne Patrol. the same Pontiff sent a key to the King 

'xxi. No. 680. of Denmark. 

- Vide Migne Pat. Led., vol. 98, coL » EpP- h 30, 31 ; vii, 26, 28 ; ix, 122 ; 

49."), xiii, ad. tin. xi, 14 ; xii, 7. 

^ Epp. S. Grey VII., vi, 7, Migne's '^ Epp. i, 30, 31 ; iij, 33 ; vi, 6 ; xi, 14 ; 

editim xij, 7. 




as possibly the one at Maestriclit is a specimen of it. 
S. Gregory of Tours, writing in the sixth century, says 
that the keys used for locking the doors of the confession 
were regarded as relics, and that pious people would often 
send golden keys to Eome in exchange for them/ Pos- 
sibly too the key sent by S. Gregory the Great to the ex- 
Consul Leontius belonged to this class for he speaks of it 
as a hey of the confession of S. Peter, mentioning, how- 
ever, at the same time that it contained a relic of the 

All the keys which have been described are spoken of 
as the " keys of S. Peter," a phrase which occurs three 
times in S. Gregory ; and not unfrequently as " keys of 
the confession of S. Peter," a term which, as has just been 
mentioned, is found once in the writings of that Pope. 
The latter term may be due to one of two things. Either 
it was generally applied because some of the keys were 
actually used for locking the confession ; or it was given 
because those which were not keys of the door had been 
kept in the confession or at least placed in it for a time. 

Of these keys two only are now known to exist in 
Western Christendom ; of the East the various writers on 
the subject appear to have no information. The two 
still in existence are those which furnish the title of 
this paper ; and of them the one at Maestriclit, the capital 
of Dutch Limburg, is in the opinion of experts the older 
by some four centuries. 

The Maestriclit key is kept in the rich treasury of the 
old collegiate church of S. Servais, formerly the cathedral 
of the Saint, who, in the opinion of the Bollandists, re- 
ceived the key from Pope S. Damasus. Mr. W. II. James 
Weale, appointed Keeper of the National Art Library at 
Kensington since this paper was read, in the interest- 
ing and exhaustive article which he wrote on these 
keys for Le Beffroi^ endorses this opinion ; and adds 
that most probably it was about the year 376 on the 
occasion of a pilgrimage made by the Saint to the tomb 

' Multi emin ct claves aureas ad ruser- Martyrum xxviij, Migne's edition. S. 

andos cancellos beati sepulchri faciunt Gregory the Great likewise speaks of 

qui fereutes pro benedictione priores miracles in connection with the keys 

accipiunt quibus infirmati tribulatorura containing the relic. [Epp. i, 27 , '30, '61 ; 

medeantnr. Omnia enini fides iutegra vi'], 2(3 ; and xiii, 42.] 

prsestat. S. Greg. Turon. JJe gloria ^ Vol. ij, Bruges, 1864. 


of S. Peter. The earliest reference we have to it is iu 
the acts of the translation of S. Servais, which belong 
to the end of the 9th century/ It is said in these 
acts that when the relics were translated by S. Hubert 
at the beginning of the eighth century the key was 
found in the coffin to the left of the body. The " Key 
of S. Servais/' as it is generally called, was sung of 
in the twelfth century by the Limburg poet, Henry van 
Veldeken as " the honour of the whole country ; " nor 
were its praises confined to the secular muse for they 
were found in the hymn for Lauds in the Breviary formerly 
used by the Chapter, and in two proses of the old Missal. 
It became the emblem of the Saint whose oldest image, 
belonging to the twelfth century, bears it in the left hand ; 
and it is found in the arms of the collegiate church 
dedicated in his honour. It appears, too, on money struck 
at Maestricht in the twelfth century by the Prince Bishop 
of Liege ; and on imperial money minted there at a much 
earlier date. I am indebted to Mr. Weale for the know- 
ledge of an early sixteenth century instance of such a 
representation of the Saint. It is found on the cover of 
one of the MSS. in the Six collection at Amsterdam ; of 
which there is a rubbing in the magnificent collection 
of rubbings of bookbinding made by Mr. Weale and ac- 
quired by the National Art Library.- It will be interest- 
ing in this connection to recall a fact which Mr. Bunnell 
Lewis noted in the appendix to his paper on the " Anti- 
quities of Treves and Metz," published in the Journal, and 
to which he has very kindly called my attention ; on some 
coins of Treves, to which, by the way, Maestricht was for 
a time subject, there is a hand holding two keys in allu- 
sion to S. Peter, the patron of the town, some of the letters 

^ See Aniiquites Sacres conscrvees dans tricht, ve.stedin alb cope and initrc, hold- 

les anciennes colUgiales deSS. Servais ct de iug in his left hand the key of the Con- 

Notrc Dame a Maestricht. Bock et Wil- fession of S. Peter, still j)reserved iu the 

lemseu. Maestricht, 1873. I have to cathedral of Maestricht, and in his right 

express uiy indebtedness to this work, as a pastoral staff, the point of which is 

well as to that of Monsacrati and to Mr piercing the throat of a dragon, on the 

Weale. prostrate body of which the Saint is 

* In the " Catalogue of Bindings and standing, on each side an angel ; above 

Rubbings of Bindings iu the National Art and around stars. A plain border with 

Library," by Jlr. Weale, now in the press, quatrefoils at the angles bears the legend 

it is thus described : — " Beneath a cusped [iu black letter]: Seruatius seruavit | 

arch supported by two brackets is a fuJl fidem seruauit plebem Domini 1 seruando 

length figure of S. Servatius, bibho[j of et oraudo | meruit quod credidit alleluia. 
Tongres and patron of the city of Maes- 





in the Apostle's name being arranged to form the wards 
of the keys. 

The material of this key is said by the editors of the 
Antiquites to be a mixture of gold and silver of the kind 
anciently known as electrum, but Mr. Weale says that it 
seems to be a mixture of silver and copper. The key 
was probably gilt originally, for there are remains of gild- 
ing in the parts less exposed to friction. The handle is 
oval ; divided into four compartments ; covered with orna- 
ments of foliage. It is open work, but contains no relic, 
Possibly it is one of those in which the filings were 
mixed with the metal. The barrel of the key is octagon 
in form ; the key-bit cruciform and pierced by five small 
crosses. Experts who have examined the key of S. 
Servais have no hesitation in placing it among the works 
of the fourth century. It will be sufficient to note the 
names of Dr. Bock of Aix-la-Chapelle, and Mr. Weale ; 
the last-named of whom is probably second to none in 
his knowledge of gothic art — a point of importance, for 
did the key belong to the XII or XIV century as has 
been suggested, he could hardly be deceived. As a 
matter of fact the material of which it is composed 
was not used by the artificers of the gothic period. Its 
dimensions are as follows : — Total length, about fifteen 
inches ; length of haiidle, about six inches ; breadth of 
handle, about three and a half inches ; breadth of key-bit 
nearly two inches. 

The other key is at Liege, and is generally known as the 
" Key of S. Hubert," to whom a very constant tradition 
affirms that it belonged. This saint transferred his See 
from Maestricht to Liege early in the eighth century, and 
it is certainly a curious coincidence that the oi>ly keys of 
this class now known to exist should have belonged to 
bishops of the same diocese ; and that they should now 
be preserved in the two towns, only fifteen miles apart, 
which at different times have been honoured with the 
episcopal chair, though now, indeed, they are not only in 
different dioceses but different countries. 

The key of S. Hubert was originally kept in the church 
of S. Peter in which the Saint was buried ; and very 
possibly it was removed from the coffin when his relics 
were translated early in the ninth century. It is now 


one of the treasures of the Church of the Holy Cross, 
and there can be no doubt of its authenticity in so far 
that it certainly is one of the " Keys of S. Peter." Its 
shape is very similar to that of the key of S- Servais, but 
the character of the ornamentation is very different. It 
is about fourteen and a half inches long, and the diameter 
of the handle is rather more than three inches. The 
handle only is ancient. The whole of the lower part, in- 
cluding the crucifix, cannot apparently be placed earlier 
than the second half of the twelfth century ; it is believed 
that the original of this part perished in 1183 in the fire 
which destroyed the churches of S. Lambert and S. Peter. 
The handle is divided into eight triangular spaces by four 
bands running its whole length, each band about three- 
quarters of an inch broad ; another of the same breadth 
passing round the middle. The upper four spaces show 
S. Peter holding a book, whilst in the lower four is repre- 
sented the Majestas Domini^ that is, our Lord sitting on the 
heavens holding the book of life in His left hand, whilst 
His right is raised in blessing. On the band is a tree 
between two animals. There are triangular and cruci- 
form openings through which the relic of the chain, 
about half an inch long, can be seen. The workmanship 
is inferior to that of the Maestricht key, a circumstance 
which has been explained by the low state into which art 
fell after the inroads of the barbarians, and from which it 
did not recover till long after the eighth century. 

Mr. Weale mentions in the Le Beffroi that a key is 
mentioned in the inventory, made in 1523, of the treasury 
of the Cathedral of Laon, which from the description he 
thinks may have been a key of S. Peter ; but neither 
he nor the editors of the Antiquites Sacrees could say if it 
had escaped the hands of the revolutionists. The BoUand- 
ists mention another key which for long was preserved 
in a Corsican church, though at the time of publication 
of the June volume of the Acta Sanctoimm it no longer 
existed. We have reason to be grateful to the churches 
of Liege and Maestricht for having preserved their keys 
with such jealous care ; but for them, unless indeed the 
Laon key should still be in existence, all trace of these 
interesting relics of the middle ages would have perished 
as completely as the custom of sending the keys itself. 


There is probably no district of England which is as 
rich as Gloucestershire in objects of archgeological interest, 
embracing all periods — prehistoric, Homan and mediasval. 
With all the various races who have inhabited Britain this 
part of Mercia has been a specially favourite dwelling 
place, owing partly to its fertility, its well watered valleys, 
and also to its noble ranges of hills, affording the best "of 
sites for camp-earthworks or fortresses surrounded with 
stone walls. In building materials for military and 
domestic use Gloucestershire is specially rich ; its exten- 
sive forests supplied timber in abundance ; and almost 
every hill afforded good and easily worked building- 
stone" ; the oolitic limestone, the blue lias and the so- 
called Stonesfield slate which was so valuable for roofing 

And further I may say that the archasology of no other 
district in England has been more carefully studied tlian 
that of Gloucestershire, more especially during the 30 
years that have elapsed since the former visit to this 
city of the Archaeological Institute in i860. 

It is somewhat difficult to find anj^thing new to say 
after the many valuable monographs that have been pro- 
duced by careful local antiquaries, and the various writings 
of such learned and widely famed archoeolooists as Pro- 
fessor Willis, Mr. Petit, Mr. Parker, the Eev.'C. H. Harts- 
horne, Professor Westmacott, and others, who were 
present here in 18G0, but, now, alas, are numbered with 
the heroes of the past. However, there are one or two 
able writers, who were at our last meeting here, and who 

^ Read at the Annual Meeting of the - Chalk countries, such as Cambridge- 

Institute, at Gloucester, August 13th, shire, are usually poor in old buildings. 


I am liappy to say are still among us — Professor Freeman, 
Precentor Venables, and Dr. Collingwood Bruce. 

The result of this long array of distinguished writers 
having dealt with the archaeology of Gloucestershire is 
that 1 somewhat shrink from treating to-night this well- 
worn subject with my feebler hand, and I propose to lay 
before you, as shortly as I can, the results of the many 
important explorations that have been made during recent 
j^ears, not in Gloucestershire or even England alone, but 
throughout the classical world and more especially in 
Hellenic soil. It is now becoming more and more neces- 
sary to realise that archaeology is a subject that must be 
worked at as a united whole— that is, that the Art and 
the Antiquities of no one country can fruitfully be studied 
by themselves, but must be explained and illustrated by a 
comparison with the state of artistic development in other 
countries — not necessarily at a contemporary period of 
time, but with those which were passing through a similar 
stage in their mental and artistic development. 

The extraordinary unity of the human mind wherever 
found and in whatever period — provided there is some 
similarity in their relative stage of progress — is a very strik- 
ing and important fact, and one of the widest application. 

Thus, for example, in the prehistoric tombs of Hissalik in 
the Troad, Mycenae,Tiryns and other places dating probably 
twelve or fourteen centuries B.C., we find repeated again 
and again types of ornament which have the closest 
resemblance to those of the Celtic races a little before the 
Eoman conquest of Britain, and even later. 

Again, the close relation between the art of classical 
people and that of the early inhabitants of Britain has 
been established in a very startling and brilliant way by 
Mr. Arthur Evans, who has been the first to point out fully 
the fact that in the early Celtic burials of Britain, during 
the second and first centuries B.C., we find actual 
objects, bronzes and the like, of classical workman- 
ship — the result of the long packhorse and river line of 
trade that passed through Gaul and connected Britain 
with the Graeco-Italic art of Northern Italy. The result of 
this is, not only that we find in early Celtic graves actual 
objects of Italian workmanship, but also that the native 
Celtic potters were largely influenced in the forms of their 


vases by having before them as models the bronze vessels 
from beyond the Alps, This explains the curious ribbed 
shape of much of this early Celtic pottery, imitating the 
banded or corrugated forms by which the classical metal- 
workers strengthened the thin bronze of their vessels/ 

So, again, such interesting Eoman remains as those at 
Lydney and Bath are illustrated by the recent explorations 
of the sacred temeni of Asklepios in Athens and at Epi- 
dauros in the N.E. of the Peloponnese. 

At Lydney we have the sacred spring and the sanctuary 
of a Eomano-British deity called JSlodens or Nucleus — 
possibly a local form of the Eoman Aesculapius, who 
again was a modified form of the early Greek Asklepius, 
a deity of Chthonian character, in his original form. 

The Asklepieia of the Greeks, we find, included within 
the sacred temple inclosure rows of bed rooms for the 
patients who came for the " water cure," covered stoae^ or 
porticus for exercise in bad weather, hot and cold Baths, 
and the " Pump-room " where the patients drank of the 
healing spring. 

At Epidauros all this is on a magnificent scale, with 
buildings of great beauty, including places of amusement, 
such as a theatre and a large stadium ; and lastly the 
Tholos or pump room, designed by the younger Polycletus 
c. 370 B.C., a circular building all of brilliant Parian 
marble, with external range of Doric columns and an 
internal ring, inside the round cella, of the Corinthian 
order — the earliest example of this style which is known 
to exist. 

In the centre of the Tholos hall, with its splendid 
inlaid pavement of coloured marbles, is the sacred well, 
with a mysterious subterranean crypt for closer access to 
the wonder-working waters. 

At Athens, owing to want of space at the foot of the 
Acropolis rock, the temenos buildings were less magnificent 
than at Epidauros. The sacred spring {Kpnw), which even 
now issues pure and cold out of the rock, is not sheltered 
by a marble building, but is within a more primitive rocky 

^ Compare the recently discovered pre- bosses pressed into the soft clay of the 

historic pottery from the early graves of pottery before it was fired. See Mr. A. 

the Etruscan Falerii, north of Mount J. Evans' paper on this interesting subject 

Soracte, with actual bronze studs or in Arcliaologia, vol. 52, 1890. 



cave — partly natural and partly formed by quarrying 
into the form of a round dome-roofed chamber. By it 
is the stoa for the weaker patients to walk or sit, and 
next to that is a row of small rooms, probably for the 
accommodation of those who wished to sleep within the 
sacred temenus itself, thus giving the god an opportunity 
of suggesting in a dream the right method of cure. 

At Lydney we find a very similar arrangement ; and the 
evidence afforded by the Asklepieia of the Greeks makes 
it more than probable that the curious many- roomed 
building of cloistered form, near the temple of Nodens, 
was intended as a sort of sacred hotel for the patients' use, 
not, as had formerly been supposed, simply as dwellings 
for the priests. 

In the same way we find that a study of the later Eoman 
style of building and details goes far to illustrate and 
explain the early types of the Architecture of the Normans. 

In Spoonley Villa, which we shall, I hope, visit this week, 
and in other Eoman houses of Gloucestershire we see in 
the mouldings of capitals and bases the proto-types of 
many of the most characteristic mouldings of the Norman 
and even of the early English style. 

At Deerhurst we see in the shapes of the Saxon caps, 
fluted pilasters, and arch-imposts copies in stone of the 
later brick-forms of the Komans. 

And in the nave and crypt of Gloucester Cathedral we 
see with the utmost clearness how the Norman builders of 
the eleventh century copied and modified the charac- 
teristic Tuscan or Komano-Doric of the later Empire — 
the abacus of square section and the round echinus of the 
Doric capital are here adopted with but little change. 

The truth is that at the time of the Norman conquest 
many a stately Roman building, of which no trace now 
exists, must have still been standing in Britain and in 
Gaul, and it would have been strange if such noble and 
effective builders as the Normans had not appreciated and 
utilised the grand designs of the Eomans of the past. 

Another striking example of similarity in the buildings 
of two different races, at two far distant periods, but who, 
nevertheless, were in many respects in the same stage of 
development, is to be noticed in the palaces of the 
hero-kings of Mycenae and Tiryns and the halls of the 
Teutonic or Scandinavian chiefs. 


Of the latter existing examples are unknown in Britain, 
but remains of houses found in Norway and other Scan- 
dinavian countries give us a clear notion of what was the 
type of dwelling used by the chieftains of Saxon or 
Scandinavian race in England. In both cases — in the 
prehistoric Greek palace and that of the English Thane — 
the dwelling consisted of one large hall, with its central 
fire-hearth, and, in front, a projecting portico carried on 
wooden columns. 

Behind the hall were one or two smaller and more 
private rooms for the use of the women ; in the primitive 
English house that was all. In the Greek palace the 
more private apartments were of greater extent and 
importance. The main hall, however (the fxkyapov of the 
Homeric heroes) was closely similar in both cases, and in 
it the chieftain sat and feasted in the company of his 
friends and retainers ; while at night time the hall formed 
a sort of common dormitory where the men slept side by 
side, each rolled up in his cloak, making a bed of the 
rushes which strewed the floor, which in the Greek palace 
was made of cement, and of simple beaten clay in the 
Teutonic hall. 

I must not fail to make some mention of the many most 
important discoveries of the last few years on the 
Acropolis of Athens, which have in many ways gone far 
to modify all previously existing views on the develop- 
ment of Greek art, especially architecture and sculpture. 

At the sack of Athens by the Persian invaders in 480 
B.C., the buildings, statues and other monuments of the 
city were burnt and shattered by the invading army — 
including the most sacred of all Athenian shrines, that of 
Athene Polias on the Acropolis. After the glorious and 
decisive defeat of the army of Xerxes at Plataea in the 
following year (479 B.C.), and the subsequent destruction 
of the surviving Persian army, the Athenians, with great 
energy, set to work to rebuild the public monuments of 
their city on a much more magnificent scale than before. ^ 
One of the principal public works undertaken at this time 
was, not merely the rebuilding in Pentelic marble of the 
Acropolis and other temples, but also the extensive 

^ The great developmeut of the silver funds — first for the Athenian Navy, and 
mines at Lauriiim supplied the necessary then for the public buildings and statues 


enlargement of the level plateau at the top of the Acropolis 
rock by surroundmg it with a more extensive circuit wall, 
set lower down the rocky slope, and by filling with " made 
earth" the large expanse of additional enclosure. At 
some places the mass of made earth is from forty to fifty 
feet deep, and so an enormous amount of material was 
needed for this extension of the plateau. For this purpose 
the Athenian used the broken fragments of the stone 
buildings which had been ruined by the Persians and also 
a very large number of marble statues — more or less 
broken during the sack of the city : and great quantities 
of other debris, broken pottery and the like. 

Within the last few years this enormous mass of material, 
all buried below the finished ground level of the time of 
Kimon, has been thoroughly examined, and a large Museum 
formed to contain the sculpture and architectural frag- 
ments which were found. One of the reasons of the very 
great value of this discovery is the known date of the 
damage that was done to the various buildings and statues. 

Owing to their position, we know that they must date 
from before the year 480 B.C.; in many cases they are 
considerably earlier — but in one direction, at least, we 
have a fixed date. Among the sculpture are nearly 20 
life sized or colossal statues in white marble, all of which 
must have been executed not lonof before the sack of 
Athens. They all represent female figures, either a 
priestess or a deity : the motive is very similar in them 
all. The long chiton poderes is held up by one hand, and 
the other hand outstretched held a flower or some other 
object. All were richly decorated with gold and colour ; 
apparently applied by the wax process (encaustic). 

The hair is always red, such red as Titian loved to 
paint ; the flesh seems to have been left uncoloured, but 
received a delicate polish : and the whole of the drapery 
was coloured, and had elaborate borders of flower patterns. 
The eyes were usually inlaid in enamel or crystal. 

All these statues are remarkable for their great dignity 
of pose, and simple, nobly designed drapery. 

The modelUufy of the faces, though having some archaic 
stifihess, is very soft and often beautiful in expression, 
with a spiritual beauty that reminds one of the best wok 
of Florence in the 15th century. A very important lesson 


to be learned from these statues is that the glorious period 
of Greek Art under Myron, Polycletus and Pheidias, -was 
not a sudden outburst of inspiration, but was led up to 
slowly and gradually by the labours of the preceding 
generations of Attic sculptors — as indeed might have been 
expected from the analogy of the art development of 
other countries and other periods. 

In addition to these marble statues there were found 
among the Acropolis debris a number of much earlier 
pieces of sculpture, worked in the fine local yellow lime- 
stone (poros) ; and all covered with painting of the most 
startlingly gaudy colours. Some of these, which are of 
colossal size, appear to have been the pediment sculpture 
from some early temple, as, for example, a group of 
Herakles strangling a strange monster — half man and half 
serpent which represents the sea-god Triton. 

Another appears to have been a group of Zeus slaying 
the earth-born Typhon, the latter of whom is represented 
as a monster witli three winged human bodies and a serpent 
termination. In these the flesh is brilliant crimson and the 
hair a still more brilliant ultramarine blue. 

Some of the later, but still very early, limestone statues 
have the borders of their drapery deeply incised with 
floral patterns, and the sinking filled in flush with cements 
of different bright colours — red, blue and yellow — very 
rich and decorative. 

All this coloured decoration applied to sculpture by the 
Greeks is curiously similar both in style and technique to 
the colour which the artists of mediaeval England applied 
to their carvings in stone and alabaster^ 

No finer example of its kind exists anywhere than the 
splendid reredos of the Lady Chapel of Gloucester 
Cathedral, which even in its sadly mutilated state ought 
to be protected from all injury, and more especially 
from " Eestoration," as an object of priceless value. 

There is the same fearless use of bright, pure colours, 
the same minute delicacy of painted pattern covering every 
detail, and above all the same richness and beauty of 
texture given by the use of slight, but distinct relief to all 
the brilliantly coloured designs. 

With gold this is specially necessary — gilding applied 
to an unbroken flat surface looks at once poor and gaudy. 


and both the Greek and the mediasval artists invariably 
applied their gold leaf to surfaces which were slightly 
broken up by relief-work in gesso or other material. 

This, by giving a varied play of light and shade, 
immensely enhanced the decorative value of the gold, and 
at the same time gave it a look of body and solidity. 

Any attempt to restore the reredos in the Cathedral 
Lady Chapel would be a most disastrous failure, and would 
inevitably cause the destruction of one of the richest 
examples of medieval coloured decoration that is still left 
to us. 



Perhaps as coming from Oxford, it might be agreeable 
if I were to say something about the contributions which 
Oxford is making to history on its archasological side. 
These are much too numerous to be mentioned in detail, 
but there are at present, besides many indirect ways, no 
less than three distinct methods by which this work is 
being done at Oxford in a direct form and in a public 
way. Taking them in priority of formation these are the 
" Oxford Architectural and Historical Society," much 
more archaeological than anything else ; the new " Oxford 
Historical Society," and the leadership of Mediaeval 
Palaeography. It would be too much to say that, under 
these methods, and, indirectly, by the rapid growth of the 
School of Modern History, with its apparatus of Professors, 
Eeaders, Tutors, and multitudes of Lectures, Oxford is 
becoming the centre of archaeological study ; — for London, 
Cambridge, and perhaps other places, have equal or 
superior claims of their own ; but its progress in the 
educational direction of such studies may be at least a 
new subject of interest to some of your members, though 
no doubt familiar enough to many. 

The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, 
though the oldest, requires less notice than the younger 
institutions. It was called originally the " Society for 
promoting the study of Gothic Architecture," which was 
founded some half a century ago. Between the dillerent 
stages of its progress the late Mr. J. H. Parker, formed 
perhaps the most continuous link. He may fairly be 
considered one of the chief founders of that science of 
Architectural History which has become nowadays so 

^ Read in the] Antiquarian Section at at Gloucester, August 12th, 1890. 
the Annual Meeting of the Institute, 


widely spread. We can hardly bring ourselves to believe 
that what is now the property of thousands, the common 
inheritance of educated men, was then confined to a few 
so-called enthusiasts, such as the men who established this 
and the Cambridge Camden Society. The Oxford Society 
has been chiefly educational and local. It has indeed in- 
cluded in its annual volumes of " Proceedings " not a few 
valuable papers ; but its main work, its characteristic work, 
has been and still is, to arrange each term excursions in 
Oxford and its neighbourhood for successive crenerations of 
under-graduates,who cannot fail to learn under the masterly 
guidance of men like Mr. James Parker, the Treasurer, 
the rudiments of archaeology as taught from examples on 
the spot. The clergy of the diocese have learnt not a 
little by these visits to their churches, and a public 
opinion has been formed which now effectually forbids 
within this area the barbarisms which have been deplored 
in too many " restorations." The undergraduates do not, 
however, form the majority of the excursionists or attend- 
ants at meetings, which is made up of ladies and citizens, 
and which thus aids to popularize this species of know- 
ledge. Nor should it be forgotten that the Society has of 
late years found a welcome home in the renovated and 
beautified apartments of the Ashmolean Museum, crowded 
with noble antiquities, the study of which is itself an 
education. This it owes to the zeal and goodwill of Mr. 
Arthur Evans, the distinguished son of a distinguished 

The new " Oxford Historical Society " is probably better 
known to your members, some of whom are no doubt 
amongst its subscribers. It was only founded in 1884, 
but it has already done a great work under the skilful 
management of the secretaries, the chief of whom is Mr. 
F. Madan, Sub-librarian of the Bodleian Library. Its 
object is purely literary, and it is confined to the eluci- 
dation of Oxford history, the history both of the City 
and of the University, but of course vastly the most in 
connection with the latter. A palpable movement in 
this direction was in the act of taking place when, strangely 
enough, life and form were given to it by the death of 
Mr. J. E. Green, the historian, and by the publication of 
a paper of his which proved a sort of literary legacy. 


In this paper he recommended the institution of a Society 
for the purpose of collecting into one body all the documen- 
tary knowledge which modern research is now brin_Lnng to 
light, and so preparing the way for a history of the Univer- 
sity and City of Oxford, worthy of our advanced age. In 
answer to this call a council was formed, and a subscription 
list was opened. Already some eighteen goodly volumes 
have been the result. Priceless MSS. of Anthony Wood, 
and of Thomas Hearne have been excellently edited for 
the first time ; some College histories have been written, 
and others are in progress ; the history of the Oxford 
Market, a truly venerable history, has just come out ; and 
the antiquity of the University has been effectively dis- 
cussed. The Eegisters of the University have been printed 
and noted by competent hands, and the lists of books 
current ii the infancy of the Renaissance, have been 
unearthed from the secret hiding-places where they had 
been lying for nearly four centuries. One of these has been 
exposed to the light, and has undergone the searching 
identification of experts. The latest and not the least 
interesting of these discoveries has been the list of books 
belonging to the " Father of English Learning," William 
Groeyn. It was found last year amongst the archives 
of Merton College ; and it is hoped that the light which 
this discovery has thrown upon the career of the man 
may have the effect of drawing attention to his extra- 
ordinary claim on our respect and admiration, too long 
neglected, and indeed forgotten ; — for I need not say that 
the history of the English Renaissance has yet to be written. 
It is, perhaps, only one out of many such revivals of lost 
literature still in store for us. Talk of the discovery of an 
arrow-head, of an antique statue, of an Egyptian mummy ! 
What are these discoveries of dead things to the rehabilita- 
tion of a great name, the name of one from whom, unknown 
to ourselvesandunsuspected,wehavereceived an intellectual 
inheritance, and whom we can bid to walk the earth once 
more ? It is a sort of resurrection. Let us hope that the 
day is not far distant when the preliminaries will be con- 
cluded, when the materials for Oxford history will be 
gathered in, when we shall have found out all that can be 
found concerning those who have made the history oi 
Oxford, and when, finally, the writer shall come to the 



front who can nse the style of Hume and Robertson, a style 
too long lost in the hurry and profusion of a widely, but 
not deeply, educated age. 

Both of these institutions above described have local 
aims; the third, to which I now call your attention, has 
a general object. Only last year the University re- 
solved to take steps towards the cultivation of a know- 
ledge of mediaeval orthography, or to use the larger term 
which has been officially selected, " palaeography." It 
was induced to do so by the conviction that a very large 
part of our ignorance of mediseval history and archaeology 
arose from the simple circumstance that only a few people 
possessed the power of reading a mediaeval manuscript. 
Still further, it was represented that many intelligent and 
zealous people were not aware of the simple fact that they 
must master this alphabet, this key, this " open sesame " 
of medieval literature, before they could grapple with the 
contents of the casket. They often ventured to make the 
attempt, if chance or inclination led that way, with a 
light heart ; but the difficulties soon discouraged them ; 
they were often misled and fell into many a trap, or at 
best made but slow progress, and lost many an oppor- 
tunity which could never come again. We all know, 
indeed, that sundry books have been written by experts 
which profess to teach the art of reading mediteval MSS., 
and they are. indeed, much better than nothing ; but then 
their real use is to most people rather as books of reference 
than as primary instructors. All this having been 
pointed out by those who had gone through the long and 
painful processes of self-instruction — none the worse in 
such cases for being long and painful — the University has 
established a Eeadership for this express purpose, and has 
fortunately found exactly the right man for the place in 
Mr. Falconer Madan, already mentioned for his services 
to the " Oxford Historical Society." He has formed a 
considerable class of students who pursue with him a 
regular course of study, tracing the changes of ortho- 
graphy from one age to the other by the help of the vast 
stores accumulated in the Bodleian Library, thus laying 
a solid foundation on which students can afterwards build 
for themselves. 

I look on this as a very much greater step in the 


progress of archseology than would appear at first sight ; 
and strongly suspect that mediaeval palaeography will 
before long find a place as a special subject in our Modern 
History Examinations,which is the only method of bringing 
anything to the front in our Oxford system. I am happy 
to say that this study is finding favour with the ladies at 
Oxford, as well as with graduates and a sprinkling of 
undergraduates. When the men find out that the ladies 
can decypher a mutilated inscription on a brass, or emerge 
triumphantly out of the difiiculties presented by the 
crabbed hand of an Elizabethan parson in a parish 
register, depend upon it the men will follow. When an 
army of experts of both sexes is engaged in opening out 
the treasures which are still to be found all over England ; 
when our own people discover half the zeal in these 
pursuits which distinguishes our American kinsmen — the 
history of England will become a very different thing 
from what it is now. 

And this brings me to the conclusion of my paper. I 
have spoken of the direct ways in which Oxford contributes 
nowadays to the progress of archteology, both specially 
as regards Oxford and its neighbourhood, and generally 
as a teacher of the archeeological alphabet of English 
literature. And I may add by the way that as nobody 
can make use of this key, when he has found it, without 
some practical knowledge both of Latin and French, the 
study of mediasval orthography has the advantage of 
encouraging a liberal education, Latin and French open 
out many more things than archasology ; but people are 
sometimes found to complain that they do not see what 
good their youthful labours to acquire these languages 
have done them. If such labours enable them to make 
ever so small a contribution to English History that 
question is answered ; and I need hardly tell the members 
of this Institute that the progress of archaeology, in the 
largest sense of that word, is placing us under the serious 
obligation of re-writing the History of England, and its 
medigeval portion in particular. 

To those who have not been personally concerned in 
the teaching of English History to grown-up people for 
many years, it will appear almost incredible that such a 
phrase should be applicable at the present day, when so 


many first-rate men have written works wliicli command 
respect and even admiration. But if we fully consider, 
not only how the historians of past times copied from one 
another without independent research, but still more, 
how the original facts have been distorted and coloured 
by the channels through which they have come down 
to us, we shall at least perceive that a great deal 
has to be done before we can get at the truth. We 
must gratefully admit that a great deal has been done, 
but we are quite mistaken if we fancy that any one 
generation of men can claim to say that they were " born 
to set it right." To recover the whole truth is a slow 
process ; but there is movement. Specialization, division 
of labour, multiplication of Societies, and international 
rivalry in literature, are working many changes. 

It was thought for example a great feat not long ago 
to make a fresh and careful study of the monastic annalists 
who were so scornfully treated by the writers of the last 
century ; but the original documents which tell us the 
very facts, independently of the monastic colouring, have 
only recently been brought to light ; nor were the numerous 
side-lights thrown by contemporary writers observed as they 
have been since by several authors. The first fruits of the 
new harvest are being reaped and stored by some of the 
writers of the numerous little books forming the various 
historical series which have become the fashion, and by 
some of the compilers of the small histories for schools ; 
and I think I may also claim for the University Schools of 
Modern History, both of Oxford and Cambridge, that they 
are gradually concentrating into a focus the various rays 
of light which are forcing their way through the darkness. 
Before long, as I said aljout the history of Oxford, the 
man will arise to whom public opinion will willingly 
delegate the task of putting the history of England, from 
beginning to end, into a proper shape — fair and honest, 
bright and readable shape, for the next generation. 

But much of the coming man's material is yet to be 
discovered. The Historical MSS. Commission has not by 
any means completed its valuable labours. The trifling 
amount of money annually placed at the disposal of 
the Becord Office is forcing an able and energetic body 
of ollicials to be deplorably slow in the publication of its 


invaluable deposits. If I may mention one of its most 
important treasures, in which I am particularly interested, 
the Gascon Kolls — a mass of documents which when 
published, will, I believe, cause a marked difierence in the 
treatment of English history — has been hitherto left to the 
energy of the French, with scarcely any aid from England; 
and only in the current year do the difficulties attending a 
joint enterprise of this sort, such as is now contemplated, 
show decided signs of a solution. The truth is that while no 
country possesses richer stores of documentary literature, 
few spend less money upon making use of them. Buried 
in the recesses of the Eecord Office, they are almost 
useless. Few countries have made such efforts in the 
cause of national education, but they have not been 
accompanied* with the proper corollar}^ a generous 
expenditure on the means of providing the teachers of the 
schoolmasters and mistresses with the materials which 
would raise the standard of historical education to its 
proper height. Some fifty years ago Sir Thomas DufTus 
Hardy and his friends did, as we all know, persuade the 
Government of the day into the exercise of a wise and 
noble liberality in these matters ; and the great collections 
they produced during a very few years (the Inqiiisitiones 
post mortem and the rest) have been the foundation of 
every archaeological effort of an historical kind which has 
been made since. But how distressing is it to remember 
that the Government became so terrified at the expense of 
these publications that they were summaril}^ and almost 
immediately stopped ! There they stand on our shelves, 
like some time-worn monument of a former age, the 
evidence of a generation of giants who lightly threw a 
rock which it would require more " than ten strong men 
of this degenerate age '' even to lift. I am glad to be 
able to announce that there are signs of a more liberal 
treatment of this subject on the part of the Government, 
and certainly in the one case of the Gascon Rolls ; but if 
it is to display itself generally, depend upon it the call 
must come from such Societies as tliis, and from a change 
in public opinion which will have to be created by your 

These are the considerations which seem to me to 
deserve a place at an archseological meeting, believing, as I 


do, that your Society does not profess to rest satisfied wiili 
excursions and with mere interchange of opinion, but that it 
has for its object thesoKd growth and progress of its subject. 
Nothing short of this could justify the existence and position 
of such a Society. At least so it seems to one who has no 
claim to any previous connection with it, and who owes 
the privilege of being allowed to address you on this 
occasion to the circumstance that your Council did him 
the honour to ask him to become one of your Vice- 

It has come to be a common formula, when a discussion 
is barren of practical results, to call it " academical." 
Let me hope that I have left upon my hearers the 
impression that the relation of Oxford to archaeology is 
not only truly academical, but eminently practical. 


I have the pleasure of thankmg the Institute for the 
great honour they have done me in accepting my services 
as their president for this meeting, and in so doing con- 
ferring a distinction not only on the humble individual 
who addresses you, but also indirectly on the Archaso- 
logical Society, of which I am a past president ; a great 
distinction in itself, and to which no doubt I owe the 
suffrages which have placed me in this chair. 

My own Society, the Gloucestershire Society, has now 
left fourteen years of useful life behind it, duly recorded 
in its annual volume, and in those pages, and in the pages 
of the still older Society, the Cotswold Naturalists, who 
occasionally threw a little dash of romance into their 
more prosaic pursuits, by diving into the history of the 
works of man, instead of into the construction of the 
rocks, those who are strangers to Gloucestershire, to 
whom we heartily bid welcome, may read a very large 
amount of our Grloucestershire archaeological lore. 

I hope those present will criticise our productions, will 
bring to our assistance their wider and perhaps more 
trained experience, whilst we, the avToxOovr]g, if I may so 
call ourselves, point out to what the attention of our 
visitors in this country had best be directed, and when 
they, after the long journeys they contemplate making, 
are wearied with following our lead, that they will draw 
us aside from local lore to the world-wide fields which 
Archaeology seeks to till. 

What is the Archaeology that my present audience 
is seeking for ? Is it ecclesiastical architecture of 
any period ? We have it of all periods from the 
rude and early Saxon at Deerhurst to tlie most 

1 Delivered August 12th, 1890. 


modern and successful church at Highnam, and in the 
Cathedral close by, we see how each generation of men 
has appropriated the materials, and adapted the forms of 
preceding generations to what they themselves desired, 
and which desires they doubtless described at the time, 
and fully believed to be, the highest and most successful 
efforts of good taste. 

The small low church, perhaps the present crypt, 
the kernel of the Abbey, built on the vacant grounds 
just within the city bounds, gradually extends itself 
westward, and, wanting room, crosses over and appro- 
priates the Roman walls, and rears its lofty columns 
with the stones cut by the Roman masons eight 
hundred years before. Massive solidity is the dominant 
style, which gradually passes onwards into lighter forms, 
until, at last, the Church becoming the last resting-place 
of a murdered king, wealth beyond count is poured into 
the Cathedral treasury by countless pilgrims to the shrine, 
and the, to the then taste, too solid walls and columns 
are shaved down to fit the network of exuberant tracery 
which was thrown over them as a veil, and the lofty tower 
sprung to the sky crowned by such battlements and pin- 
nacles as are scarcely to be seen elsewhere. I will not 
attempt to give an architectural history of the Abbey 
Church. . That is, or should be, a subject for itself, and 
with these few words I leave this splendid monument of 
the past to the leisured criticism of the society. 

Is it the history of our land as shown by its houses, by its 
castles, by its forts ? We have a rich mine for you to draw 
upon. Nowhere in England that I know of is there such an 
abundance of small houses, such as the freeholders and 
gentry of the Jacobean, Elizabethan. Tudor, and earlier 
times lived in, strong in the excellent stone with which 
they were both built and roofed, picturesque in their out- 
lines and perfectly adaptable to modern use. Prinknash, 
The Court House, Painswick, Moor Hall, Througham, 
Upper Slaughter, Catswood, Middle Lypiatt, Chavenage, 
Owlpen, and, I may add, my own house are well-known 

In this city very numerous half-timbered houses 
will attract your attention, amongst which not the 
least remarkable is the New Inn, still the New Inn,] al- 


though built in 1450. A parchment roll belonging to the 
Corporation of Gloucester, enumerating the houses in the 
town in 1455, states that in Northgate Street, next to 
the house owned by Sibilla Hariet, and occupied by 
Matilda Perkin, butcher, "The Abbot of St. Peter of 
Gloucester holds in fee a great and new inn called the 
New Inn, lately built from the foundations by the praise- 
worthy man John Twinning, monk of the same place, for 
the great emolument and profit of the same and of their 
successors." This house is nearly of the date when 
Chaucer describes his party setting out from the old 
Tabard, and when the members of this society visit it, 
as no doubt they will, the old welcome might not come 
amiss : — 

Now lordlings truly 
Ye be to me welcome right heartily ; 
For by my troth, if that I shall not lie, 
I saw not this yeare such a compagny 
At once in this hostelrie as is now. 
Fain would I do you mirth, an I knew how. 

And then the landlord throws out the suggestion to this 
party about to set out on a pilgrimage, just as we are 
going to begin a pilgrimage to morrow round Gloucester- 
shire : — 

" This is the point to speke it plat and plain, 

That each of you to shorten with your ways 

In thisen voyage shall tallen tales twa. 

And which of you shall bear him best of alle 

Shall have a supper at your aller cost 

Here, in this place sitting by this post." 

A wonderful survival of the past. Even the post is 
there. No change in name, no change in use, the only 
change, the change inevitable to all and incessantly going 
on is the constant change and renewal of the individuals 
by whom the business of life is carried on. You will notice 
the picturesque court with open galleries running round. 
The doors opening into the bedchambers lead directly 
from these galleries. Each guest may be said to have his 
own front door, and twining creepers would almost lead 
one to believe that sunnier climes than ours favoured the 
sojourners beneath its roofs. 

Were such inns modelled on a foreign form or were 
our ancestors a hardier race ? It is probable that 
this New Inn was in its architecture no exception 



to the general form, for in an old drawing of Hogarth's 
I have seen the same galleries represented sur- 
rounding the courtyard of the formerly well-known 
Earn Inn, at Cirencester, once one of the great posting- 
houses of the county, but now passed away ; long ago, 
however, remodelled from the aspect which Hogarth has 
preserved to us into a more prosaic form. Perhaps some 
enquiry might show us in other places some few lingering 
types of this New and yet old English Inn. 

I have alluded to a parchment roll, and given 
from it the names of the adjacent occupiers to this 
Inn, in 1455, and it may be worth while to direct 
further attention to this most curious document, which 
has been permitted to be published by the Corpora- 
tion of Gloucester, and has just been issued to the 

It professes to be a Rental of all the houses in Gloucester, 
compiled by Kobert Cole, a Canon of Llanthony, who 
described himself as a " Eenter " of Gloucester. What 
this means is not quite clear ; whatever he was, here is 
preserved to us the names of the occupants and owners of 
each house in each street in Gloucester, in regular order, 
like a modern street list, starting from the cross and going 
sometimes down one side and back the other, and some- 
times taking the two sides in parallel columns, the houses 
facing as it were one another. 

By this we learn that where our County Shirehall 
now stands Thomas Butler holds the next tenement 
with appurtenances towards the Bothal {sic), where 
John Furber and William Granger dwell, which Hugh, of 
King's Hall, held in the reign of Henry III., Edward the 
Taverner, in the time of Edward T., and Edward Taverner, 
jun,, in the time of Edward II. And he renders for 
land gavel 4s. 6jd. Also that the community of Glou- 
cester hold a tenement called the Bothalle (sic) or the 
Gildhall for holding the pleas of our Lord the King ; and 
there is an inn which Philip Fleet, draper, holds there by 
deed, for which tenement called the Bothalle they rendered 
in the times of Henry III. and Edward I. Sl^d. There 
is an inn there now. The pleas of the Crown were held 
in the Booth Hall down to 1828, when the present Shire- 
hall was built, and this ancient place of public meeting 


remains a large public-room attached to the inn, which 
still remains as a licensed house. 

I began by attempting to indicate what of interest you 
might find in this county, and I must not linger longer 
within the walls of this fair city. The hills which surround 
it and look down upon it are full of history, the history of 
races which in succession have been dominant in this 
district. This history must be dug for, sought for with 
intelligence and perseverance. But given this care and 
intelligence we may, by some exercise of our imagination, 
fill up the gaps and realise in some manner that history 
to which too often we only give names and dates and 
nothing more. 

The earliest condition of the county that we can realise 
is an upland district, not too heavily timbered to be habit- 
able, but sufficiently so to provide firing and shelter, and 
having a soil suited for pasturage, and over which it was 
always possible to travel in those roadless days. 

Consequently we find over the Cotswolds abundant traces 
of the ancient races. The long-headed and the round- 
headed men have studded our hills with their tombs, pitted 
the surface with their hut dwellings, strewn the ground with 
their flint implements, and perhaps crowned the crests with 
their forts. None of these traces are found in the vale. 
Why ? The space between the hills and the Severn was soft 
land, impassable without well-made roads, cut up by streams 
descending from the hills, which, dammed up and blocked 
by fallen timber, formed wide morasses, and rendered the 
whole vale country unfit for habitation. Along the edge 
of the Severn some fishermen probably found a livelihood, 
and Glevum, the predecessor of Gloucester, lying in 
flat ground below the hillock on which Gloucester now 
stands, was probably mainly a fishing village, possessing 
also the advantage of the first easy ferry over Severn. 
How unsuited it was for permament occupation is, I think, 
proved by its disappearance and the removal of the city 
to another site. The Eomans, however, found it of 
sufficient importance to make it the point of direction for 
their great road from Cirencester, which, descending from 
the hills, may be seen running straight as an arrow for 
some six miles to apparently no place at all, and then, 
turning at a right angle for about half a mile, reaches the 


modern city — the little mound of rising ground which the 
Romans took for their camp, outside of which Glevum 
was situated, about the district now called Kingsholm, on 
the north of the present Gloucester. 

The camp of Glevum absorbed the old town and became 
the outpost of the Eoman line, supported by the chain of 
posts on almost every headland of theCotswolds which looks 
down upon it. Cirencester was the headquarter station, and 
there and in the surrounding country Eoman civilisation 
safely developed itself, and later on when the Eoman posts 
were advanced to Caerleon, Chepstow, and the Wye, Glou- 
cester itself became the headquarter military station and 
Cirencester the more purely civil town. 

It is difficult for us now, separated by so many centuries 
from that period, and perhaps still more divided from it by 
the sweeping devastation caused by the invasion of the 
West Saxons in a.d. 577, in which Bath and probably Ciren- 
cester also disappeared for a time as inhabited towns, to 
realise the height of civilisation which this country had 
reached then. If we put aside the advantages we now have 
resulting from the modern use of steam and electricity, 
there is nothing we enjoy which the inhabitants of that 
period did not possess. Towns splendidly built, houses 
richly adorned, country society as plentiful as now; the 
mansions of the rich at least as large as the largest which 
now exists ; good roads linking all-parts of the country 
together — such indications as- these cannot fail to lead us 
to believe that a condition of society must have prevailed 
for some two hundred years, and perhaps for more, at 
least as active and cultivated as that which now exists. 
The amphitheatre at Cirencester, the ranges of stables at 
Cliedworth. the vast area of the great hall at Woodches- 
ter, the charming situations selected for such villas as 
Witcomb and many others must force upon our attention 
the fact that centuries ago, when we were Eoman, we 
lived and consorted together in much the same sort of 
way that we do now, and perhaps we had even a greater 
idea of our importance in the body politic than we have 
now, and not without some reason, considering the leading 
importance of such towns as Bath, Cirencester, and 
Gloucester at that time. 

A few years ago I was able to bring to the notice 


of our county society a singular proof of the deso- 
lation caused by the Saxon invasion in the shape of 
a charter of ^thelbald's, a.d. 740, granting to the 
monks of Worcester the ground about Woodchester, 
describing it as a forest, and giving boundaries which can 
at least in part be identified. These boundaries include 
the site of the Woodchester Villa, which at that time, 170 
years after the battle of Dyrliam, had ceased apparently 
to be known, and had been absorbed in the natural growth 
of forest. We can hardly imagine now such a disappear- 
ance of one of our largest country mansions, except by 
intentional demolition, which certainly was not the end of 
the Eoman houses, for the relics found, the pavements, 
the furniture, the money, forbid the forming of any other 
idea than that of sudden disaster, and the removal and 
destruction of the population to whom they belonged. 
Twenty-four Roman villas have been described with more 
or less particularity as existing in Gloucestershire, 
exclusive of such houses as have been found in the towns 
of Cirencester and Gloucester, where remains are 
numerous. How many more there may be buried beneath 
the ground waiting the lucky chance, as at Ched worth, 
of a lost ferret, and the consequent digging for him by his 
owner, the rabbiter, for its discovery, who can tell? 
One hundred and twelve camps, not all however Eoman, 
nineteen disthict main roads, make up a goodly cata- 
logue of relics of a past civilization. 

Why do I mention these things ? Not for the purpose 
of merely making a catalogue, but for the purpose 
of enabling such of my audience as have not considered 
the matter before, to realise that in gazing at any one of 
these relics of the past we are not dealing with an isolated 
curiosity but with a whole class, which remains to us as 
evidence that, in the making of Britain, it has not been 
all growth, but that there have been ebbs and flows in 
our progress. 

The civilization of the Koman period was far superior, 
if we may trust the evidences we possess, to that 
which we have enjoyed at any subsequent period 
down to Elizabethan times. It was Eoman in name and 
in style, but it was the civilization which they implanted 
in the people amongst whom the Eomaus came as a 


dominant race. I do not believe that the soft inhabitant 
of Italian climes built or inhabited as his own the 
numerous houses that we find. The example was set no 
doubt by the chief officers of the armies that came here. 
The British provincial, in the long years between Julius 
Caesar (55 B.C.), and the withdrawal of the Romans, a 
space of four hundred years, as long a time as now separ- 
ates us from the reign of Henry VII., had become himself 
educated in all that knowledge and refinement which 
Eome could give him. The whole population had absorl^ed 
the same ideas, and the houses which we see, and the 
relics which we find are the houses and relics of our 
British predecessors in a long-past Elizabethan or even 
Georgian age. 

Their literature, which they must have possessed, 
has been blotted out by the four hundred or even 
eight hundred years of comparative barbarism which 
followed, and so we know nothing of their ways and 
manners, and we are only too prone to imagine that 
this civilization was the civilization of an alien people 
instead of that of our own race. 

One record alone we have, besides the brief notice in 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, of how this civilization was 
wiped out. It is the ode of Llywarch Hen, called the 
Death Song of Kendelann, one of the three kings who 
perished at the battle of Dyrham. It is published in the 
Bardes Bretons of the Vicomte de la Villemarque, and 
from the fragments I have seen is very spirited. The 
verses describe how the army of the Franks had trium- 
phed, and departs to carry elsewhere desolation and 

Y dref wen yn y dyfrynt 

Lawen y byddair wrth gynanrud kad ; 

Ei gwerin neur derynt ? 

The White City of the valley would rejoice at the termina- 
tion of the fortunate fight (but) its inhabitants — are they 
returned ? 

The enemy gone, the night is come, then is seen among 
the ruins made a coffin in a roofless hall. Piercing cries 
reach the bard. The cries are the voice of the eagle of 
the mountain, red with the blood of Kendelann and with 
that of other warriors. The bard accompanies the body to 


the grave, and there there are other victims from the city of 
White Walls ; which is commonly identified with Sherston, 
on the borders of this county. The poet prepares to fly, 
knowing that the church will soon be given to the flames 
by the Saxon, whose lance he seems already to feel. He 
addresses the daughters of England, whom he summons 
to behold the country in flames : — " Oh, sister of Kendelann, 
what unhappiness, what anguish this night. They trampled 
not with impunity upon the cradle of Kendelann, he drew 
back not one footstep, his mother had not nursed a 
degenerate son. Buthenceforthfor us there is no refuge than 
the cover of the thick woods, where hunger reduces us to the 
state of the wild boar, unearthing the roots of wild plants." 

Such seems to have been the actual condition of the 
country, wasted and destroyed for about 200 years. 
Then we begin again to get scanty records, and some 
few fragments of architecture begin to appear in build- 
ings which have lasted down to our day. 

How far can we realize this long past history of 
our race, and re-produce in some intelligible form 
from the relics that we find our nation's life ? Written 
records of the far-distant past do not exist. No British 
historians tell us how a Caractacus or a Boadicea sum- 
moned a nation to arms to resist the invader. But 
we know the command was obeyed, and how — and 
we may at least as archaeologists assert this — that a 
people who could coin gold, and who could place 
in the field of battle such chariots, and in such 
numbers, as the Britons are stated by the Eomans to 
have done, were no mere barbarians, such as too often in 
history they are represented to have been, but that they 
were far advanced in civilization, and an ancestry of 
whom we may be proud. 

Ideas such as these may be the romance of archasology, 
but it must be the very end and aim of archaeology to 
provide the materials to turn the romance into hard 
prosaic fact. 

The desires of mankind have always been the same ; 
the direction in which those desires sought their grati- 
fication have always depended on the opportunities 
which the degree of civilization mankind had attained to, 
afforded to them, 


The archgeologist, in the absence of written records, 
can alone supply to the historian the information which 
is necessary, and draw the proper inferences ; and no 
such work as John Richard Green's " Making of England " 
was possible until the conditions under which men lived 
in early days had been disclosed by the pick and the 
shovel, by the patent deciphering of dusty records, and 
the diligent compiling of remote facts. It is for us to 
emulate the work of past discoverers, and, by raising 
higher the superstructure, the foundations of which they 
have laid broad and strong, to do our part in illustrating 
and elucidating the history of our race. 


By W. H. St. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

The insignia of the city of Gloucester, if they do not make 
such a brave display as those of Bristol, or Norwich, or 
Southampton, or Hull, have a special interest of their own 
which, so far as I know, is not shared by the insignia of 
any other city or town of Great Britain. This special 
interest lies in the fact that although within the last four 
centuries the maces liave been re-fashioned as many times, 
by an exceptional chain of evidence we are able not only 
to indicate the several maces possessed by the city from 
time to time, but we actually have representations show- 
ing their form and ornaments. The city sword, too, by 
no means presents to us its original appearance, yet in 
this case also we could, if necessary, reproduce various 
ornaments that have been superseded by those now adorn- 
ing it. 

That the city of Gloucester is one of the most im- 
portant and historical!}^ interesting of our cities is a 
matter of common knowledge. It is mentioned as a 
borough in Domesday Book, but its first charter of defi- 
nite municipal privileges was not granted until the reign 
of Henry II., probably about the year 1155. By a 
charter of King John granted in 1200, and confirmed 
by Henry III. in 1227, the government of the town was 
vested in two bailiffs or provosts. By Richard III. a new 
charter was granted in 1483, by w^hich the town was 
declared to be a county of and by itself, and its govern- 
ing body was ordained to be a mayor, two sheriffs, and 
other officers. By Henry VIII., upon the creation of the 
bishopric of Gloucester, the town was raised to the rank 
of a city. The early charters were confirmed and en- 
larged from time to time, the last one previous to that of 

1 Read at Gloucester, August 14th, 1890. 


the Reform of 1835 being one granted in 1672 by Charles 
XL, under which the Corporation consisted of a mayor 
and eleven other aldermen, an indefinite number of 
common councillors, not to exceed forty, a recorder, two 
sheriffs, a coroner, town clerk, chamberlain, sword- 
bearer, four sergeants-at-mace, a water-bailiff, provost- 
marshal, and other officers. 

Of the time when maces were first borne before the 
bailiffs of Gloucester we have no record, but such a 
practice had become common generally before the middle 
of the fourteenth century, for in 1344 the Parliament 
passed an Act to restrain all sergeants save the King's 
from carrying maces tipped with silver, and ordained 
that they should carry " maces tipped with copper 
only and of no other metal, and wooden staves as 
they were wont to carry in olden times." Maces were, 
however, certainly used in Gloucester as early as 1429, 
for in that year, by a composition made between the 
abbey and the town, it was agreed amongst other 
things that the sergeants-at-mace should carry their maces 
before the bailiffs into the abbey church. At this time I 
think there can be little doubt that there were two maces 
only, one for each bailiff. By the charter of Eichard III., 
granted in 1483, the number of sergeants was increased 
to four, the two who had formerly preceded the bailiffs 
being now assigned to the newly-created mayor, and 
the other two to precede the newly- appointed sheriffs. 
We now see why Gloucester has four maces, for the four 
sergeants each carried one, two being borne before the 
mayor, and one before each sheriff The case of Glou- 
cester also serves well to explain why some cities and 
towns have four maces, some two, and others only one. 
Where a mayor and sheriffs have succeeded two bailiffs 
there are usually four maces ; when a mayor only 
takes the place of two bailifis we often find two maces ; 
and one mace implies either, as in the case of London, 
that there has been a mayor from the first, or, as at 
Derby, that the two bailiffs' maces were made into one 
on the creation of the mayoralty. I need not here dis- 
cuss such ( xceptional cases as the eight maces of Bristol, 
wdiere the mayor was preceded by four sergeants and 
each sheriff bv iwo. 


What the earliest Gloucester maces were like there is 
no evidence to show, but they probably did not differ 
much from the first of which we have any actual repre- 
sentation. This brings us to the interesting part of my 

In 1564 the city of Gloucester caused to be made 
a new common seal. Its device consists chiefly of a large 
shield of the extraordinary arms granted by Christopher 
Barker, Garter, in 1538 ; but on each side of this shield 
is depicted a pair of the city maces. Although they 
barely exceed five-eighths of an inch in length, these 
small figures enable us clearly to understand the general 
type and form of the originals, which could not have 
differed much from the beautiful contemporary maces at 

In addition to the 1564 seal, two other representatives 
of the early maces exist. 

The first is on part of Blackfriars, built by Sir Thomas 
Bell shortly after his purchase of the buildings in 
1539, and consists of a shield bearing two crossed 
maces. Bell was twice mayor of Gloucester, and so 
there was no impropriety in his setting up a shield 
with the two maces that were borne before him ; they 
differ somewhat in form from those on the 1564 seal, and 
may represent an earlier pair of maces. 

The other representation of the maces is an exceedingly 
interesting one. In the south aisle of St. Nicholas' church 
is the tomb of John Walton, alderman of Gloucester, who 
died in 1625. Over the tomb is a shield of the city arms 
granted by Barker in 1538, but differenced by the sub- 
stitution of a pair of crossed maces for the city sword and 
sword-bearer's hat on the pale. These maces closely 
resemble those on the 1564 seal, and may, I think, be 
taken as evidence of these particular maces having con- 
tinued in use until at least 1626. Shortly afterwards, 
I have not yet been able to find the exact year, four new 
maces were made ; the old maces were then disused, and 
in 1642 were sold, with the old mayoralty seal and various 
pieces of the city plate, and the money spent in strengthen- 
ing the city fortifications. 

Although the new maces in their turn no longer exist, 
a fortunate accident enables us to sav what they were like 


In the cathedral church of Gloucester, at the west end 
of the south aisle of the nave, is an alabaster monument, 
rich with painting and gilding, to alderman John Jones, 
who was mayor in 1597, 1618, and 1625, and died in 
1630. On each side of the monument is a small bracket, 
and on each bracket stands, carved in alabaster, a pair of 
the city maces. These had semi-globular crested heads, 
and plain shafts divided midway by encircling bands ; and 
were not unlike the contemporary maces at Brecon, 
Cowbridge, Cardiff, and other places not far distant. 

The maces shown on alderman Jones's monument 
we learn from the city accounts for 1651-2 to have 
been sent to London in that year to be re-made. 
The bill, as entered in the accounts, amounted to £85 5s., 
but as some alterations of the city sword are included in 
this, we cannot tell what the re-fashioning of the maces 
actually cost. 

We must, however, now diverge a little from the 
history of the Gloucester maces to see why they were 
re-fashioned in 1652. 

On the establishment of the Commonwealth after 
the King's murder in 1648-9, the Commons ordered 
a new mace to be made in place of that usually 
borne before the Speaker. The making of the mace was 
entrusted to Thomas Maundy, a London goldsmith, and 
on June 6th, 1649, the new mace was brought in and 
shown to the House. It was evidently received with 
great satisfaction, for the Commons proceeded to make 
the following order : 

" Ordered 

That this Mace made by Thomas Maundy of London 
Goldsmith be delivered into the Charge of the Serjant 
at Amies attending the Parliament and that the said 
Mace be carried before the Speaker, and that all other 
great Maces to be used in this Commonwealth be 
made according to the same forme and Paterne, and 
that the said Thomas Maundy having the making 
thereof and none other." 

The mace made b}^ Maundy continued in use till 
April 20th, 1653, when Cromwell so unceremoniously 
dissolved the Long Parliament, and bid one of his soldiers 
" Take away that fool's bauble." Several corporate bodies 


claim to possess the identical mace thus removed, but, as 
a matter of fact, within a few days of the estab- 
lishment of the so-called Barebones Parliament on July 
4th, 1653, it was again brought out, and continued 
to be borne before the Speaker by the sergeant- al- 
arms as of old. At the Restoration in 16G0 a new 
mace was ordered to be provided for the House 
" with the Crowne and King's Majestie's Armes, and 
such other Ornaments as have bin usuall," and the 
famous " bauble " thus became a thing of the past. 
So at least we should imagine. On examining, how- 
ever, the present mace of the House of Commons, 
which the Speaker most kindly allowed me to do only a 
week ago, I found that the shaft and knots are unmis- 
takeably Thomas Maundy's work, with a new head and 
base made in 1660, and so the "bauble" is practically 
still borne before the Speaker. 

Owing to the fortunate circumstance that all other 
great maces in the kingdom had been ordered to be 
made " according to the same forme and Paterne " as 
the Parliament mace we know exactly what it was 
like originally. In form it closely resembled the large 
crowned maces of which so many examples exist ; 
it had a staff divided by knots, and surmounted by 
a head of the usual type encircled by a coronet with 
an arched crown. But it was in the pattern of 
these that it differed so completely from a royal mace. 
The coronet consisted, not of the regal crosses and fleurs- 
de-lis, but of an intertwined cable enclosing small car- 
touches with the arms of England and Ireland ; and instead 
of a jewelled circlet there was often a band with raised 
letters which read : " the freedome of England by god's 
BLESSING RESTORED," witli the date of the making of the 
mace. Instead of the jewelled or beaded arches of the 
crown, four gracefully-curved members, adorned with 
oak foliage, met in the centre and supported, not 
the time-honoured orb and cross, but a handsome 
sort of cushion surmounted by an acorn. The head 
was divided as before into panels by caryatides, but 
the royal badges were replaced by the arms of Eng- 
land and Ireland in oval cartouches. The knots of 
the staff were wrought in spirally-laid gadroons, and 


the staff itself chased throughout with branches of oak 
or other foliage running longitudinally and encircled by a 
narrow spiral ribbon. The knop forming the base was 
also wrought with the arms of England and Ireland. 
The corporations of Weymouth, Marlborough, and 
East Eetford, still possess maces showing all these 
characteristics. I have omitted mention of one point, 
viz., that the arms on the top were no longer the 
royal arms, but those of " the State." These have 
been in almost every case replaced by the royal arms, as 
in the examples cited ; a small mace belonging to the city 
of Coventry still, however, retains them unaltered. 

We will now resume the history of the Gloucester maces. 
That the order of Parliament concerning the new fashioning 
of " all other great maces " was obeyed in many places, 
we know not only from the maces themselves but from 
the entries in the minute and account books recording the 
circumstances. Occasionally, as at London and Leicester, 
we get very full particulars of the re- making of the maces, 
in each case by Thomas Maundy, who, as we have seen, 
enjoyed the monopoly of making them. The Gloucester 
maces were also re-made at this time, as I have already 
said, but the accounts refer to payments to " Mr. Alderman 
Vyner, of London," and not to Thomas Maundy. It was, 
however, these very Gloucester maces that first opened 
my ej'CS to the peculiar characteristics by which the 
Commonwealth maces can be identified, for the spirally 
gadrooned knots, the ribbon-entwined oak stems on the 
shafts, and the arms of England and Ireland on the foot- 
knops, clearly belong to the maces of 1651-2, as do parts 
of the head ; and one pair bears the mayor's name and the 
date 1652. Moreover, two of the^'maces bear a maker's mark 
formed of a letter M surmounted by a T, which is assuredly 
the mark of Thomas Maundy, for a similar one also occurs on 
the Leicester mace, which the accounts show to have been 
made by him in 1650. When the Monarchy was restored 
in 1660 those corporations who had altered their maces in 
conformity with the order of 1649 proceeded to convert 
them again into royal maces. Some b}^ merely replacing 
the State's arms by the royal arms ; some by making the 
mace entirely anew ; while others were content to substi- 
tute the royal crown and badges for the non-regal devices 


of the Commonwealth. The city of Gloucester, like the 
House of Commons, chose the last course, and in the 
council minutes for 13th June, 1660, when Toby Jordan 
was mayor, we find the following entry : " It is agreed at 
this house that the Sword and Maces that are carryed 
before Mr. Maior shall be altered at the charges of the 
chamber, and that Mr. Mayor do cause the same to be done 
to the best advantage of the chamber." Two of the maces 
so altered bear the name of Toby Jordan, and the date 
1660. All four maces, however, underwent conversion, 
for the Chamberlain's accounts for 1 659-60 contain a 
payment of £74 Is. : '* Payd for 4 new maces and for 
altering the scabbard of the best sword over and above the 
summe allowed for the old Maces and Sword as appears by 
Mr. Cuthbertes note a goldsmith in London." To call the 
maces " new " was not correct, for although they received 
new royal crowns, and the royal badges were substituted 
for the arms of England and Ireland, in other respects they 
were substantially the maces made in 1651-2. Since 1660, 
with the exception of repeated and occasionally needless 
re-gilding, the maces have remained unaltered, and may 
they long continue to be borne before the Mayor and 
Sheriff of Gloucester. 

The right of the Mayor of Gloucester to have a sword 
carried before him was specially conferred by the charter 
of Eichard III. in 1483. 

The sword then provided was probably that now 
known as " the mourning sword," The blade is of 
Solingen or Passau make, with the wolf or fox mark, and 
the hilt has curved quillons and a disk- shaped pom- 
mel embossed with a rose on each side. The whole 
is, however, now painted black, which conceals the work- 
manship. The scabbard is covered with black velvet 
embroidered with black silk. On the upper part are on 
one side the city arms, on the other a crowned rose ; the 
central ornaments are floral devices, and the chape has 
on both sides a floral device with the date 1677, in which 
year the city swords were repaired at a cost of £1 8s. 6d. 

The next sword that the city possessed cannot now be 
found, and all trace of it seems to be lost. It was in 
existence when Eudder published his New History of 
Gloucestershire in 1779, for he describes it as beincp 


adorned with the figure of Queen EHzabeth and " E.E. 
1574," and with the city arms as then borne. 

The third '* sword of state " was perhaps obtained 
in 1627, when Charles I, gave leave to the city to 
appoint a sword-bearer " who shall carry before the 
mayor a sword with a coloured sheath bearing our 
arms and those of the city aforesaid or otherwise 
adorned." A careful and full-sized representation of 
this sword is carved on the monument of alderman 
JoneS; already referred to. It has a flattened circular 
gilt pommel with the royal arms within the garter 
and crowned, with supporters ; the grip is shown 
as covered with gilt wire, and the cross guard is orna- 
mented with a large scallop shell. Owing to the 
sword being laid on its edge only one quillon was shown, 
and this has been broken off and lost. The sheath is 
painted red, with a gold band along the edges, and is 
divided into three sections by gilt bands or lockets carved 
in relief. The first of these bears a figure of Justice ; the 
second a king on horseback ; and the third, a half-effigy 
of a king. The chape has a draped female figure, and 
ends in a crown. In each of the three divisions are two 
roses and two fleurs-de-lis placed alternately. 

Now this carved representation would in itself be 
interesting if it merely showed us one side of the 
sword in use during: the second quarter of the seven- 
teenth century ; but it does more than that, for 
there can be no doubt that we have here a careful 
representation of a former and original condition of 
the sword of state still borne before the Mayor of 
Gloucester. Of the original sword there remains the 
Solingen blade, with the gold inlaid wolf-mark of the 
maker, and the hilt with its pommel and quillons. The 
sides of the pommel bear the royal arms of Charles 
II. and the city arms of 1 652. The sheath is covered with 
crimson velvet, and the uppermost locket retains on one side 
the figure of Justice as shown on the monument. The 
other side originally bore an inscription, but this has been 
erased, and instead of it is engraved a later one : Gloucester 
I Toby Jordan \ Esqr Maior \ Anno Regni \ Begis Car 
2d Xil I Annoq Domi \ 1660. The other ornaments of 
the sheath do not correspond with those on the monument ; 


thus, the second locket has on one side the royal arms, etc., 
in a circle between an oak tree above and the city arms 
below, and on the other side a cartouche with the city 
arms ; and the third locket has the king riding over a 
fallen foe on one side, and on the other the king erect and 
in armour and brandishing his sword. The chape ends in 
a cruciform ornament instead of the crown, and is wrought 
with a figure of Fame on one side, and with a fully-armed 
female figure on the other. The interspaces of the sheath 
have, instead of the roses and fleurs-de lis, the royal 
badges of the House of Stuart, a rose, thistle, harp, and 
fleur-de-lis, severally crowned. We learn from the 
accounts that in 1652 the sword was sent to London to be 
altered, i.e., stripped of all emblems of royalty. It may 
be seen, however, from the Jones monument that the hilt 
and figure of Justice on the first locket were retained. 
What then replaced the other ornaments we cannot tell. 
In 1660 the sword was again sent to London and altered 
to its present state by Mr. Cuthbert, a goldsmith in 
Cheapside. The workmanship of the new bands is, 
however, much inferior to that which contains the figure 
of Justice. 




( Continued.) 

The Mithraic Tablet is unquestionably the most 
remarkable object in the museum at Wiesbaden. English 
travellers have noticed it, but, as far as I am aware, they 
have not published any detailed account hitherto. 
This monument was brought from Heddernheim 
(Hetternheim in Baedeker's Map, Oestlicher Taunus), a 
place about half way between Frankfort and Homburg, 
but East of the direct line, where many antiquities have 
been found, which, however, have been removed, so that 
a visit to the locality would be labour in vain. It is 
scarcely necessary to enlarge now upon the worship of 
Mithras, as much has been written about it, both by our 
own countrymen and by foreign savants. But I may be 
allowed to observe that there are two circumstances which 
make it interesting to us. Several memorials of this cult 
have been found in England, some of which are preserved 
at York ; ' and so many allusions to it are made by the 
early Fathers, that it has come to be inseparably connected 
with ecclesiastical history. In fact we may infer from the 
express statements of Tertullian and the acrimonious spirit 
in which he writes, that this system was a very formidable 

^ See a descriptive account of the Koman wall, altars to Mithras, and 

Antiquities in the gi-ounds and in the Mithraic Tablet, esp. p. 127 sq. ; 398 

museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical sq., with woodcuts. Lapidar. Septentr., 

Society by the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, Indices at the end of the vol., \ I, 

.5th edition, pp. 110-112, No. V. A. names and attributes of Deities, s.v. 

sculptured tablet representing the sacri- Mithras, Sol and AjjoUo. Corp. Inscrr. 

fice and mysteries of Mithras : a full Lat., Britannia, Indices, cap. V, Res 

explanation is subjoined. Comp. the sacrae, s^ I, Dii Deae Heroes, p. 331, 1st 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal and 2nd columns, deus Mitra Cautus 

Society giving some account of the Pates Sol invictus, &c. 

present undertakings, studies, and labours We have evidence that the worship of 

of the ingenious in many considerable Mithras prevailed also in the part of Gaul 

parts of the world, vol. xlvi, for the nearest to our own shores. Monsr. V.-J. 

years 1749 and 1750, No. 493, vi. Bas- Vailiant of Boulogne informed me that 

relief of Mithras found at York described a Mitlneum had been discovered in that 

by the Rev. Dr. Stukeloy, F.R.S. Bruce, town. 

f<r^^ i I ^ 



«" 1, 








antagonist to the Gospel. He says that the devil who 
perverts the truth imitates the divine sacraments by 
mysterious rites, baptizes devotees, promises remission of 
sins, counterfeits the resurrection, and offers the crown of 
martyrdom.^ Our theme reminds us that in like manner 
the Suabian peasant ascribed to the agency of the DoBmon 
a rampart, on which he gazed with ignorant admiration — 
the Roman boundary-wall that extended from the Ehine 
to the Danube.^ 

The British Museum possesses two groups belonging 
to the class now under consideration, very similar to each 
other, but differing in a few particulars. On the other 
hand, the bas-relief at Wiesbaden, though the principal 
figures (Hauptbild) are the same as we have in London, 
presents many additional details, which deserve attention, 
and are in some cases not easy to explain.^ 

The Mithrasbild, as the Germans call it, stood originally 
in a sanctuary, consisting of a nave and two side aisles, 
twelve metres five cent, long, and eight metres sixteen 
cent, broad ; it occupied the choir, in which there was 
just room enough for it to turn on a pivot, which was 
necessary that the congregation might be able to see the 
sculptures on both sides. So placed it corresponded 
nearly with the altar-piece of a church.^ 

We have here a central compartment containing the 
chief subject, and a frame round it. Mithras, with 
flying mantle, has leaped on a bull, his left hand seizes 
the animal's nostrils, his right pierces its neck with a 
sword. A dog springs up to help his master, and lick the 

^ TertuUian, De praescriptione haere- with legends concerning the diabolical 

ticorum, cap. xl, edit. Oehler, torn, ii, origin of the wall and visits from the 

p. 38 (Diabolus) ipsas quoque res sacra- Evil One. 

mentoruna divinorum idolorum rnysteriis ^ Sir H. Elhs, Towuley Gallery, vol. i, 

aemulatur. Tingit et ipse quosdam, chap, vi, pp. 282-289 with illustrations — 

utique credentes et fideles suos ; exposi- an excellent article containing many re- 

tionem (var. lect. expiationem) delictorum f erences in the foot notes. 
de lavacro repromittit. "* Annalen des Vereins fiir Nassauische 

^ Gibbon, chap, xii, vol. ii, p. 47, edit. Altertumsknnde und Geschichtsfors- 

Smith. The Pfahlgraben by Thomas chung. Zwanzigster Band, II Heft, 1888. 

Hodgkin, 1882, p. 6 sq. " In most of the Fiihrer durch das Altertums-Museum zu 

earlier part of its course the wall is known Wiesbaden von A. V. Cohausen. Raum 

by the name of Teufchmauer (Devil's iii, pp. 213-216, Nos. 1-11, Tafel V. 

Wall.) Afterwards, that is from Weissen- Den vornehmsten Platz des Raumes iii 

burg westwards, it is more often called uimmtdasMithraeumein. This engi'aviug 

the Pfahl or the Ffahlrain." Then is small and inadequate ; I cxhibiteii a 

follows a notice of traditions about photograph of the Tablet on a much larger 

mysterious horses and riders, together scale, taken expressly, and well executed. 


blood issuing from the wound. The bull's tail ends in 
three ears of corn, which, in cue of the groups at the 
British Museum, appear on his body close to the incision. 
Hence there can be little doubt that the vivifying power 
of the sun, agriculture, and especially the fertility caused 
by ploughing are here represented. On the mantle a 
raven perches, perhaps with reference to divination, as 
the bird was sacred to Apollo, the god of prophecy ; and 
we learn from Porphyry that the priests of Mithras were 
called ravens.^ Under the bull are a vase, scorpion and 
serpent, which a small lion is calmly looking at. On each 
side of the principal figures stands a youth wearing the 
Phrygian bonnet, like Atys, Paris or Mithras in the scene 
before us — a proof that the cult was Oriental in its origin 
— and holding a torch upright or inverted. As Mithras 
was the invincible sun-god, so these two accessories may 
be reasonably explained to symbolize Day and Night. 
On the spectator's right, a tree rises immediately behind 
the torch ; round its stem a snake is coiled, while his head 
projects from amidst the foliage. Our thoughts naturally 
revert to the Mosaic account of our first Parents' Fall, 
the Tree of Life, and the seductive Serpent. 

Over-arching these reliefs we see the signs of the Zodiac, 
for the most part very distinct, beginning with Aries and 
ending with Pisces. In the spandrils of the vault, on 
either side, is Mithras with a bow as a hunter, and a man 
kneeling in front of a cave. The god is said by Justin 
Martyr to have been born from a rock, whence the 
epithet irerpoyevrtg is applied to him.^ A rectangular space 
above is divided by three trees into four compartments, 

1 Horace, Odes III, 27, 11, and v, 329. Hirt, Bilderbuch fiir Mytlio- 

Oscinem corvum prece suscitabo logie, Apollo Tab. iv, Die attribute des 

Solis ab ortu. Apollo ; p. 34, No. 6, Der Dreif uss charak- 

Vide note in the Delphin edition, Ore terisirt ihn als Weksager der Zukunft, 

futura praecinentem : quotations from dessen Haupt-Orakel zu Delphi war. In 

Aulus Gellius and Pliny are added. C. fig 10 of Tab. IV. we see a bird perched 

0. Miiller, Archaologie der Kunst, Eng. on a tripod. C. 0. Muller, Denkmaler 

Translation, p. 447, ^^ 361 , Remark 5, der alten Kunst. part i, Taf. lii. No. 237, 

Apollo as possessor of the Pythian tripod Apollo an den Dreifuss gelehnt, silver 

(§ 299) sitting between the S>Ta in a vase- coin of Seleucus ii, Callinicus. 
painting from Volci (§ 1432). Forcellini's - Edit. Benedictine, Paris, 1742, p. 168 

Lexicon, s.v. Corvus : Statins, Thebais, b. Dialogus cum Tryphone Judaeo, cap. 

iii, 50(), comes obscurus tripodum ; Pe- 70 init. "Oror Se ol to, Midpov /xvaT-fipia 

tronius, Satyricon, cap. 122, v. 177, Del- napaSiSSyra, Xeywa-tv (k iri-rpas yiynn\adai 

phicus ales, note of Nic. Heinsius on v. ai/rhv, kuI (nrT]\a.iov KaKwai rhv rdirov, tv6a 

176 in Burmann's edition, 4to, vol. i, p. /j-vuv tovs ntiOofiiyovs avrtf napo.bidovaii'^ 

751. Ovid, Metamorphoses, ii, 534 sqq. k.t,\. 


the separation of different scenes being made just as in the 
sculptures of Trajan's column at Eome, which portray 
various operations in his Dacian wars/ A man appears 
growing out of a tree ; Mithras, three times repeated, drags 
by the hind-legs a bull from which a snake is escaping, 
touches the radiated crown of the Sun-god, and takes by the 
hand a man kneeling before him.- A broad border encloses 
the scenes already described, and each corner of it is occu- 
pied by a medallion containing the winged head of one of the 
Four Winds — a subject which is best represented in the 
Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes at Athens. In the 
upper part of the frame divided by trees, on the left, 
Mithras invited by the Sun-god mounts a chariot ascend- 
ing a hilP ; on the right, the Moon-goddess drives her 
descending steeds. Here both deities ride in a higa ; 
frequently the Sun has four horses (quadriga), and thus, 
as the superior power, is distinguished from the Moon, 
who has only two.^ The two perpendicular sides show 
us full length figures and profiles vertically arranged in 
panels, not easy to identify as attributes are wanting ; 
though amongst the latter Cohausen sees Flora and Isis. 

At the time of discovery the back of the Tablet lay 
uppermost, and was much injured by the ploughshare. 

^ See Froebner, La Colonne Trajane, Borghese Collectiou, surpasses other 

8vo, woodcuts, at p. 93 Nos. 20 and 21, Mithraic representations on account of 

at p. 97 ; Nos. 22 and 28. Les scenes sont its artistic excellence ; it has also a special 

comme d'habitude, divisees par un arbre. interest, as coming from the Capitol at 

Comp. Fabretti, La Colonna Trajana, folio Rome, so that the provenance shows how 

Plates, passim. an Eastern religion had penetrated into 

^ It should be observed that Mithras the sanctuary of the Empire. Baumeister, 

here is different from the Sun, with whom Denkmiiler des Klassischen Altertums, 

he is usually identified in inscriptions. Band ii, p. 925, fig. 996, has a very 

e.g. at the Louvre, DEO SOLI INVICTO good engraving of this subject, Das 

MITHR., NAMA SEBESIO. The former Mithrasopfer. 

clause is engraved on the bull's side, the * Here again Mithras is not the same 

latter, a little higher up — just below his as the Sun-God : comp. Catidogue of 

neck. Perhaps SEBESIO is equivalent to Antiquities at York, loc. citiit., " In 

ffffiaarov, and then the phrase would the sculptured tablets he appears in a 

mean "sacred stream," and refer to the difierent character, as the first of the 

blood flowing from the victim. Others celestial beings, called Izeds, or good 

Bay that we have here a corruption of genii, the source of light, and the dispenser 

Persian or Sanscrit words, or the Phrygian of fertility." 

deity Sabazius, son of Rhea or Cybele * See my paper on Touraine and the 

who was worshipped as mother of the Central Pyrenees, sect, ii, where an 

gods. The dimensions are height 2 "54 account is given of a gem belonging to 

metres, length 2'57, and therefore very the Marquis de Biencourt, on which 

inferior to those of the tablet at Wies- Diana Tauropolos is figured, Archseol. 

baden. Journ. vol. xlv, p. 229, text and notes 1 

On the other hand this bas-relief, now and i ; and page 230, note 1. 
in the Louvre, but formerly in the 


Above the arch which corresponds with that in the front, 
we observe only scanty remains of a hunter surrounded 
by dogs and game. Under it the slaughtered bull lies 
stretched on the ground ; behind him is the Phrygian cap, 
with radiated crown round it, placed on the top of a pole. 
This trophy, for such is its appearance, occupies the space 
between two figures : a man fully draped on one side 
holds in his left hand a hunting-spear, and in his right a 
cluster of grapes, which he offers to Mithras standing 
opposite to him. Here also two genii appear, but instead 
of torches, they hold baskets filled with fruit. One branch 
of archseology frequently illustrates another ; in reliefs 
upon the gravestone of a Dalmatian soldier, found in 
the burial-place on the Eupertsberg near Bingen, we meet 
with the same two figures ; a proof of the extent to which 
this Oriental cult had spread. The monument is engraved 
and described by Dr. Lindenschmit, op. citat, Heft x, Taf. 
5, and he mentions another of an archer, discovered at 
the same place, in this respect quite similar. The museum 
at Wiesbaden contains votive altars and fragments of 
statuettes belonging to the same cycle of ideas, which 
do not deserve to be mentioned separately ; and speaking 
generally we may remark that repetition prevails so 
much in this class of remains, that we can seldom glean 
from them an additional fact to throw light on our re- 
searches. Eeviewing the whole subject — doctrines, 
symbols and existing monuments — I feel by no means 
inclined to agree with the Father of the church who 
regarded Mithraism as the work of the devil, but rather 
with those who see in it something higher and nobler than 
" the elegant mythology of the Greeks," a religion that 
was feeling after God if haply it might find Him, as a 
greater than TertuUian has said, ' that strove to embody, 
nay more, to still the longings of mankind for a divine 

^ St. Paul's Sermon ou Mar.s' Hill, Acts Stukeley, Philosophical Transactions, 

xvii, 27. CriTuv rhv 6e6v, il&paye^7)\a(p-l^- loc. citat., saj's, "The Mithraic cere- 

craav axnhv koX evpoiev. yrjAac^aoi, to fed, monies, as likewise the mysteries of the 

fjropc, like a blind man or as in the dark ; autients, were but the expiring remains of 

Liddell and Scott's Lexicon s.v. Alford, the antient patriarchal religion, and wor- 

in loco, quotes an apposite passage, ship of the true God . . . Mithra-s is 

Aristophanes, Pax. 691, i\f/i)\a(piiij.(v h> but anotlier name of a Messiah, in his 

(TK6TCfj TO. TTpay^ara. priestly character." 



deliverer, or, in other words, to meet those demands of 
our moral nature which Christianity alone can satisfy/ 

Of all the health resorts near the Rhine, perhaps none 
is more frequented than Homburg ; accordingly two 
accounts of its museum have appeared in our vernacular ; 
hence a long description will not be expected from me ; 
bul, on the other hand, a few words may not be altogether 
superfluous. The English Catalogue should be read with 
caution, because it seems to have been written by a 
foreigner, imperfectly acquainted with our language ; it 
contains doubtful and incorrect statements, and it abounds 
with typographical blunders ; e.g. the Myrrhine vases are 
said to be named from Murrha " where the most costly 
were made ; " and the small glass bottles (lacrymatories so 
called), found in graves, to have been used for tears ; in 
another place we read of the head of a catapult discharged 
from a moveable wooden fort.^ In the name of Trajan 
Vijnus is written for Ulpius, and in a coin of Elegabalus 

' Amongst modern authorities the 
most important is Felix Lajard, Re- 
cherches sur le culte public et les mysteres 
de Mithra en Orient et en Occident 
(ouvrage posthume), Paris, 1867 folio, 
with numerous illustrations. This writer 
may be sometimes rash in his conclusions, 
but his learning and industry cannot be 

- I have found no such place as Murrha 
or Myrrha in Smith's Dictionary and 
other works relating to classical geogra- 
phy ; the nearest approach to it is 
Myrrhinus, one of the Attic demi. 
Lycophron, v. 829, iises the expression 
Mvppai aarv with reference to Byblos in 
Phoenicia, but it is evident that Mv^pa 
liere cannot be the name of a town : 
Pape, Wiirterbuch, s.v. Some have 
supposed that the Myrrhina {vasa) were 
made of fluor spar, but most recent 
writers, from Gibbon down to our own 
time, consider that they were Chinese and 
Japanese porcelain : Heinrich's note on 
Juvenal, Erklaerung, Sat. vi, v. 155 sq. 
Grandia tolluntur crystallina, maxima 

Myrrhina, deinde adamas notissimus, etc. 
cf. vii, 133. Various forms of the word 
are found in the manuscripts : Ruperti, 
Annotatio critica on vi, 156 ; cf. edit. 
Otto Jahn, 1851 — Myrrina, Mirriua, 
Myrina, Myrrhia, Murrhina. From the 
context in the passages of Juvenal we 
gather that these vases were articles of 
luxury and very expensive. 

The different opinions of many writers 
will be found in Raperti's exphinatory 
Commentary on Juvenal, vi, 155 ; see 
also the foot note ibid. Comp. Rich's 
Dictionary and the Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Antt., s.v. Murrhina. Gibbon, 
chap, xxxi, note 43 (vol, iv, p. 79, edit. 
Smith), should not be overlooked. 

It is now generally admitted that the 
so-called tear-bottles were used for 
perfumes, and as an argument against the 
notion of lacrbnatories we may notice the 
fact that the word lacrimatorium as a 
noun does not occur in classical Latinity ; 
accordingly Forcelliui has not admitted it 
into his Lexicon. It appears in the 
Glossaiium of De Vit with the explana- 
tion locus lacrymarum. Lacrimatorius, 
a, um occurs in a medical writer as an 
adjective, ad lacrimas eliciendas iuser- 
viens : Sex. Placit. de Medic. 17.1. 
Becker's Gallus, Roman scenes of the time 
of Augustus, Eng. transl., p. 519, Bottles, 
filled with perfumes, were placed inside 
the tomb, which was besprinkled odoribus. 
These are the tear-flasks, or lacrimatories 
so often mentioned formerly : Orelli, 
Inscrr, Lat., cap. xx, Sepulcralia, No. 

Ac teretes onyches fuci gracilesque 

CatapuHa is an engine for hurling 
missiles ; rarely, if at all, the missile 
thus projected. 


DACERD for SACERD, ELEGAT for ELEGAB.^ Greater, but by 
no means perfect accuracy will be found in the English 
translation of the Eoman Castellum Saalburg by Col. 
Cohausen and Mr. Jacobi, 1882, to which an introduction 
by Mr. Thomas Hodgkin is prefixed. It would be 
desirable, however, to consult the original German, of 
which an edition with a good plan, " Uebersichtsplan der 
Saalburg und Umgebung," has appeared subsequently to 
the Catalogue. Cohausen being a Colonel of Engineers, 
and Jacobi an architect, they both brought to the investi- 
gation of the fortress, exceptional qualifications, derived 
from their professional studies and experience. Mr. 
Hodgkin published an elaborate paper on the Pfahlgraben 
in the Archseologia -^liana, 1882, which is, I believe, the 
most important contribution to a knowledge of the Wall 
made by our own countrymen, since the late Mr James 
Yates wrote his memoir " On the Limes Rhaeticus and Limes 
Transrhenanus," 1852. Preceding authors — such as 
Steiner, Paulus and Herzog — had written on portions of 
this rampart, but Cohausen has treated the subject in its 
whole extent, from Regensburg (Ratisbon) to Andernach ; 
his work, fully illustrated by an atlas of plates, is en- 
titled "Der Romische Grenzwall in Deutschland. 
MilitiirischeundtechnischeBeschreibung desselben. 1884."- 
Saalburcf is the best known amouQ' the castella on the 
Limes, and the excavations there have yielded a rich 
harvest of antiquities. They have been lodged and care- 

^ The Eoglish catalogue referred to iii, C. Regino (sic.) is marked opposite the 

above is entitled, " The Museum, Horn- Marcomanni, who are North of the 

bourg V-d H." i.e. Vor der Hohe, thus Danube ; two towers are drawn on the 

distinguished from other places of the site, which indicates an important place, 

same name — an der Rossel (Oberhom- as in the case of Mantua, Verona etc. 

burg) and in der Pfalz. This anonymous Aquileia, a city of much greater conse- 

publication bears no date ; it was printed quence, has eight towers. These buildings 

by C. Langhorne, at Stoke. are coloured, red in the upper part and 

- Ratisbon, though not mentioned by yellow in the lower : Dr. Konrad Miiller's 

Roman authors, is proved to have been an edition of the Table " in den Farben des 

important fortress under the Empire by Originals herausgegeben." 

inscriptions found there, and, above all. It should be observed that Reginum 

by the Gate recently laid open : die (Castra Regina) has the penultima short, 

Bloslegung der Porta praetoria des Mark- and is only a Latinized form of the name 

Aurel'schenCastrumsimBisehofshofe. See of the river Regen, which joins the 

p. i, Rechenschaftsbericht des historischen Danube near Regensburg. Lamartinidre 

Vereines von Oberpfalz und Regensburg explains Ratislx)nnc as coming from bona 

fiir das Jahr 1885, which forms an ratis, "i.e., endroit propre pour I'abord 

Appendix to the Transactions (Verhand- des bateaux : " v, Charnock's Local 

lungen) for the same year. Etymology, a derivative Dictionary. 
In the Table of Peutinger, Segmentum 


fully arranged in a hall of the Kurhaus at Homburg ; 
they have thus been not only preserved, but rendered very 
accessible. It is half a day's work to make the excursion 
to Saalburg, but the visitor finds in this collection every- 
thing that was portable deposited close to his own door. 
The articles disinterred are very miscellaneous ; I was 
struck by the number and variety of utensils in iron 
and bronze — tools of trades, field and garden implements, 
and especially locks and keys, the construction of which 
is well explained by Cohausen and Jacobi in the brochure 
cited above, page 29. On the wall of the Museum is 
suspended a large plan of Saalburg, showing not only the 
fortress, but also the adjoining Villa, civil settlements and 
burial place (Buergerliche JSiederlassungen und Begraeb- 

A classical tourist accustomed to admire the vast 
structures built by the Eomans — triumphal arches, baths, 
aqueducts and temples — magnificent even in ruins, can 
scarcely avoid feeling some disappointment when he sees 
here on the slope of the Taunus onlj^ foundations or walls 
rising a few feet above the soil. This state of things is 
easily accounted for. During the first century of our era 
Artaunum, as Ptolemy calls the place, was repeatedly 
taken and burnt^ ; in the thirteenth it suffered the same 
misfortune as the Aqueduct at Mainz, having supplied 
building materials for the Convent Maria -Thron in the 
neighbourhood^ ; subsequently, it was used by peasants 
and miners as a convenient quarry. Even after public 

^ Comp. the Plates at tlie end of " The *ApKTawov : with the following note, 

Roman Castellum Saalburg," op. citat., ^ApTawov, supra scripto k, 4>, "Apravvov 

translated by F. C. Fischer ; i, fig. 1, cett. Nomen ex latino arx Tauni ortum 

map of the Saalburg and environs ; fig. esse conjicit Ukertus. ...Tacitus, Annals, 

2, Profile of the Vallum and Ditches of i, 56 (speaking of Germanicus), posito 

the Castellum, now and formerly ; ii, castello super vestigia paterni praesidii in 

Plan of Camp ; iii, The time of reign monte Taimo, expeditum exercitum in 

of the Roman Emperors and number of Chnttos rapit. The form "ApKravvov ob- 

their coins found in this locality. See viously supports Ukert's conjecture, 

also the lithographs inserted in Mr. •'The conyent of Dahlheim, which 

Hodgkin's Memoir at pp. 62, 64. Subur- itself has disappeared, stood near the 

ban settlement, Porta Decumana looking piers of the Roman aqueduct still 

North, Praetorium from the West, Porta remaining at Zahlbach, a suburb of 

Praetoria from within the camp. Mainz. Brambach, Corpus Inscrr. 

An important work, by Cohausen and Rheuanarum, No. 1,139, " mutilus arae 

Jacobi, on the Saalburg was promised lapis, quem ... in Dahlheimensi 

some years ago ; but when 1 was at virginum monasterio inter murorum 

Homburg in the Autumn of 1888, it had ruinas erui feci." Fuchs. Cf. 1,149, 

not appeared. " mutilum hunc lapidem in parthenone 

* Ptolemy, ii, 11, 14, Germania Magna, Dahlheimensi iuveni." Id. 
edit. Car. Midler, vol. i, p, 272, 



attention had been directed to the spot and excavations 
were made, the walls discovered, for want of adequate 
protection, crumbled away. However, not to speak of 
the delightful prospect which the site commands, in spite 
of all these dilapidations, enough remains to indicate the 
dimensions and arrangement of a Roman camp, the 
General's head-quarters (Prnstorium), the four gates 
(Prsetoria, Decumana, Principalis dextra and Principalis 
sinistra) and the roads that led to them. The baths and 
the storehouse are also ascertained. 

Darmstadt, capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, is 
usually described as a dull, uninteresting place, where 
there is little to see or do ; and it is so in comparison with 
Frankfort, one of the busiest cities in Germany. The 
collection of Antiquities at the Schloss scarcely offers 
more attractions than the streets in the town, with one 
exception, which I proceed to notice — a great mosaic, 
twelve paces long and eight broad (about ten yards by 
seven yards) from a Roman bath excavated near Vilbel, 
in April, 1849, Hitherto, as far as I am aware, no 
English traveller has published an account of it. Vilbel, 
a market-town, about four miles north of Frankfort, is 
situated on the River Nidda, a tributary of the Main ; 
and it is also a station on the railway from Frankfort to 
Giessen. Considerinsf the natural advantasjes of the 
place — surrounded by hills gently rising above the valley, 
and sheltered from north winds by the Taunus — and that 
it was defended against barbarian enemies by the Grenz- 
wall, we might expect to find here a villa in which the 
Komans would seek to reproduce the luxuries and enjoy- 
ments of their own country, as far as a Transalpine 
climate would allow. The name seemed to harmonize 
with this view, for it was generally explained as equivalent 
to the Latin villa hella. But there is reason to doubt the 
etymology, because the geography of interior Germany 
would very rarely furnish us with examples of nomina 
propria similarly derived. Another interpretation has 
been proposed. Various forms of the word occur in the 
records from the eighth century downwards' — Felwile, 

' The earliest instance is mentioned by kunde (x Bd. i Heft Nr. 1) besonders 

Dr. Bossier, Die Komerstatte bei Vilbel abgedruckt. P. 1 in einer Lorscber 

und der im Jabre 1849 dcoselbst entdeckte Urknnde vom 30. Mai 774 und zwar 

Mosaikboden. Aus dem Arcbiv f iir uuter dem Namen Felwile im Nitachgowe 

Hessische Geschichte und Alterthums- vorkommt. 


Velavilre, Velwila, Vilewile, Vilwile, &c. Now, in old 
High German felawa feliva, in middle High German 
velewe vehve signify a willow, a tree that is said to abound 
at Vilbel, and to attain a remarkable height ; and the 
latter part of the name may come from the Latin villa, 
the interchange of B. and V. being so common as to call 
for no further remark here. Hence, the whole word is 
equal to Weidendorf, Willow-town, as in the East end of 
London we have Willow walk and Primrose-street, 
though neither tree nor flower has grown there for many 
a year.' 

As early as 1845, vestiges of a Eoman settlement at 
Vilbel had been discovered — foundations of walls, frag- 
ments of pottery, and amongst them Samiau ware (terra 
sigillaia), decorated as usual. Four years later, some 
small cubical stones, dug up at the station of the railway 
connecting the Main with the Weser, were brought to the 
notice of the Inspector of Works, who at once perceived 
them to be Mosaic. Henceforth excavations were con- 
ducted with the greatest care, and resulted in bringing to 
light a large tessellated pavement; it soon afterwards 
found a permanent and appropriate resting place in the 
first Hall on the middle story of the Schloss at Darmstadt.-' 

The figures here belong to the cycle of Neptune, but 
they are of two classes : real creatures — dolphins, swans, 
ducks, eels, shell-fish ; and imaginary beings — sea-centaurs, 
hippocamps, sea-lions, sea-dragons. One might at first be 
surprised at a representation so marine at such a distance 
from the ocean ; but we should remember that the mosaic 
was executed to decorate a bath-room, and with the view 
of expressing symbolically the pleasure the Eomans found 
in the watery element.^ Ancient art delighted to convey 

^ Bossier, ibid., note 1, p. 2, Der my Paper on Ravenna, Archaeol. Jouru. 

zweite Theil des Namens ist das vom vol. xxxii, 1875, p. 420, note 8. 
lateinischen villa abstammende althoch- ^ With the pavement at Darmstadt we 

deutsch ivila mittelhochdeutsch wile may compare a similar design at Naples, 

(jetzt-weil) = Dorf und in der Form engraved by Paderni, Kaccolta de' piu 

Velavilre das gleichbedeutende dem belli ed intercssauti Dipinti, Musaici_ ed 

lateinischen villa^'c entsprechende ivUari, altri monumenti rinvenuti negli Spavi di 

wilre (jetzt-weiler). Ercolano, di Pompei, e di Stabia die 

2 At Darmstadt the mosaic occnpies ammiransi nel Museo Nazionale, Napoli, 

the same horizontal position as it had 1865, No. 100, Vivaio di diverse specie di 

originally. Both in the British Museum pcsci. No less than thirteen hsh are 

and in the collection of Antiquities at tbe represented here; a bird, perched on a 

Guildhall, for want of space, Roman rock, is preparing to seize one of them 

pavements have been affixed to the walls : with liLs beak. Human figures lu-e absent, 


an idea by some allegorical form ; it was more elegant and 
refined than the matter-of-fact style of modern art (if it 
deserves the name), which denotes maritime commerce by 
a ship and lighthouse on a penny, or mortality by a 
death's head and crossbones at the entrance to a church- 
yard.^ In such a case, this simple explanation may 
suffice , and we should not be misled by a vain transcen- 
dentalism to hunt after some recondite myth or deep 
significance, which the mosaicist no more intended than 
Grinling Gibbons when he decorated the temples that 
Wren's fertile genius had designed. The Thermae at 
Pompeii afford two examples of a Neptunian subject in 
stucco, one in the Apodyterium, the other in the 

On the upper of the two long sides of the rectangle, 
beginning at the left Iiand we see a Cupid (Eros) floating on 
the water with outspread wings, like sails, carrying him 
onwards. His left arm gently rests on a dolphin, but he 
seems scarcely to require its support. A kind of sea- 
beetle and a fish separate this group from a sea-lion ; the 
latter, with waving mane and uplifted paw, prepares to 
pounce on a serpent, which, aware of the danger, rapidly 
glides away.^ Above the lion a swan extends its neck 

with the_ exception of winged Genii my Paper on the South- West of France 

inserted in the beautiful border of Archaeol. Journ. vol. xxxvi ,pp. 16-20, 

arabesques. The ordinary guide-books 1879. 

notice this fine mosaic very briefly, or ' Mons. Pulsky showed me a gem on 

omit it altogether. which an actor was figured taking a 

A similar treatment of marine subjects garland off his head, to denote the end of 

may be seen near Pau. Mosaiques de a dramatic performance, and the close of 

Juran9on et de Bielle (Basses-Pyrenees) life symbolically. 

notices et Dessins par Ch.-C. Le Coeur, ^ Bechi, Real Museo Borbonico, tom. 

Architecte, Planches i, ii, iii, two of which ii, tav. 50, 53; pp.15 and 1, 2. He 

are coloured. These plates are repeated speaks of these decorations as being in 

in^ a larger work by the same author, Le the spogliatoio (undressing-room) or 

Beam, Histoire et Promenades archeolo- apodyterium — an apartment which some 

giques, viz., Nos. 21, 22, 23, inserted ;vs say was at Pompeii the same as the frigi- 

illustrations of chap, ii, part i,Thermesde darium, but the opinion is, I think, 

Juran^on, pp. 145-163, but without the erroneous : Diet, of Antt., s.v. Balneae, 

colouring, which is an important omission, p. 189. Overbeck, Pompeii, vol. i, 

because it prevents the reader from being Drittes Capitel, Fiinfter Abschnitt, Die 

able to appreciate the beauty of the iilteren Tliermen. p. 192, fig. 139. Ansicht 

originals. iSee esp. PI. ii, Bassin E, dcs Apodyterium, and text p. 193 ; p. 

Grande quantite de poissous varies ct 196, fig. 142. Deckenwulbuug des Tepi- 

dont les^ colours sont nuancfees avec art, darium ; and p. 216, full-page Figur 149 

pl. iii.. Salle L,, Un trident passant sur le Apodyterium der neuen Thermen. 
cote gauche de la, poitrine, et s'olevant ^ This water-beetle perhaps belongs to 

au-dessus de la tete, iiidique uno figure the sub-order Hydropliilus, v. Cuvier, 

de Neptune ; ibiil. Salle M, Buste colos- Ilogne Auiuial. tome 0, In.sectes I, S. 

sal. Sur cette figure une ancre est dis- Genre Hydrophile. PI. 38 ; cf. ibid. PI. 

posee, &c, Text, pp. 14, 18, 20. Comp. 26, fig. 6, Haliple imprime : bat at 


gracefully curved, and directs its beak towards the beetle 
in front. Proceeding in the same direction, we find in the 
opposite corner of the smaller side, a sea-centaur ; the 
upper part of his body as far as the hips, human ; the 
lower composed of a horse's legs, that end not in hoofs 
but web feet, and of a fish's tail with many convolutions ; 
in this and similar figures throughout the mosaic fins and 
scales are wanting. The centaur turns his head to look 
at the beings behind, with his right hand outstretched 
he invites them to follow him, under his left arm he 
carries' a shell-fish. Next comes a hippocamp which has 
the hoofs as well as fore-legs of a horse, and the tail of a 
fish with fewer curves ; so that considerable variety is 
introduced. His head is erect, and the action more 
spirited than in the last case. A young dolphin divides 
the two more important figures Behind the hippocamp 
two ducks claim attention by the beauty of their 
colouring ; in one of them the effect is produced by using 
a vitreous paste instead of small marble cubes. On the 
lower side of the mosaic only a single group remains ; it 
consists of a sea centaur blowing a trumpet, and a Cupid 
riding on a dolphin, ' who holds the reins with his left hand, 
while he raises his right arm in an attitude of astonish- 
ment, and turns his head to listen to the notes of the 

The great lacuna in the composition which we observe 

Darmstadt the treatment is so conven- Neptune, in various attitudes, were a 

tional that in many cases we cannot with favourite subject with the ancient 

certainty identify the creatures repre- artists. Gori, Gemmae Antiquae Musei 

sented. On the contrary, in the marine Florcntini, vol. ii., p. 99, Tab. li,, fig. ii. 

mosaic at Naples the style is realistic ; all Amor a delphinis vectus 

the fish, poi-trayed with great fidelity, Amorem regem per mare alii Cupidines 

belong to the Mediterranean, and we comitantur. Cf . Tabb. xxxviii, xlvi, xlviii. 

can easily recognize the torpedo, pecten Catalogue of Engi-aved Gems in the 

(scallop), and pinna (a kind of shell-fish). British Museum, Nos. 613, 614, Plate G 

Similarly, periwinkles are visible among (photograph), Poseidon driving two hippo- 

the flowers in the border. camps; Nos. 620-627 Nereid; No. 881, 

The lion chasing a serpent has its Eros riding on a dolphin. Millin, Galerie 
analogue at Corinium: Buckman and Mythologique, Explication des Planches, 
Newmarch, Remains of Roman Art in No. 177, PI. xlii ; No. 298, PI. Ixxiii ; No. 
Cirencester. PI. vi. The Pavement B 632, Pi. clxxii. C. 0. Miillur, Deukmiiler, 
from Dyer street, p. 36. A winged sea- part i.,taf. xl., fig. 175 ; pt. ii., liii, 672; 
dragon, with two strong fore-legs, in cf. ibid, vii., 78-81, 85 ; with 79 coin of 
active pursuit of a fish, also a sea-leopard gens Crepereia comp. Babelon, Descrip- 
following an other fish. Heads of Neptune tiou historiqiie et chronologique des 
with " tangled sea-weeds " and lob.sters' Mounaies de la Republique Romaiue, 
claws. These details are well exhibited 1885-6, tome i, p. 439 sq., with 2 wood- 
in a coloured engraving, 4to size. cuts. 

^ Deities belonging to the cycle of 


here was probably filled by an animal without any ad- 
mixture of the human form, so as to correspond with the 
lion above mentioned ; this may be inferred from the 
symmetry prevading the design, which, however, as in the 
Parthenon pediments, was not carried so far as to appear 
mechanical and monotonous. ^ On the other hand, as we 
turn round the corner, we come upon a sea-centaur, well- 
drawn, and, fortunately, well-preserved ; his right hand 
holds up a rudder, and his left points to some monster of 
the deep, who was doubtless advancing towards him. 

All the figures described hitherto are adjacent to the 
border of the Mosaic ; many others similar in character 
occupied the interior, and evidently bore some relation to 
the central subject. A winged Cupid and a dolphin are 
still complete ; we see also the fore-quarters of a sea- 
dragon, which has ears shaped like horns and strange 
projections (antennae) from his nostrils ; but the counter- 
parts on the opposite side have disappeared. In the 
midst, a great blank renders it difficult to ascertain the 
meaning of the few fragments that still remain ; these 
consist of snaky locks, two fishes rising out of them, and a 
serpent. The undulating tresses suggest the idea that the 
artist intended to represent Medusa's head, which occurs in 
mosaic as well as in sculpture and engraved gems. But 
it is more reasonable to suppose that we have here a 
river-god, both on account of the fishes, and because such 
a deity would harmonize better with the surroundings.^ 

^ Cockerel!, on the Antique marbles in rung der Tafeln. Asytnmetrie, Sym- 
the British Museum, part vi., quoted by metric des Contrastes. 
Sir H. Ellis, Elgin and Phigaleian ^ In the marine Mosaic at Naples, 
Marbles, i., 235, " An exact symmetry of mentioned above, the central group is 
the masses or groups, in correspondence entire. At first I thought it was a 
with the architectural arrangement, was Gryllus, such as we see in King's Hand- 
essential in the decoration of an edifice in book of Engraved Gems, woodcut opposite 
which order and regularity were the p. 81, No. 4 ; i.e., a grotesque figure 
chief sources of efiect. To these groups formed by combining portions of various 
the sculptor's art was to give every variety animals of the most diverse species into 
consistent with this principle, and the the outline of a single monster : v. De- 
nature of the woi-k contributed to this scription of the woodcuts, ibid., p. 377, 
important result." Ibid, ii., 18, "The and Copper-Plate, No. 34. But Professor 
head of one of the horses of Night pro- Hartog explained to me that the subject 
jected over the cornice, thus breaking the we have here is a cuttle-fish devouring a 
line which might seem too rigidly to con- prawn, which would correspond well with 
fine the composition of the frontispiece." the general design. It may interest some 
Der Parthenon von Adolf Michaclis, Text readers to compare with this antique 
miteiner Hilfstafel, 1871; Atlas of Plates, picture Cuvier's llegne Animal, tome 5, 
Taf. 6, fig. 5, DerOstgiebel nach Carrey; text, Mollu.squos, Cei)halopodes, pp. lii — 
Taf. 7, Westgiebel i., figs. 1-6, Acltere 24 ; and Atlas of Plates, Nos. 1—7. 
Zeichnuugen : Text, p. 154 sq. Erkla- Gcm-e Seiche. Sepia. Sous-Genre Poulpe. 

Octopus. S. Geure Calmar. Loligo, &c. 


The inscription should not be passed over, especially as 
examples on Mosaics occur but rarely. It informs us 
that PiiRviNCVs was the artist ; there are also some letters, 
which should probably be read fecit.' These words are 
formed with black tessellce on a white ground, and 
included within a framework of vertical and horizontal 
lines, so as to present the appearance of a tablet. A 
Eoman potter of this name is mentioned by Mommsen in 
his Inscriptiones Confoederationis Helveticae Latinae ; it 
is also found on the Ehine and the Danube, and in the 
South of France.^ 

I have already ventured to descend the stream below 
my prescribed limits, may I now be permitted for a few 
moments to proceed in the opposite direction ? Stras- 
bourg (Argentoratum) is not famous for Eoman remains, 
but it interests the scholar as the seat of a University 
adorned by many illustrious names ; and if he has studied 
the monuments themselves on the Ehine and the Moselle, 
he may here with great advantage consult the books that 
have been written concerning them. The Library con- 
tains more than 600,000 volumes, chiefly collected since 
the siege in 1870 ; as might be expected, it is very rich in 
Alsatian literature, which fills one apartment exclusively. 
I remember with pleasure that an employe said to me, 
" On donne toutes les facilites," and that he amply 
fulfilled his promise. However, Strasbourg possesses 

^ The letters II are frequently used as testis reliquis impressa vel inscripta, No. 

equivalent to E : My paper on Antiquities 352, 159, p. 96. [Basil.] 

in the Museum at Palermo, Archiieo]. PIIRVINCI. F 

Joiirn. 1881, vol. xxxviii, p. 160 sq., note Bruckner, p. 3,075, RiJmische Alter- 

3, containing a reference to Torremuzza. tiimmer von Augst. Mittheii. dor Oesell- 

In this case, one inscription supplies ten schaft fiir Vaterliindisohe Alterthiinier in 

examples. Torremuzza's work is a cum- Basel. Die Romischen Inschriften des 

brous and expensive folio, but the words Kantons Basel von Dr. K. L. Roth, p. 

which I have cited will be found in a 13, II Topfernamen, p. 14, A. Namen im 

recent and handy publication : Catalogo Nominativ rait dem Zusutzo Fecit, and 

del Museo dell' Ex-Monastero di S. note 21). PIIRVINCI.F. 

Martino delle Scale presso Palermo, com- Dr. I5ossler, op. citat, p. 27, note 54, 

pibito da A. Salinas, p. 11, No. 75. quotes five examples of this name from 

^ Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gruter's Collection, but in each ciixe by 

Gesellschaft in Ziirich, zehnter Band ; mistake he has attributed them to 

No. 214, p. 40. Monument at Amsold- Graevius. One of them contains a re- 

ingen near Thun, markable word, exsignifer, a soldier who 

MAT. PERVINC had been a standard-bearer, so that the 

VS . PATR. F. C use of the preposition here is the same as 

Orelli's Collection, 1st edition, 1828, cap. we have in Ex-Chancellor, Ex-Promier, 

xxiii, Analecta nonnulla, p. 451, No. &c. Comp. the phrase ex pauperrumo 

5,066, gives the inscription very differ- dives factus. Cicero ap. Key, Lat. Gram- 

ently. mar, 1st edition, p. 311, \ 1,331 (from 

Ziirich, Mittheilungen, ibid., Vasa, in being very poor you have become rich). 


a collection of local antiquities that deserves a visit ; 
many objects have been discovered in digging for the new 
fortifications, and a Catalogue is being prepared.' As a 
very eminent and zealous Arclia3ologisl resides in the 
city, he will, we may be sure, " gather up the frag- 
ments that remain that nothing be lost."^ 

On former occasions I have acknowledged my obliga- 
tions to French Antiquaries ; in my last tour I was so 
fortunate as to make the acquaintance of Dr. Linden- 
schmit, Colonel von Cohausen and Professor Michaelis, to 
whom 1 am deeply indebted for their kind co-operation. 
The German savants may not have that fascinating charm 
of manner which makes our nearest neighbours so agree- 
able ; but they equal their rivals in cordiality ; they 
surpass them in profound and varied erudition. 


Julius Grimm, in his treatise, entitled Der Rumische Briickenkopf in 
Kastel bei Mainz, has translated thv. words of Floras, loc citat. Per 
Rheni quidem ripam qninquaginta amplius castella direxit, Vollends am 

Ufer des Rheines errichtete er mehr als fiinfzig Castelle. This render- 
ing would correspond with erexit ; but c?/re:rzY implies a continuous series 

^ This Museum is on the right bank of anciens remparts ; II., Plan Masse du 

the river 111, and not far from the Min- Cimeti^re Romain et de ses alentours a 

star : Baedeker's Rheinlande, p. 155, edit., 1/2000 ; III., Cimeti^re Romain de Stras- 

1886, Die Sammlungen des elsiissischen bourg. Plates i-vi. show glass and 

Alterthumsvereins ; comp. Plan of Stras- pottery found in excavating ; see Reper- 

bourg between pp. 146 and 147. After toire (Index) at the end of the Article, 

crossing the bridge one should proceed s.v. Aigui6res, Ampoules, Fioles et 

by the Wilhelmer Gasse. Flacons h, essences, Flacons et bouteilles 

- I refer especially to the learned de grandes dimensions, Poterie, Verres 
author of the great work on the Par- Romains. In the same neighbourhood a 
thenon, cited above, and of the Ancient valuable cup was found, of the kind 
Marbles in Great Britain — books I cannot called Diatreta (jiierced, bored, SidrpTjTos, 
read without shame, because a foreigner ol ^MTerpiivu). It unfortunately perished 
has surpassed all English writers in de- during the siege, together with many 
scribing our own collections, both public other vases, on the disastrous night of 
and private. However, Prof. Michaelis is August 24, 1870 ; op. citat., p. 6 sq. 
not without co?ia6o?'afcM}'s at Strasbourg, as These glass vessels were contained within 
may be seen by consulting the Bulletin a sort of network, or open tracery, also of 
de la Societe pour la conservation des glass : Rich, Dictionary, s.v. with wood- 
monuments historiques d'Alsace. cut, Diet, of Antt., s.v. Vitrum, p. 1211 ; 

A very copious account of the Gallo- Martial Epigrams, XII., 70, 9, 

Roman Cemetery is given by A. Straub, quantum diatreta valent et quinque 

chanoine titulaire de la cathedrale, in the comati ! 

Publications of this Society, IP Serie. — The cemetery at Strasbourg may 

Onzieme volume (1879-1880), Deuxieme advantageously be compared with the one 

Partie. — Memoircs, avec gi\avures et at Ratisbon, on both .sides of the road 

planches, pp. .3-1.35. The text is iilus- from that city to Kurapfmiihl. An 

trated by three plans : I., Vue cavalicrc elaborate plan of it, giving many details, 

des alentours de la Porte Blanche de has been published by llerr Dahlem. 
Strasbourg avant la demolition des 


or chain of fortresses, as distinguished from those that might be built 
promiscuously, whenever an opportunity presented itself. 

Livy, bk. v, chap. i')5, affords a most apposite illustration of this 
word : Festinatio curam exemit vicos dirigendi, dum, omisso sui 
alienique discrimine, in vacuo aedificant. The historian is relating the 
Instauratio XJrbis after its capture and burning by the Gauls ; and his 
narrative reminds us of the parallel case in our own metropolis after the 
Great Fire, when Sir Christopher Wren's magnificent design was 
rejected, and the irregular rebuilding of London ensued. 
Cf. Persius, Sat i, v. 65, 

Scit tendere versum 
Non secus ac si oculo rubricam dirigat vino. 
Since every verse is drawn as straight and fine, 
As if one eye had fix'd the ruddled line. 

GilTords Translation, p. 21. 

See also the note of Is. Casaubon in loco, edit. Paris, 1615. 

P. Silius, in No. 3414 of the Spanish Inscriptions, C.I.L, has been 
identified above with P. Silius Nerva, Consul B.C. 20 ; this explanation 
is confirmed by the letters being well formed, " litterae sunt optimae aevi 
Augusti." The Index gives his name thus p.silivs, denoting by 
capitals a man of senatorial rank. We also find the feminine Silia. 
Coins of gens Silia, according to Cohen, are interesting, because they 
show the mode of voting by ballot at elections ; cf. Cassia : IMednilles 
Consulaires, Silia, No. 155, pp. 301-303, PI. xxxviii ; Cassia,, No. 35, 
p. 81 sq., Nos. (8), (9) and p. 84 ; PI. xi, Nos. 4, 5 ; obs. Edairdsse- 
ments in the text. But Babelon, following the attribution of earlier 
numismatists, assigns the pieces in question to the family Licinia, 
instead of Silia: Monnaie dc la Republique Eomaine tome ii, p. 128 sq.. 
No. 7, and woodcut, cf. p. 461. 

For Atto see Brambach, Corp. Inscrr. Rhenan, Nos. 605, 825, 857, 
915, 1,483, 1,769. No. 915 is the inscription at Mainz given above 
in extenso. The Index to Hiibner's Inscrr. Hispan. has *'Atto m. 2,835, 
which means that the name is doubtful, and that the person mentioned 
v/as a male. Turning to the reference I find that ateo is on the 
stone ; this seems to be the termination of some proper name that we 
are unable to supply. De Vit's Onomasticon omits Atto, but contains 
the gens Attonia, "^;ar«??i nota:" Mommsen, Inscrr. Hclveticae. cap. 
XXV, Colonia Augusta Raurica (Basel-Augst), p. 59, No. 287. Basileae 
hinter der Miinsterkirche : Roth, Uie Romischen Inschriften des 
Kantons Basel, op. citat., p. 11, No. 23 and note 16; Orelli, vol. ii, 
p. 125, cap. xiv, §6, Honesta Missio, No. 3,580. 

In the second inscription which I have quoted gives occurs for 
civis, nominat. sing. Grutcr, pag. Ixiv, 6, Augustae (Vindelicorum) 
in aedibus Peutingeri, sex. attonivs. pkivatvs gives {sir) 
TREVER ; ibid, dlviii, 4, In oppido Lauginga gives ijrivixes : 
Orelli, No. 3,523 Gives (sic) Mediomatrica ; he calls attention to the 
feminine gender of civis, and refers to Gruter, xiii, 5, Civis Trevera : 
comp. my paper on Touraine and the Central Pyrenees, part ii, Archopol. 
Journ., vol. xlv, p. 334; the lady probably came from Tieves to ilrink 
the waters at Luchon. This use of of cins corresponds willi tlic French 
citoyenne. There was also nn archaic form eekis ; hence the long 
syllable in the penultima of civis can be accounted for. An example 


occurs in tlie Seuatus-Consultum (so-called) De Bacchanalibus, of which 
Drakenborch's Livy. edit. 4to., gives a fac-simile, vol. vii, p. 197, 
&c. With cEivis cf. ibid, preivatod. ibei, vobeis. A^ide 
Ariodante Fabrctti, Corpus lascviptionum Italicarum antiquioris aevi Glossarium Italicum, 1867, quoted by De Vit. p. 817, s.v. 
CEivis=^Osc.CEVS, et CEiviTAs; V. CEvs, p. 836 sq. 

The geographical position of Kaetinium is thus defined by Pliny, Nat. 
Hist, iii, 22 (26), §1-42. Ab his castella Pegantium, Rataneum, Narona 
colonia tertii conventus a Salona Ixxxii m. pass., apposita cognominis 
sui fluvio a mari xx in. pass. For the campaign of Germanicus in 
Dalmatia and the capture of Raotinum see Dion Cassius, lib. Ivi, cap. 
11 edit. Sturz, vol. iii, p. 438 ^Evrevdev 81 iTrVFaiTWov eA^oi'xes ot 
'Pw/xaioi, oi'X oiiouo<; d-yXXa^av.... dr' dfj.cfiOTepiov dfia aTTwAovTO, Tv; jilv 

TtT/3W(rK0M£V0l, TTj 8e KaiOjieVOL. 

In the passage cited above Dr. Liiidenschmit describes the part of the 
armour protecting the lower region of the abdomen and the pudenda — 8 
Lederstreifen, welche mit Metallbuckeln beschlagen sind, und an ihren 
Enden bewegliche, in Scharniereu hiingende Schlussknopfe haben : cf. 
ibid, Heft iv, Taf. 6. The metal bosses or studs upon the leather straps 
show that this appendage to the lorica was defensive as well as orna- 
mental. The Greek name for it is irrepvye's (wings), apparently from 
some resemblance of form ; the Latin equivalent is not known, lacinia 
(lappet or flap of a garment) would perhaps come nearest ; it is used 
with reference to chlami/s, pallium, toaa and tunica (Rich, Diet., s.v.) 
but I have not met with any case in which it is applied to military 

Two interesting passages in Xenophon corroborate what has been 
already said, De Re Equestri, xii, 4, Ilepi 8e to T^rpov koL to. aiSoia koI 
ra kvkXw at rrepuye? TOtaurai Kal TotravTai eo-Twcrav, wcrTe crreyetv ra 
fieX}]. Anabasis,, iv, 7, § 15 (speaking of the Chalybes in Pontus), 
hxov 8e OwpaKas Atvous fJ-^Xpi' tou ijrpov, dvrl Se Twv Trrepvywv cnrdpTa 
TTVKva €(TTpaii[xeva. Vid. Stephens, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, edit. 
Didot, s.v. -nrkpv^; Diet, of Antt., p. 712 sq., art. Lorica by Mr. Jas. 
Yates : Baumeister, Denkmiiler des Klassischen Altertums, s.v. Waffen, 
pp. 2015-2078, i Griecheu, ii Eomer, with many illustrations, for the 
whole subject of ancient armour and weapons ; pp. 2,033 links unten, 
2060 lu. for the Trrepvye^. 

The Sporran (pronounced Spurran) of our Highland regiments looks 
very like the ornament described above, and the definition of Sporan in 
Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary would almost nuit for its Roman analogue, 
viz., a shaggy purse made of the skin of badgers and of other animals, 
which is fastened by a belt round the middle, and hangs down in front 
of the philibeg with tassels dangling to it. Comp. Ogilvie's Imperial 
Dictionary, s.v., with two woodcuts. 

A remarkable chapter in Tacitus, Annals, ii, 9, is illustrated 
by the decorations which we have observed in the monument of Caelius. 
The historian relates a conversation between Arminius, the German 
chief, and his brother Flavus (not Flavins, as in some editions), who is 
serving in the Roman Army, and had lost an eye in battle. The latter 
says that he had lieen rewa;ded with increased pay, a collar, a crown and 
other military honours, but Arminius scornfully calls them the contemptible 
wages of a slave — vilia servitii pretia. This figure of Caelius has been 


reproduced in the Musee d'Antiquites Rationales at St. Germain — a 
collection which is not limited to objects found in France, as its name 
would seem to imply. For the purpose of comparison casts of antiques 
in other countries have been judiciously added. 

Plialerae and torques were worn by the Romans like the stars, crosses 
and ribands of our own time ; so they remind me of lines quoted by Lord 
John Russell in the House of Commons, I know not from what author — 

"Those emblems Cecil did adorn, 

And gleamed on wise Godolphin's breast." 

Caelius perished, as we have already seen, in the defeat of Varus and 
his legions. It was probably on the occasion of some similar reverse that 
the Germans captured a service of plate, known as the Hildesheimer 
Silberfund (from Hildesheim, south of Hanover) ; it was complete for 
three persons, and contained about seventy pieces. They were dug up 
by soldiers working at the foot of the Galgenberg, in 1868, and are now 
deposited in the Antiquariura of the old IMuseum at Berlin. This is the 
most important discovery of the kind that has been made in Germany. 
Electro-plate copies by Christofle may be seen at the South Kensington 
Museum, in the hall of reproductions. Brockhauy, Conversations 
Lexicon, s.v. Ausgrabungen, vol. ii., p. 241, thirteenth edition : Murray's 
Handbook for the Rhine and North Germany, p. 192, edit. 1886. 

Pape, Worterbuch der Griechischen Eigennamen, gives Mt^petov, 
Heiligthum des Mithras, as the Greek form for Mithraeum ; comp. 
6y](riLov, Temple of Theseus. Larousse, Dictionnaire Universel, has a 
copious article on this deity. He says that the sun is mh)- in Persian, 
that Aspamitras in Ctesias means friend of horses, and Mithridates giveii 
by Mitliras. For the tablet found at Heddernheim, see Lajard, op. 
citat., Plate cvi ; comp. Pis. xc, xci, bas-reliefs de gris. 

The term /xecrtTv/s is applied to Mithras : Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, chap, 
xlvi, /xecrov 8e d[x<p6tv tov MI6PHN etvat • 8to Kal MlOpijv Ueptrai tov 
fj.€criTr]v ovo [layover IV. Cf. Milman, History of Christianity, I, 70-73. 
Mediator — The Word; in the New Testament this is a title of our Lord: 
Epistle to the Hebrews, viii, 6, KpeiTTovos ecmv 8iad'i]K->]s /^ecriTv/s ; ibid. 
IX, 15, Ktti 8ta rovTO SLaOr'^Kijs KaLvrjs /xecrtTi^s ecTTtv. 

Mosheim, Church History, vol. 1, pp. 264—266. 

C. 0. Midler, Handbuch der Archjiologie der Kunst, § 322, Remark 4 
(English Translation, pp. 323 — 325) gives the names of noted workers in 
mosaic (musivarii ; in the Theodosian Codex, distinguished from 
tessellarii), besides Sosus, Dioscorides and Heraclitus (§ 209, Rem. 1). 
Proclus and J. Soter, Fuscus at Smyrna (?), Prostatius (?) — vide supra 
Fourth Period of Art, § 163, Rem. 6, Eng. Transl. p. 121 sq. With 
the Darmstadt pavement we may compare that found at Lillebonne, 
which also is inscribed. An account of it was written long ago by the 
Abbe Cochet, author of La Normandie Souterraine : it has been pub- 
lished recently by Messrs. Rollin and Feuardent, with three illustrations 
of 4to. size. 

The meaning of the preposition ex, prefixed to a noun, is explained 
by Dr. Joseph von Hefner, Das Romische Bayern in seinen Schrift und 
Bildmalen, p. 153 sq.. No. clxxiv., Denkmal. Regensburg. 

D. M. 
M- H- M- EXTB C VI' AN' LIII. . . 


Diis Mixnibus. Septimio Impetrato, vcterano legionis III. Italicae, 
niisso honesta missione, extribuno cohovtis VI., aimorum LIII. , . 

ExTB has been explained as the abbreviation for cxtrihano or 
extibicine, but the former seems preferable. Hefner says that ex here 
denotes that a man has resigned his dignity or office, but does not 
imply that he has been advanced to a higher rank. These compound 
words generally occur in the Ablative and rarely in the Nominative 
(like proconsule j^i'opmetore, and later pwcoimsul propraetor), but no 
other cases are used : cf. ibid. p. 270, No. cccxciv. Denkmal. Rom. Taf. 
V. Fig. 19a. b. 






VRBI. . . 

Clodii Hermogeniani, viri clurissimi, expraefecto Urbi. 

Sometimes a dot separates ex from the following word. For other 
examples vide ibid, (vii.) Index Rerum — Exaquilifero legionis i. adju- 
tricis, p. 41; Exbeneficiario consulis, p. 185; Exequite legionis iii. 
Italicae, pp. 3 91, 213 ; Exsignifero legionis iii. Italicae, pp. 150, 151. 
Comp. Das mittelalterlich — romische Lapidarium und die vorgeschichtlich 
— romische Sammlung zu S*^ Ulrich in Regensburg. Von. J, Dahlcm, 
p. 22, Nr. 59. 


ibid. p. 12, Nr. 2, we have sigf, the abbreviation for Signifer. 

Der Ober-Donau-Kreis des Konigreichs Bayern unter den Roniern, 
Von Dr. v. Raiser. III**^ Abtheilung, Die Romcr-Monumento und 
ITeberreste aus der RiJmer-Zeit zu Augsburg und in der niichsten 
Nachbarschaft, p. 81, liv*''^ Monument. Kupfer tafel (Tab) ix., fig. i. 

This use of ex in composition has escaped the attention of many 
grammarians and lexicographers ; I have therefore enlarged upon it. 

We have met with Pervincus as the name of a mosaicist, the feminine 
Pervinca also occurs : Raiser op. p. citat. p 88 •Ixii'''^'' Monument. 
Secundinae Pcrvincae ; Hefner Ki 4 S(|. clxxxviii. Denkmal . ^j'ieriac/i. 
The gravestone was erected by tlie lady's husband, 

nil VIRALIS... 

Gains Julianius Juh'»5 dQcurio mumcipil quatu(n'viralis. 

It is said that under the Empire there were four chief magistrates 
(Quatuorviri) in the municipia, and two (Duumviri) in the colonies : 
Mezger, Die Riimischen Steindenkmiiler, Inschriften und Gefiiss-Stompel 
im Maximilians-Mus(!um zu Augsburg, 18G2, p.7 . Anmerkung. 
Gruter gives Pervinca Paterni (filia), at Gundershofen in Alsace. There 
is another form of the name, Pervinia, but it seems doubtful : Hefner 
p . 153. Nr. clxxiv. Denkmal. Regensburg. 

Edward Gerhard's Archiiologische Zeitung contains an excellent article 
on the Darmstadt Mosaic by Otto Jahn : he has treated the subject 
copiously and accurately — in a manner worthy of so eminent a scholar 
and antiijuary : Achtzehntcr Jahrgang, 1S60, pp. 113-123 — Neptunisohe 
Mo.saike, Tafel cxlii, Romische IJader zu Vilbcl, Grundriss im gross- 
herzogliche Museum zu Darmsdadt ; cxliii, Neptunisches Mosaik aus 


Vilbel ; cxliv, D'"' aus Constantine im Museum ties Louvre (which 
cannot be seen at present on account of alterations in tlie building.) 
The author observes that the Darmstadt mosaic is composed partly of 
small coloured marble cubes, and partly of small colouied and 
gilt glass pastes ; in a note he gives a list of mosaics in which 
marine subjects (Seeschopfen) are portrayed — at Olympia, Con- 
stantine, Philippeville, Oudnah, Barcelona and Orbe, with references ; 
and he calls attention, as I have already done, to the absence of any 
special motive for the composition. According to Otto Jahn no otlier 
Pervincus is known as a mosaicist, but a potter with this name is 
mentioned by Frohner. Inscr. terr. coct. vas. 381. Lastly, he describes 
at length the great mosaic at Constantine representing Poseidon and 
Amphitrite in a quadriga, Nereids and fishermen. Judging from the 
engravings I should think it was executed later than the one at 
Darmstadt. See Exploration scientifique de 1' Algerie — a magnificent 
collection of engravings, in folio — plate 139, 140 uncoloured, general 
view, i.e. group of figures surrounded by thirty-six rosettes, each of a 
difi'erent pattern. Plates 141 — 146 are coloured; the first shows genii 
holding a canopy over the god and goddess, two boats with masts and 
sails, sepia (cf. Dominicis, Kepertorio Numism. i, 480 sq. s.v. Polpo; 
Hunter's Catalogue, s.v. Gortyna, tab. xxviii, fig, 20), and other 
varieties of fish ; then follow the rosettes on a large scale. This work 
was edited by Ad. H. Ab. Delamare ; it contains 193 plates, but no 
explanatory text. For the mosaic at Orbe v. my Paper on the Roman 
Antiquities of Switzerland, Archaeol, Journ, vol. xlii pp. 191 — 194, csp. 
p. 193. 

I subjoin the titles of some books on Alsatian Antiquities, 

Ingenieur Major F. von Apell, Ein Beitrag zur Ortsgeschicht von 
Strassburg in Elsass, mit zwei photolitbographirten Planen, 1884. 

De Morlet — Notice sur les voies Romaines du Departement du Bas- 
Rhin. (Arrondissements de Strasbourg, de Saverne et de Wissembourg), 
with map, and part of the Theodosian Table showing roads to Metz, 
Mayence, and Bale, 1861. 

Wilhelm Wiegand, Die Alamannenschlacht vor Strassburg, A.D., 357, 
eine Kriegsgeschichtliche Studie, mit einer Karte and einer Wegskizze, 

1887. These three books were specially recommended to me by Dr. 
Waldner, one of the librarians at Strassburg. 

Goldberg and J. G. Schweighaeuser — Antiquites de I'Alsace, vol. i, 
Haut-Rhin ; vol, ii, Bas-Rhin ; folio with large engravings : the latter 
author is the son of John Schweighaeuser, the celabrated editor of 
Herodotus and other Greek writers. Vol. i contains an Historical 
Introduction, pp. xi, without an Index ; Routes, Villes Romaines, pp. 
123 — 126 : Vol. ii. Monuments Romains, pp. 1-24, with map and plates. 

Maximilien de Ring, Tombes Celtiques de I'Alsace, folio, with fine 
coloured plates, in ^ four parts. 

Felix Voulot, of Epinal, Les Vosges avant I'histoire, 4to. This writer 
has taken great pains to investigate the district, but his theories are 

J. Naeher, Die romischen Militiirstrassen und Handelswege in der 
Schweiz und in Siidwestdcutschland insbesondere in Elsass-Lothringon, 

1888, with two maps, 1. corresponding with the title; 2. the Roman 
Military Way from Argentoratum to Tres Tabcrnao on a largo scale, and 


plan of the Castellum at Strassburg. The author justly remarks that by 
studying these roads we shall perceive their great importance as strategic 
lines of march and basis of operations for resisting attacks of the 
Germans on the Roman frontiers. More information may be obtained 
from this work than the title-page would lead us to expect. The first 
map shows the route from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta) to Vienna 
(Vienne), and its continuation through Lugdunum (Lyon), Andematunum 
(Langres) and Divodurum (Metz) to Augusta Treverorum (Trier, 
Treves): vide Index, Inhaltsverzeichniss der Heerstrassen, opposite p. 1, 

Dr. Kraus, Kunst und Alterthum im Unter-Elsass, three vols, a 
republication, I think, of memoirs that appeared in the Bulletin de la 
Socicte pour la Convervation des Monuments historiques d'Alsace. The 
first volume was mentioned to me by Professor Adolf Michaelis, who is 
so well known in England for his valuable works on the Parthenon and 
the Ancient Marbles in the private collections of our country. It con- 
tains some remarkable friezes to be seen at Strassburg Cathedral, and 
not described by the compilers of ordinary guide books : figs. 149-150. 

Engel and Lehr, Les Monnaies d' Alsace, texte frangais 1887, ara the 
best authorities for Alsatian coinf? ; the letter-press is said to be good, 
but the plates rather inferior. This province had no Roman mint, and 
no Roman gold coins have been found there ; it was probably supplied, 
like our own country, from the great ateliers monetaires of Treves. 

Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunde im Rheinlande, 
commonly quoted in the abbreviated form — Bonner Jahrbiicher. 

Ernst aus 'm Werth, Kunstdenkmiiler des Christlichen-Mittelalters in 
den Rheinlanden, 1857-1880, i. Abtheilung, Bilduerei ; ii. Abtheilung, 
Wandmalereien, large folio, many Plates beautifully coloured. As in 
old French Churches, so here in Germany, the subjects are frequently 
taken from the Apocalypse, which is proved by the inscriptions annexed, 
e.g. Hi secuntur Agnum quocunque ierit, gaudeamus et exultemus quia 
venerunt nuptiae Agni. This work will prove very useful to those who 
wish to pursue their inquiries beyond the limits of the Classical period, 
and extend them into the Middle Ages. 

The author's name deserves notice : it means literally from the island 
in a river. Werth in this sense is not given by the Dictionaries 
commonly used, because it is obsolete. V. Kiliani Dictionarium 
Teutonico-Latinum, torn. I., s. v. Weerd, Anglo-Saxon voorth, voeorth. 
Hinc Keysers-weert, Bomels-weert, q. d. Caesaris insula, Bomeli insula : 
Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsches Handworterbuch : Band III. VF-ZJ 
Nachtrage 1876-1878. "Wert insel, halbinsel, erhiihtes wasserfreies land 
zwischen Siimpfen : Weigand, Deutsches Worterbuch, 1881, der Werth 
Flussinsel. llistrichtig ohne das Dehnungs-h Wert Bayer, auch Worth, 
mild der tocrt, ahd der warid, tverid ; 1540 bei Alberus dictiontir. Bl. 
R. 4 werd, auch s. v. a. Vor-u. Schutzdamm des Ufers, S. Werder. 
Compare Nonnenwerth or Rolandswerth, and Grafenwerth — islands in 
the Rhine near the Siebengebirge ; and Donauworth on the Danube, 
between Augsburg and Nuremberg (Castrum Woerth). The Bavarian 
Worth reminds us of English names of places — Worth, a village in 
Sussex, and Sawbridgcworth, a town in Hertfordshire. For some of 
these references I am indebted to Dr. Hessels. 

I have been informed that thcie are some remains of an embankment 
made by Valentiniau at Alta Ripa, near the junction of the Neckar 


with the Rhine. Being unable to verify the statement, I can only 
propose it as a subject of investigation to English travellers. The 
modern name is Altrip, corresponding with Hauterive. Plusieurs 
localites portent ce nom en France : Brunet, Dictionnaire de Geographie 
Ancienne et Moderne, Supplement au Manuel du Libraire, p. 50. 
Ammianus Marcellinus says that Valentiniau changed the course of the 
Neckar to prevent injury to his fortifications : lib. xxviii, c. 2, §§ 1-4, p. 
406 sq., edit. Eyssenhardt. Denique cum reputaret munimentum celsum 
et tutum, quod ipse a primis fundarat auspiciis, praeterlabento Nicro 
(Neckar) nomine fluvio, paulatira subverti posse undarum pulsu inmani, 
meatum ipsum aliorsum vertere cogitavit, &c. 

Tillemont, Gibbon's "incomparable guide," gives some account of 
Valentinian's operations supra impacati Rheni semibarbaras ripas: 
Histoire des Emperours, 1720, tome cinquieme, Art. xxi, pp. 49-51. Valen- 
tinien fortifie les bords du Rhein, &c. L'an de Jesus Christ 369. On 
remarque principalement celui (chateau) qu'il bastit sur le Nekar, c'est 
a dire saxis doute au lieu ou cette riviere se rend dans le Rhein, et ou est 
aujourd'hui la ville de Manheim — il passa une partie de I'annee sur 
les bords da Rhein. Car selon les dates des loix . . . il etait le 19 
du mesme mois (Juin) a Altrip entre Manheim et Spire. The authori- 
ties quoted in the margin are abbreviated, but the expansion will be 
found in the Table des Citations prefixed to the volume. Gibbon, chap. 
XXV, vol. iii, p. 259 sq. edit. Smith. The Museum in the Schloss at 
Mannheim might throw some light on this subject, as it contains 
Romischgermanische Funde aus der Umgegend, etc. Baedeker's 
Rheinlande, 1886, p. 46. 

I possess a double denarius of Valentinian, which has not been 
published. Obv. d.n. valentinianvs. p.p.avg. ; bust to right with diadem 
(diadematum cum margaritis, Eckhel, viii, 150) and pahidamentam. 
Rev. VOT • v • MVLT • x in a laurel wreath ; in the exergue smaq, i.e., 
signata moneta Aquileiae, money struck at Aquileia. Cohen, Med. Imp., 
vol. V, pp. 402-404, esp. nos. 37-48, gives many similar coins, but none, 
with AQ in the exergue ; nor does aq appear in the list prefixed to the 
descriptions, ibid., p. 390, Lettres, nombres et symboles qui se ren- 
contrent sur les medailles de petit bronze de Valentinien ; but in the 
Supplement, vol. vii, p. 402, no 7, we find these words " Le n°. 53 
(revers rbstitvtor reipvblicae) avec smaqs a I'exergue." This is evidently 
not the same coin as mine ; however, as far as the exergue is concerned, 
it differs only by a single letter. 

With the embankment of this Emperor we may compare the levee on 
the Loire represented in Sauvagere's llecueil d'Antiquites duns les 
Gaules, pi. xvi, p. 159. According to Brunet, Alta Ripa on the Rhine 
is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary ; but I can find there only Ripa 
Alta (sic) in Hungary : p, 244 edit. Wesseling, " prope Duna Szent- 
Gyorgy (Reichard), Paks (v. Renner) ', under heading p. 241, edit Wess., 
Item per ripam Pannoniae a Tauruno in Gallias ad leg. xxx usque ; 
edit. Parthey & Pinder, pp. 112-118. This Alta Ripa is also marked in 
the Table of Peutinger, Segmentum V.a, Xorth-East of Siscia (Sissek). 

Atlases and maps commonly used do not give Altrip, which is au 
insignificant village ; but it appears in an early edition of Baedeker's 
Rheinreise von Basel bis Diisseldorf, Coblenz 1840, situated on the left 
bank of the river, south of Mannheim, about one third of the way to 


Speyer : v. the latter of two maps of the Kheinthal, on a large scale, at 
the end of the volume. Alt, the tivst syllable of this word, must not be 
confounded with the German adjective alt old, the identity of form 
being of course accidental. 

I have already noticed the Emperor Probus ; he displayed the greatest 
activity as a military ^commander in this region. For a raedallic bio- 
graphy of him see Etude historique sur M. Aur. Probus, d'apres la 
numisraatique du regne de cet Empereur, par Emile Lepavdle, T.yon, 
1884, pp. Ill ; and for the part relating to Germany, chapitre iv, Guerre 
des Gaules et de Germanic, pp. 51-68. At p. 71, and p. 108 note (57) 
he describes a coin of this Emperor which has the following legends: 
Obverse, imp eratov Caesav prgbvs* AVGustuft' cons??/' ii ; Reverse, 
VICTORIA* GEHuamca ; exergue, vi* (sic) xxt., minted at Tarragona : 
" c'est le seul exemplaire qui nous ait donne une date precise sur la fin 
de cette grande expedition de Germanic." Unfortunately for the reader, 
this work is not accompanied by engravings; but the deficiency may to 
a great extent be supplieil from the Collection de M. le Vicomte de 
Ponton d'Amdcourt, Catalogue de Monnaies romaines, pp. 86-88, nos. 
570-583 [photogravures taken from plaster casts and very well executed). 
Comp, Cohen, Medailles Imperiales, vol. v, pp. 221-313 ; PI. viii, opp. p. 
221, part of PI. ix, opp. p. 315 ; and esp. nos. 47, 48. 

I exhibited several coins found on the banks of the Ehine, which 
I obtained from M. Adolph E. Cahn, of Frankfort-am-Main, with a 
view to illustrate the Roman occupation ; they have great interest, as 
showing its military character, and thus corroborating the accounts of 
Ammianus and other historians. With only a single exception, the 
devices and legends are expressive of warlike achievements — trophies, 
standards and captives ; victoria germanica, fides militvm, concordia 
MiLiT, LEG. III. The types of tliese denarii furnish a commentary on a 
passage in Tacitus, Annals iv., 5, whore he tells us that the chief 
strength of the Roman army lay on the Rhine ; eight legions defending 
that frontier, while in Spain only three were required : sed praecipuum 
robur Rhenum juxta, commune in Germanos Gallosque subsidium, 
octo legiones erant. Hispaniae recens perdomitae tribus habebantur. 
Cf. ibid, i., 3 : and Gibbon, chap. 1, vol. 1, p. 153 sq., edit. Dr. AVm. 

One of the legends, hero, devsonensi, deserves notice, because it 
contains an uncommon epithet ; it occurs on a (lenarins of Postumus, 
and is explained by some with reference to Deutz, a town opposite 
Cologne ; but the ancient name of this place seems to have been Divitia, 
and Ammianus has the derivative Divitenses, xxvi., 7, 14 ; xxvii., 1, 2, 
edit. Eyssenhardt : in the Middle Ages it was called Duizia. Others 
prefer Duisburg in Kleveberg, north of Diisseldorf ; v. De Vit, s.v. 
Deusonensis, in the Onomasticon appended to his edition of Forcellini's 
Lexicon ; he mentions Deuso, a barbarous r.ame, and Dousa (see also 
Desanaus). The adjective may denote some place in which Hercules 
was specially venerated, cf. iibrcvli magvsano, Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet., 
vol. vii., p. 443 sq., probably from a town called Macusa or Magusa. 
Hercules often ai)p(^ars on the coins of Postumus to signify victories over 
his enemies ; sometimes the busts of the hero and emperor are conju- 
gated (accoles) : Cohen, Med. Imp. tome v., j). 15, No. 8 ; ibid, p 21, No. 
52 ; in the note to p. 19 he cites the Baron de Witte, wl^o has published 


an extremely interesting article on the coins of Postumus, that ex hibi 
the labours of Hercules, in the Revue Numismatique tie 1844. See also 
Collection d'Amecourt, Nos, 5.58, 539. 

We find the same myth on the coins of Probus "uho passed the 
Rhine, and displayed his invincible eagles on the banks of the Elbe and 
the Neckar." Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet., vii, 504, justly remarks, 
Herculis elogium, si quis alius, promeritus est Probus. Cohen, vol. v. p. 
241, No. 96. pi. ix ; Hercules appears in the legend of the reverses, p. 
264 sq., Nos. 278-291 ; various forms of the name occur — aercvli, 
HERCVLi, ERCVLi, v. note p. 264. Collection d'Amecourt, p. 88, No. 583. 
The sun also is a frequent type in the medals of Probus. 

Another class of coins found in the Rhine-land is interesting, but for 
a totally different reason, viz., because they show us the last stage 
of degeneracy reached by the barbarous imitations of the Greek proto- 
type — the Macedonian Philippus, known to the tiro as regale nomisma, 
Horace, Epistles ii. 1,234. I refer to the Regenbogenschils^cln (rainbow- 
dishes), which are of gold — so-called from some superstition that con- 
nected them with the rainbow, and from their concave shape, resembling 
some examples in the Byzantine series. If we compare these rude coins 
with the British and Gaulish, we shall see at once that they are still 
further removed from the Greek — indeed at first sight it is hard to 
identify therein any features of the original from which they are 

Of the Regenhogenschilssdn I exhibited two specimens — the larger one 
(weight 110 grains) being like some figures in Mr. Evans's Ancient 
British Coins, e.g., plate B, Nos. 5 and 6. The obverse shows locks of 
back hair, wreath and "a rounded projection where the face should be." 
On the reverse we see five balls, one of them rests on two supports, and 
another on three, thus having the appearance of a tripod ; these rude 
combinations are intended to represent the legs of a horse. The smaller 
example (weight 28 grains) has on the obverse a device, in which we 
may perhaps recognise a human face ; on the reverse only a cross, that 
may probably be explained as a descendant from the earliest type in 
the British series. Evans, op. citat., PI. A, Nos. 1 & 2, where we 
observe a cross band, at light angles to the wreath copied from the 
Philippus; ibid. p. 29, PI. C, No. 7, "the head beginning to assume a 
cruciform appearance;" pp. 26-30 progressive degradation. 

Keary, Morphology of Coins, reprinted from the Numismatic Chronicle, 
vol. V, 3rd series, pp, 165-198 ; esp. pp. 173, 181 ; PI. viii, no 19 ; ibid, 
nos. 20-22, " Gaulish coinage descended from that of the Spanish colony 
of Rhoda," for which see Heiss, Monnaies antiques de I'Espagne, p. 84 
scj[. pl. i. Mr. Keary refers to special monogiaphs on this subject, 
Streber, Rcgenbogenschiisseln, Friedliinder in BuUetino di Arclieologia ; 
Revue Numismatique, 1861, p. 141 (Lougperier) : and v. Mons''. P. 
Charles Robert on the Regenbogenschiisseln. 

Jacob Grimm, Deutsche IMythologie, zwcite Ausgabe, 1844, vol ii, 
cap. xxii. Himmel and Gestirne, p. 694 sq. Indessen hafien noch 
aberglaiibische iiberlieferungen. das volk wiihnt, an der stelle, wo der 
regenbogen aufsteht, sei eine r/oJthie schiissel, oder liege ein schatz verbor- 
gen ; aus dem regenbogen fallen goldmiinzen oder pfenninge nieder, 
gefundno goldbleche heissen regenhogmsclnissdein, patellae Iridis, die 
Sonne verzettle sis im regenbogen. In Baiern nennt man den regenbogen 


himmelring, -soj^ii^yzn'jzr/, jenemiinzenhiminelringschusseln (Schm. 2, 196, 
3, 109) vgl. oben. s. 333. For the mythology of the rainbow see also a 
more recent work, Die Deutsche Volksage von Dr. Otto Ilenne-Ara 
Rhyn, 1879, Erstes Each, Dritter Abschnitt. Die Elemente, I Die Luft, 
p. 58 sq. 

Tnose who wish to compare this rainliow-gold with Gaulish money 
Avill find ample illustrations in French books on numismatics, e.g. — 

Eugene Hucher, L'Art Gaulois ou Les Gaulois d'apres leurs Medailles, 
1868, 101 plates of coins, much enlarged, and classified as Avant Ct^sar 
and Du Temps de Cesar, besides woodcuts intercalated in the text. 

Joachim Lelewel, Type Gaulois ou Celtique, 1841, with Atlas, Planches 
i-xii, of the same size as the originals. 

F. De Saulcy, Lettres a M. A. De Longperier sur la Numismatique 
Gauloise, 1859, with engravings at the end of the volume. 

For the worship of Mithras, to the references given above, I add the 
following : — 

Henne-Am Rhyn, op, citat., Drittes Buch. Die Gotter und Helden- 
sage. Dritter Abschnitt. Die Gotter als Helden, II GeheimnissvoUe 
Ilerkunft ; p. 612 sq., Mithras. Er ist der Mittler zwischen dem guten 
und dem bcisen Element. 1 Timothy TI, 5, Ef? yap 9ej<i, els ku.i fiecriT-)!^ 
Oeov Kal dv9pM7r(j)v, avOpioTros Xptcrros 'Ii/rrov^, one mediator l)etween God 
and men. The meaning of this word is explained by Alford in his note 
on Hebrews, VIII, 6 ; cf. ibid XII, 24, and Galatians III, 20. The verb 
jxio-LTevo) also occurs, Heb. VI, 17. 

Milman, History of Christianity, vol. 1, p. 40, " Every foreign 
religion found proselytes in the cajntal of the world ; : . . and at 
a later period the reviving Mithriac mysteries, which in the same 
manner made their way into the Western provinces of the Empire." 
Creuzer's Symbolik, translated by M. de Guigniaut, and published with 
the title Religions de I'Antiquite, I, 3G3; and note ^p. 743. See also 
Milman, ibid. II, 266 sq. The phrase Light of Light, applied to the 
second Person of the Trinity in the Niccne Creed, presents a remarkable 
coincidence with the character of Mithras as the Sun-god ; comp. Heb. 
I, 3, OS wv dTravya(riJ.a n'ys- So^vys the effulgence of his glory ; so the 
Revised Version, which in this case is clearly preferable to the 
Authorised : Wisdom of Solomon, VII, 26. diravyaa-jxa ^wtos diStou. 
A similar idea is expressed in the account of the appearance of God to 
Moses in the burning-bush. Exodus III, 2-6 (cf. Numbers XXV, 4) 
Henne-Am Rhyn, ibid., p. 613. Milman, op. citat., ii, 278, Vestiges of 
every kind of religion, Greek, Asiatic, IMithraic have been discovered in 
Gaul, but none was dominant or exclusive. 

Archaeologia, vol. xlviii, pp. 1-105, esp. 19-25, Antiquarian Researches 
in Illyricum by Mr. Arthur John I] vans, accompanieJ by a map of parts 
of Roman Dalmatia, between pp. 2 and 3, and another showing the 
course of the Roman road inland fr jui Epitaurum (Ragusa Veechia), 
facing p. 100 — hero the Mithraic monuments are marked. This paper 
is a very valuable one, on account of the information in the text and the 
references in the notes. At p. 22 S(j. white carnelian, streaked appro- 
priately with blood-red, is mentioned. There may perhaps be an allusion 
to Mithraic gems of this kind in the Apocalypse II, 17, To him that 
overcometh will I give. . . a white stone (xpTjxpov XiVKrjv), and in the 
stone a new name written, which no man knovveth saving he that 


receiveth it. Such engraved stones were given to the candidate on the 
successful conchision of his probation, as a token of admission into thp. 
brotherhood, and for a means of recognition between its members : King, 
The Gnostics and their Remains, 1st edition, p. 61. Alford's Com- 
mentary, in loco, reproduces many unsatisfactory interpretations of the 
passage just quoted. 

Archaeologia, Index to vols. 1-50; esp. xlviii, 241-243, symbols of 
this cult found in London. 

C. W. King, op. citat., pp. 47-64, Mithraic monuments. The Twelve 
Tortures or Tests — Mithraic Talismans. The Roman Mithras in his 

Sir John Malcolm, History of Persia, 1815, chap, vii, pp. 180-274. 
On the Religion, History Antiquities, and Character of the Inhabitants of 
Persia before the Mahomedan conquest ; p. 183 and Index, Parsees or 
Guebers ; p. 185, Primeval religion of Persia. "Worship of fire first 
introduced by Houshung : see Plate facing p. 259, Sculpture on the face 
of the rock near the Tank-E-Bostan ; a figure, supposed to be the prophet 
Zoroaster, . . . his feet rest upon a star, and his head is covered with 
a glory, or crown of rays. A friend informs me that the wor.«hip of the 
modern Guebers is, in many respects, analagous to the old Mithraicism. 

Burn, Rome and the Campagna, p. 271, Temple of jNlithras or Apollo 
on the Vatican, close to the Circus of Nero, but the exact site is not 
known ; p. 371, House of his priests excavated at Ostia. 

Xenophon is the earliest Greek author who mentions this deity, 
Cyropaedia, vii, 5, § 53, where Artabnzus swears by him, /^a tov ^liOpi]v ; 
cf. CEconomicus, iv, 24, 6jj.vviu aot tov MiOprjv, said by Cyrus the 
Younger to Lysander. See Stephens, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, edit. 
Didot, S.V., and esp. at the end of the article, Persis hodie Blihr. 

Optio (a lieutenant in the army), is a conjecture that has been pro- 
posed to fill up a lacuna in the inscription on the monument of Caelius. 
Words ending in Ho of the masculine gender occur very rarely, but 
feminines with the same tei-mination are common enough ; hence the 
former must be carefully distinguished. Quinqaeriio is another example, 
i.e., one who practises thequinquertium (quinque, ars.) Greek Trci'Ta^Aoi', 
five exercises — leaping, foot-race, throwing the quoit, throwing the spear, 
and wrestling. Festus, edit. C. 0. Miiller, p. 257, Livius quoque (Andro- 
nicus) ipsos athletas sic nominat : " Quinquertiones praeco f in medium 
vocat : " De Vit says that the archaic form praecod should be read metri 
gratia. Dawson and Rushtou, Latin Terminational Dictionary, p. 84, 
Third or Consonant Declension, Masculines — to, ion-is, ion ; they write 
quinqu-ert-io (sic); opt-io is formed similarlj. 

In describing Roman antiquities on the Rhine I have had occasion to 
refer to the campaigns of Varus and Drusus. Hildesheim is situated 
between Hanover and Gottingen, not far from Detmold in the Teuto- 
burger Wald, and Elsen, a village in Westphalia, at the confluence of 
the rivers Alme and Lippe. The former district was the scene of the 
great defeat of Varus by the German chieftain Arminius, and at the 
latter place, called Aliso in ancient times, Drusus erected a fortress. 
Hence it is probable that the objects found at Hildesheim belonged to 
an officer of high rank in the army cither of Varus or of Drusus. See 
a monograph by Wieseler, and Trosor de Hildesheim — Notice par M. A, 
Darcel, Designation et prix des pieces d'orfcvreric.rcproduitcs en fac- 
simile galvanique par MM. Cbristcfle et C^*". 


Dr. J. Keller's Memoir in the Mainz Jouraal of Antiquities, quoted 
above, pp. 499 — 552, is interesting from a philological point of view, 
because these inscriptions increase our knowledge of Latinity, exhibiting 
some words and expressions which occur very rarely, or not at all, in the 
authors that remain to us, e.g., manticvlarii : negotiatores, p. 502, 
probably retail dealers as opposed to wholesale {nia<j)iarii) ; of. Festus, 
od. C. O. Midler, p. 133, Manticularia dicuntur ea, quae frequenter in usu 
habentur, et quasi manu tractantur : uvp, pp. 507, 516 duplarias, a 
soldier who receives double pay : Vide Hiibner, Inscrr. Brit. Lat, 
duplarlus No. 571, dupUcarius No. 1090. 

I have said that qu had the same sound as Kin Latin; it must be 
admitted that some grammarians do not agree with this opinion ; 
possibly two different pronunciations were adopted simultaneously, as is 
the case with many words in our own language, where no rule is fixed by 
any recognised authority. 

Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles of St, Paul, 8vo. edition, 
i., 456, note 11, remark, "So, in Martial, Tacitus and Suetonius, Livia 
and Livilla, Drusa and Drusilla, are used of the same person." I have 
not found Drusa in these writers. 

It is to be regretted that accounts of antiquities at Mayence are 
disperses ; no archaeological and historical handbook for this city has 
appeared corresponding to Leonardy's Panorama von Trier und dessen 
Umgebungen, or to Regensburg in seiner Vergangenheit und Gegenwart 
by Hugo Graf von Walderdorff. 

I subjoin some additional references for the vexed question of the 
Mnrrhina. Propertius, iv, 10, 22, 

Et crocino nares murreus ungat onyx, 
with Paley's note on v, 5. 26. Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, vol. iii. 
Contents p. viii,pp. Ill sq. : be inclines to the opinion that the murrhinc 
was fluor spar, and that the Egyptian porcelain was the false murrhine of 
the ancients. Bottiger's Sabina, Sach-und Wortregister, vol. i, p. 44 ; 
vol. ii, p. 33. llirtl), China and the Roman Orient, 1885, p. 228, note 
1. The red glass referred to in the Chinese authors may have been an 
imitation murrhine. For the trade between Rome and China see pp. 
225—228, and Contents, p. xv. 

I have already mentioned the use of perfumes in connexion with 
cremation and funeral rites. Cicero, De Legibus ii, 24 (Dictionary of 
Antiquities, p. 559 s.v. Funus), calls this practice sumptioosa respersio. 
Cf. Persius, Satires, iii, 104, 

crassisquc lutatus amomis. 
vi, 34 — 36, urnae 

Ossa inodora dabit, seu spirent cinnama surdum. 
Sen ceraso peccent casiae, nescire paratus. 
V. Giffords Translation and lleinrich's note on the latter passage, Boim 
ossilegium pflegte man Wohlgeriicho mit in die Urne zu legen, nament- 
lich cinnama, KLvva/xov, s. Schneider, s.v., und casia eine Arabische 
Staude mit zimmtartiger Rinde, &c. 

Subse(]uently to Dr. Hodgkin's essay on the Pfahlgraben, two papers 
have appeared on tlie same subject in the journals of our learned 
Societies — one by Mr. James Hilton, entitled " The Pfahlgraben and 
Saalburg Camp," Archaeol. Journ,, 1884, vol. xli, pp. 203-210; the 
other by Mr. F. G. Hilton Price in the Proceedings of the Society of 


Antiquaries, March 20,1890, 2nd series, vol. xiii, pp. 110-120 — " Xotes 
on recent excavations on the Saalburg, near Homburg." The former 
memoir treats of the Limes Transrhenanus in relation to the Roman 
walls and camps in Northumberland, v. esp. p. 206 ; the latter is inter- 
esting because it gives us intelligence concerning discoveries made in 
August, 1889, and a detailed account of the objects previously deposited 
in the Homburg Museum. 

For the Inscriptions see the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte 
und Kunst, 188o, Jahrgang IV. Heft IV., pp. 388-403, Die Inschriften 
der Saalburg bei Homburg. Von A. Hammeran. The text is accom- 
panied by numerous fac-similes, of which the most important is given 
on p. 389, with the expansion p. 392 sq. 

Section 322 of C. 0. Miiller's Hamlbook of Archaeology is the most 
important for Mosaics, because it contains the fullest details as well as 
references to other parts of his book. It comes under the head of 
Technics of the Formative Art, B 2, and is entitled Designing by the 
junction of solid materials, mosaic-work. As an accompaniment to 
treatises, such as those of Miiller and Winckelmann, it would be well to 
consult Sillig, Catalogus Artificum. He has arranged the architects, 
sculptors, painters and engravers in alphabetical order, and given many 
passages, particularly from Pliny, in extenso, e.g., p. 428 : Nat. Hist., 
lib. xxxvi, 25, § 60, where the doves of Sosus are described. 

Like the Darmstadt mosaic, the one at Lillebonne (Juliobona) bears, 
as stated above, an inscription : Grande Mosaique antique trouvce a 
Lillebonne (Seine Inferieure). Notice explicative, 1885, PI. i-iv, p. 6. 
Apollon poursuivant Daphn6. On lit dans deux cartouches blancs en 
lettres noires bien formees. 

En haut : T(itus). SEN(nius) felix. C(ivis). Pvteolanvs. F(ecit). 

Et. en bas : et. amor C(ivis) K(arthaginiensis) discipvlvs. 

{Fait 2)ar Titus Sennius lelix, cltoyen de Pouzzolles, et par Amor, 
ciioyen de Carthage^ son eleve). 

Byzantine mosaics are briefly noticed by Miiller, op. citut., § 212, 
Remark 4. To his references add Theophilus (Rugerus), lib. ii, cap. xv, 
De vitro Graeco quod musivum opus decorat ; and Preface to Hendrie's 
Edition and Translation, p. xxxvi, note 2, where instead of fsefusis read 
psephosis (i/'v;^co(ri?). 


The fourteenth century work chair here illustrated 
belongs to Lincoln Minster. For a century or more this 
interesting relic of the past was stowed away, as a useless 
encumbrance, in the vestibule of the Cathedral Library. 
It has now found a more appropriate place in the recently 
restored Chapter House, for which it is not improbable 
that it may have been originally constructed. It has been 
always traditionally known as the " Bishop's Chair," and 
such may have been its original purpose. A suggestion 
has, however, been hazarded, which is not undeserving of 
consideration, that it was made as for a throne for the 
Sovereign when he presided at one of the meetings of 
Parliament which were held during the reigns of the 
three Plantagenet Edwards in Lincoln, and some of them 
certainly in the Chapter House. The character of the 
ornamentation coincides with that period. Mr. Pearson 
places it quite at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 
It would be interesting if we could thus connect it with 
the Great Parliament held in Lincoln in 1301, when the 
Charters were renewed and the claims of Boniface VIII. 
to arbitrate in the disputed succession to the Scottish 
throne was indignantly repudiated. But whether con- 
structed for the use of the Bishop or of the King, it is an 
undoubted example of early fourteenth century uphol- 
stery, and apart from any historical interest which may 
be assigned to it, it is of great value from the rarity of 
specimens of furniture of that date. It must be confessed 
that the chair is of very rude not to say clumsy con- 
struction, though it is not wanting in a certain dignity in 
keeping with its purpose. It is simply framed of massive 
oak, consisting of four stout upright pieces, with a cross 

' Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, December 4th, 1890. 

F\-C~Tv^^ -v'^'' 




piece at top behind, and others at the level of the seat which 
rests upon them. There are two arms curving down- 
wards from the back, supporting lions couchant, which it 
will be seen from the illustration have had their heads and 
paws grievously mutilated. The outer side of the arms 
towards the back is ornamented with an eight-leaved 
expanded flower, with a four-leaved central cup. The 
front panel below the seat is carved with two horizontal 
rows of quatrefoils, six in each row. The sides are fitted 
with plain panels, some portions of which are certainly- 

The dimensions of the chair are, height back, 3ft. 
11 in. ; front, 3ft. 3 Jin. ; up to the seat, 2ft. 5in. ; depth 
of the back from the seat to the horizontal cross-piece, 
1ft. 6Jin. ; breadth of seat, 3ft. '2in. ; depth, 1ft. llin. 

The chair has been brutally hacked in several places, 
and we may well feel thankful that so interesting a relic 
of antiquity, which has evidently been so little cared for, 
has escaped complete destruction. 

Prorrctimss at Jlretings of t})e Eopl UrcJiaeolosical 


June Sth, 1890. 

Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Kev. G. I. Chester communicated a paper by Professor Sayce on 
a Hittite Seal purchased at Smyrna by himself. This is printed at p. 215. 

Mr. F. Haverfield sent " Notes on some Museums in Galicia and 
Transilvania," which will appear in a future number of the Journal. 

Votes of thanks were passed to Mr. Chester and Mr. Haverfield. 

Antiquities nni SEorhs of ^rt ©xhibiteb. 

By the Rev. G. I. Chester. — A Hittite Seal. 

By Mr. F. Haverfield. — Photographs in illustration of his paper. 

By Mr. H. S. Cowpee. — Piubbings of brasses from Middlesex. Mr 
Cowper contributed the following notes upon these antiquities : — 

" Brasses in the Parish Churches op AA'illesden, Great Green- 
ford, and Acton, co. Middlesex. — These brasses are ten in number, 
live of which are at AVillesden, four at Great Greenford, and one at 
Acton. They are mentioned in Haines' list, but since that work was 
published, some of the inscriptions and figures have disappeared, and in 
some cases they occupy difi'erent positions in the church. 

" In the following list, Haines' description is put first and my own notes 


" 1. Barth. Willesden comptroller of the (jrcat roll of pipe 1492, and 
Ws. Margt. and Marcjf., with 4 dans., one w. and inscr. lost, C. 

" Only Bartholomew and one wife (on his left) are now to be found : 
the four daughters having gone since Haines' time. I think there is 
nothing unusual in the costume of either of the remaining figures. This 
brass was mural in the choir, when the list was made, but is now on the 
choir floor, 

"2. Margt. Roberts, dau. of Roht. Fyncham Esq. 1505 f?),ioithS sons, 
and 3 daus. N. 

" Here also the small figures have disappeared, and Margaret Roberts 
only is left. Mural in N. Aisle in Hayne's time, now on the choir floor. 


"3. Wm. Licliefeld, LL.D. Vicar, residentiary of St. Paul's Cath. 
1517, in cope and cap, C. 

" He is dressed as Christopher Urswick (see Haines, p. ccxxviii.) in 
processional or canonical vestments, consisting of cap. almuce (inlaid, but 
now gone), surplice, cape, and cassock, the last of which covers his feet. 

"Mural in choir in Haines' time, now on the choir floor. 

" 4. Edm. Roberts, Esq., of Neasden, 1585, in arm. with 2 ivs.,Fraunces, 
date, and h. oj Rich. Welles, Esq., of Hertford (ivith 2 sons and 4- daus.J, 
and Fay til, dau. and li. of John Patterson, gent., of London {with 2 sons 
and 1 dau.), 16 Eng. vv. and 2 eleg. vv., prol>ably palimjisest, C. 

" A very fine brass of the period made up of 12 separate plates : 

"The inscriptions are as follows : above the figures, 'Here lieth buryed 
the bodye of Edmund Roberts of Neasdun Esquyer | togither with the 
bodye of ffrauncys "Welles hys first wyefe daughter and | lieyre of 
Richarde Welles of the countye of Hertf orde Esquyer by whome he | had 
twoo sonnes and foure daughters after whose death he tooke to wyefe j 
IFayth Pattensonu daughter & heyre of John Patenson of London gent 
and I by her he had twoo sonnes and one daughter he died the fyf th daye 
of June.' 

' 1585.' 
" Below the figures 

' Happy was he that lyethe heere 
In blood in matche and progenye 
whoo lyved three and thereescore yeare 
and layde him doune in peace to dye 
who long before the poor sustein'd 
In tyme of their great lack and neede 
His joye was such he thought all gaind 
to comforte them in wooide and de«le 
And when his soule did seeke release 
from beinge bounde with flesshy chaync 
In praesing God he did not cease 
with happye fayth to lyve agayne 
So like a lanibe he went away 
and left good land unto his sonne 
who long may live the poore do pray 
good house to keepe as he hath done.' 
" And below this on a separate plate, 

' Ista sue benefida iides monumenta marito 
ponit ut officio 1 pignora certa suo ' 
** Observe the pun on the name of his second wife ITayth in the twelfth 
line of the verse : — 

' With happye fayth to lyve agayne.' 
" Edmund Roberts is a fine figure in full armour, presenting the not 
uncommon anomaly of standing with his feet on a bit of flowery turf, 
while his head is represented resting on a helmet. The plate is not cut 
to the figure and probably is a priest or a lady on the other side. The 
other figures present nothing unusual. In the three shields the colouring 
matter representing the tinctures has as usual disappeared. Now on the 
choir floor as in Haines' time. 



*' There are othermonuments (not brasses) to the Roberts' family in the 

" 5. Jane, w. of John Barne, Esq. ; 1609, m : ^9 years and 7 months, 
and 2 daus. Mary, w. of Franc. Roherts, Esq., of Wilsdon, and Elizth., 
ID. of Edw. Aliham, of Latton, Essex, eff. of one dau. lost, C.i 

*' This brass is in the same condition and place as in Haines' time ; and 
when I rubbed it about a year ago the smaller figure was only held in 
its place by one or two nails, and much dirt having got in betwixt the 
figure and the stone it was bent ; and as the rubbing shows partly broken. 
The figures are fine examples of the costume of the period. 

Great Greenford. 
" 6. A priest, C. 1^0 hf. eff. inscr. lost. Perhaps Simon Hert, rector, 

" A pretty little brass. The scroll above the head bears the inscription 
' Credo vider' bona diil" in terra viventiil.' It is now mural in the chancel. 
<' 7. ^ Lady, C. H80, inscr. lost. 

" A small plain figure of the usual type. It is in the nave near the S. 

"8. Thos. Synions, rector, 2 Lat vv. 0. 1515, noio mar. He resigned 

" This has been restored, which fact is recorded by a brass plate under 
the figure inscribed : — 

Edv : Botham, Rector. 


H. T. S. M. P. C. 

*• 9. Rich. Thorneton, 15^4, and lo. Alys {eff. lost). 
"This is now in the nave near the S. door. 


"10. Humphr]! Cavell, Esq. 1558, mur. 

"A small kneeling figure reset. The arms above seem to be, Erm. a 
lamb gu. in chief a fleur de lis of the second impaling arg. a Saltire sable 
betw. 4 birds (? ravens) of the 2nd." 

By Mr. J. L. Andre. — A bronze weight bearing on one side the Royal 
arms and motto, the other side having been carefull}'^ tooled to bri)ig the 
weight to 71b exactly, a clove or half a stone. This object was bought 
in Horsham with no history attached to it. The letters C. R. over the 
shield show it to be of the time of Charles I or Charles II, The shield 
exhibits, quarterly, 1, England, 2, Scotland, 3, Ireland, and 4, France. 
The proper coat of the Stuart Kings was, quarterly : — 1 and 4, grand 
quarters, France Modern and England quarterly, 2nd grand quarter, 
Scotland, 3rd grand quarter, Ireland. 

July 3rd, 1890. 

The Rev. F. Spurrell in the Chair. 

Prof. B. Lewis read a paper " On the Roman Antiquities of Augs- 
burg and Rati-sbon." 

^ She was dau. of one Robert Lnngtoii. " About an inch of the lower part of this 
(Lyson's " Environs of London.") ligurc is probably concealed under the floor. 


The Roman remains in the former city are to be seen almost 
exclusively in the Maximilian IMuseiim. The following are among 
the most remarkable : an inscription upon a milestone which 
records the repair of roads and bridges by Septimius Severus and 
Caracalla (the latter is called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) ; another 
inscription which commemorates the erection of a temple by clothiers 
fin this case Augsburg is called ^lia Augusta, in compliment to the 
Emperor Hadrian) ; the decuriones also are mentioned, who administered 
local affairs like a town council. A relief representing a cask on a four- 
wheeled cart was probably the sign of a wineshop. Two draped figures 
in niches have been named dmcniviri, i.e., the two chief magistrates in 
a provincial city, corresponding with the consuls at Rome, but this 
attribution is uncertain. A statue of Mercury is interesting because the 
deity carries a winged infant, Cupid, seated on a money-bag. Welser's 
<' History of Augsburg," published at Venice, 159i, contains a full 
description and a fine engraving of a mosaic that has disappeared ; it 
represented a chariot race and groups of gladiators contending in various 
attitudes ; it was, therefore, superior to the pavement at Rheims, where 
there are only single figures. The walls of the Roman cast rum at Ratis- 
bon have been carefully investigated, and for the most part the remains 
are sufficient to enable us to trace them clearly. On the western side 
of this fortified city a town grew up, like the civil settlements at the 
Saalburg. In 1885 the Porta Proetoria, facing the Danube, was laid 
open ; it is very remarkable as a gate that is purely military, devoid of 
ornament, but imposing in its massive simplicity. On the other hand, the 
fragments of the Porta Principalis Dextra show that it was decorated ; 
its chief interest for us consists in the inscription on the attic recording 
its erection by Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, The Roman cemetery, 
as at Strasbourg, is close to the railway station. An elaborate plan of it 
has been published by Her Dahlem, showing the direction in which the 
bodies were placed, and many other details. A little further from the 
town, near the village of Kumpfmiihl, Roman baths were discovered, 
also in 1885. From the objects found it is inferred that they were 
erected in the first half of the second century ; the building was probably 
destroyed by the Marcomanni at the beginning of the reign of ]M. Aurelius. 

Professor Lewis's paper will appear in due course in the Journal. 

Mr. E. W. Beck read a paper on " The Keys of St. Peter at Liege and 
Maestricht," which is printed at p. 334. 

Votes of thanks were passed to Prof. Lewis and to Mr. Beck. 

By Prof. Lewis. — Coins, engravings, and photographs in illustration 
of his paper. 



August 12tli to August 19th, 1890. 

The Mayor of Gloucester (W. Stafford, Esq.) and the members of the 
Corporation assembled at noon in the Corn Exchange, and received the 
President of the Meeting, Sir J. Dorington, Bart., M.P., and the follow- 
ing Presidents and Vice-Piesidents of Sections, and members of the 
Council : — Mr. E. Ereshfield (President of the Antiquarian Section), 
Professor K C. Clark, Mr. A. J. Evans, the Rev. A. S. Porter, the Very 
Rev. the Dean of Gloucester (President of the Historical Section), Mr. 
T. H. Baylis, Q.C., Mr. Chancellor Ferguson, Sir J. Maclean, Professor 
Montagu Burrows, Professor J. H. Middleton (President of the Architec- 
tural Section), Mr. C. J. Ferguson, Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, the Rev. 
Precentor Venables, the Rev. Sir Talbot Baker, Bart, the Hon. Mr. 
Justice Pinhey, Dr. M. W. Taylor, Mr. Hartshorne, the Rev. F. Spurrell. 
Mr. W. H. St. J. Hope, Mr. E. Green, Mr. H. Jones, Mr. G. E. Fox, 
Mr. R. W. Taylor and Mr. J. Hilton, and a large number of members of 
the Institute, and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting. 

The Mayor of Gloucester, on taking the chair, welcomed the Institute 
on behalf of the Corporation and called upon the Town Clerk to read the 
following address : — 

" To the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. — 
We, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the city of Gloucester 
in the county of the city of Gloucestei', desire to offer a most hearty 
welcome to the members of the Institute on the occasion of their 
again holding an annual meeting in the city of Gloucester. Wo 
believe much good has resulted from the meetings and work of 
the Institute and kindred Societies, which not only engender a more 
general interest in Archaeological matters, and thereby secure the protec- 
tion of ancient buildings, but also exercise a most beneficial influence in 
the restoration thereof. The transactions of such societies are also of 
special importance as they ensure a lasting record of much that is valu- 
able which otherwise might not be preserved. The programme of the 
present meeting comprises several very attractive items. Our Cathedral 
and other buildings in the city are full of interest, both architecturally and 
from their association with many important incidents in the past history 
of England ; and the proposed excursions to various Roman villas, the 
Saxon Chapel and Church at Deerhurst, Tewkesbury Abbey, Berkeley 
and Sudeley Castles, and Prinknash Park will be of no little interest 
from an archreological point of view, and will also prove a pleasant re- 
laxation from the work of the sectional meetings. An inspection of the 
city will show that although considerable changes have taken place since 
the former meeting of the Institute in Gloucester, thirty years ago, 
special care has been taken to preserve portions of the Roman walls and 
pavements and other interesting remains. The members of the Institute 
will be pleased to learn that the Corporation have recently caused their 
ancient and interesting cliartcrs and muniments to be carefully arranged 
and calendared, and that a somewhat full report thereon is now being 
issued by the Historical Manuscript Commission. In conclusion we 
venture to hope that the present meeting may prove interesting and 


pleasurable to the members of the meeting, and also tend to maintain 
the high reputation of the Institute." 

In taking the chair at the instance of the Mayor, and accept- 
ing from him the illuminated address, Lord Percy thanked the 
Mayor and Corporation for the very kind reception which they had 
accorded to the Members of the Institute. They had the satis- 
faction of knowing that the invitation they had received to pay a visit 
to this district was a hearty one, and that it was believed the district 
would be found to be of interest to them, and he assured them that they 
accepted that invitation from no light reasons. It was the earnest Avish 
of the members of the Institute, in carrying out the programme that 
was arranged, to increase their knowledge of archaeology, and their 
interest in the remains which had been handed down to us ; and the 
only doubt that existed in his mind was that they might possibly bore 
those who so kindly entertained them. It was with very great 
satisfaction that they received the assurance of such hearty wel- 
come in the words which had been used by the Mayor and Town 
Clerk. They hoped that the visit which the Institute was paying 
would redound to the advantage of all concerned, in possibly stimulating 
an interest in archaeological pursuits, and throwing some light possibly 
upon various disputed points, light which could be thrown not so much 
because they ventured to arrogate to themselves any superior knowledge 
over an antiquarian locality, but from the fact that fresh thought was 
brought to bear upon them, and difficult questions were put in a fresh 
light. There was no doubt that the members of the Institute would 
derive the very greatest advantage from the visit, and it was a real 
pleasure to them to have an opportunity of seeing the objects of interest 
which were so numerous in all parts of the country, and which, if he might 
judge from the programme before them, were more numerous in the 
neighbourhood of Gloucester than in most parts of the country the 
Institute had visited. It would be impossible for them to take in all 
the points of interest which, with their limited knowledge of the locality, 
they should have liked to see, but he knew that was not the fault of 
anyone in the district, least of all to that very able and energetic local 
society which had done so much to secure their pleasure on the present 
occasion. They were a little inclined to err on the side of trying to 
cram too many things into one day, which not only spoilt the pleasure, 
but diminished the profit that resulted, because, when their inspections 
were hurried over, one thing drove another out of the mind. It was 
better to do a little well, than to do much in an imperfect manner. Ho 
more particularly alluded to this because, as he had before intimated, 
Gloucester and its neighbourhood presented a larger field to the 
members of the Institute than many other localities they visited. 
Nothing remained for him but to again thank the Mayor and Corpora- 
tion and the inhabitants of Gloucester for their very kind reception of 
the Institute. He also thanked the local Society for the very great 
assistance they had rendered them and were prepared to render to 
them during their stay in promoting their convenience and in increasing 
their knowledge. 

Sir Brook Kay then read the following address : — 

"My Lord Percy, Sir John Dorington, my Lords, Ladies and Gentle- 
men, — As President of the Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 


Archaeological Society, I am desired, in the name of the Council and 
members, to offer a very hearty -welcome to the Royal Archaeological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland to this county. Thirty years have 
passed since your society held its first meeting at Gloucester ; but the 
results of your visit have made a lasting impression on our study of 
medireval art and history. It was in the able address of that learned 
antiquary Professor Willis that our attention was first called to the fact, 
so clearly and undoubtedly written in the MS. history of St. Peter's 
Abbey, that here in our noble Cathedral was originated not only the style 
of architecture called Perpendicular, but also that form of groining known 
as fan tracery, which has never been excelled. We cannot forgot that 
many residents of this county who took part in your reception at that 
time (I may mention Sir William Guise, Mr. Gambier Parry, Mr. John 
Niblett, and Canon Lysons) have been taken from us, and a new 
generation of students of archaeology has risen up in their stead. We do 
not doubt, however, that the same interest that was manifested in your 
proceedings in 1860 will again be taken on the present occasion by the 
inhabitants of this city and county. We would gladly show you some 
of the Roman camps and Norman churches, in which this county 
abounds ; but in Gloucester Cathedral and Tewkesbury Abbey you will 
have excellent examples of the many religious houses that gave rise in this 
vale of the Severn to the ancient adage * as sure as God is in Gloucester- 
shire.' At Sudeley, sad memories of the closing days of Queen Katherine 
Parr, and of the troublous times in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury in which no county had a greater share than Gloucestershire, will be 
awakened in your minds ; at Woodchester, at Chedworth, and at Spoonley, 
you will have interesting examples of the Roman villas witlr-which the 
county west of the Cotteswold is thickly studded. An excursion will be 
made to visit Berkeley with its baronial castle, dating from the twelfth 
century, still in a perfect condition of repair. It is to be regretted that 
time will not admit of a visit to Thornbury, with its fine church, and its 
Tudor Castle, the unfinished conception of the princely but unfortunate 
Buckingham of the reign of Henry VIII. We congratulate you on the 
great work that your Society has achieved during the last half-century. 
The Bristol and Gloucestershire Society, with an average membership of 
well nigh 500, since its foundation in 1876, has been endeavouring to 
follow in your footsteps, and awaken the interest of our countrymen in 
the monuments and records of the past. We venture to hope that our 
volumes of transactions, which have been edited for fourteen years by a 
distinguished member of the Royal Archteologlcal Institute, may meet 
with your approval, and assist you in the study of those objects of 
interest which it is your intention to examine." 

Earl Percy said he had already had the pleasure of expressing the 
thanks of the Institute to the local Society for their co-operation and 
support, and now they had added to these the kindness of an address. 
They well knew the leading part which the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Society took amongst provincial societies and he was glad to think that 
it was doing so much in the promotion of archaeological research. 

Lord Percy then surrendered the chair to Sir John Dorington, who 
delivered his Inaugural Address. This is printed at p. 359. 

A cordial vote of thanks having been passed to Sir John Dorington, 
the meeting adjourned. 


At 2 p.m., the members assembled at the Museum. Here Mr. J. 
Bellows made some observations upon Roman Gloucester, and described 
the very interesting results of the excavations he had made. Mr. 
Bellows's descriptions, were given with singular lucidity, and his rapid 
survey M^as rendered the more valuable by several handy plans which 
were distributed to the members. In speaking of the large quantity of 
Roman remains that he had found upon his property in Eastgate Street, 
Mr. Bellows exhibited some choice and frail examples, among them was 
the pot that had boiled, and the bone spoon that had been laid ready to 
eat the hard-boiled Roman egg which the speaker found with his own 
hands, and which faded into dust before his eyes. 

The members now divided into two parties, the Roman antiquaries 
inspecting Roman Gloucester under the guidance of Mr. Bellows, and 
the Medisevalists mediaeval Gloucester under the able direction of Mr. 
F. W. Waller, and Mr. H. Medland. The former party concluded a 
most interesting tour at the excavations made on the north side of the 
choir of the cathedral where, at a depth of ten feet, the Roman Wall of 
the city had been specially laid bare for this occasion. This showed that 
the south-west Wall took an oblique line about midway across the nave 
of the Cathedral, that it encircled the north transept with its rounded 
north-west corner, and just skirted the north-east angle of the Lady 
Chapel as it ran on to the eastern corner of the Roman city. 

The mediaeval party visited successively the churches of St. Nicholas, 
St. Mary de Lode, and St. j\Iary de Crypt. St. Nicholas' church, 
originally Norman, has some features of interest, such as the remains 
of the early church, the seventeenth century monuments, particularly 
that which includes the effigy of John Walton, died .1625— a valuable 
example of civic costume, — examples of late woodwork and ironwork, 
and a beautiful bronze handle on the south door of foreign, perhaps 
Italian workmanship, and spoken of, upon evidence not forthcoming, 
as "a Sanctuary Knocker." The cross church of St. Mary de Crypt, 
like all cross churches, has much interest. The name is derived from 
the ossuarium or charnel house formed beneath the nave, as in 
the similar case at Rothwell, in Northamptonshire. Certain of the 
planning and constructional details recall the work at the Cathedral, 
but the nave and aisle under one huge roof are unsatisfactory ; still more 
so is the "restored" Norman west door. The church of St. Mary de 
Lode is interesting on account of its chancel, of which the western 
portion is Norman, and the eastern Early English, vaulted in two bays. 
Many old houses having been inspected, including the secularised 
remains of the churches and buildings of the Grey Friars, and of the 
Blackfriars, the two parties joined again at the palace where they were 
received with graceful hospitality by the Bishop of Gloucester and Mrs. 
Ellicott. Here, in the reconstructed Abbot's Hall the Bishop felicitously 
recalled a long train of historical memories, to which the Rev. W. Bazeley 
added many like things from his ample stores of information. 

At 8 p.m. Mr. E. Freshfield opened the Antiquarian section in the 
Lecture Room of the School of Arts, and delivered his Address. This is 
printed at p. 268. 

Professor Montagu Burrows read a paper :— " Oxford as a factor in the 
progress of Archaeology." This is printed at p. 351. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the authors of these papers, and the 
meeting adjourned. 


"Wednesday August 13th. 

At 10 fi.m., the members proceeded by steamboat wp the Severn 
to Deerhurst. The Rev. G. Butterworth and Professor Middleton 
were here the exponents of the church ; and of the chapel of Odda, 
discovered in 1885 enshrined, or rather concealed within the walls of 
an adjacent farm house. It may be recalled that the consecration 
stone dated in the fourteenth year of Edward the Confessor 1056, and 
long preserved in the Ashmolean Museum is now known to refer, not 
to the church which, indeed, still has plenty of interest of its own, but 
to the little chapel which was so fortunately discovered five years ago. 
The steamboat having been regained the members continued their 
journey to Tewkesbury. 

After luncheon at the Swan Hotel the Abbey Church was visited. 
Mr. Hartshorne took the party in hand and read a paper giving a general 
architectural history and description of this solemn and striking church, 
and touching Avith some detail upon the effigies, monuments, and painted 
glass. Mr. Hartshorne's paper is printed at p. 290. 

In consequence of the untoward state of the weather many of the 
members were unable to take part in the perambulation of the town. 
The Rev. A. S. Porter therefore agreeably occupied some of the time 
by reading '* Some Notes on the Ancient Encaustic Tiles in Tewkesbury 
Abbey." This is printed at p. 311. 

Gloucester was again reached by steamboat at 7 p.m. 

At 9 p.m. Professor Middleton opened the Architectural Section in 
the Lecture Room of the School of Art and delivered his Address. 
This is printed at p. 343. 

Mr. Bellows then continued his observations upon Roman Gloucester, 
and votes of thanks having been passed, the meeting adjourned. 

Thursday August 14th. 

At 10 a.m., the General Annual Meeting of Members of the Institute 
was held in the Tolsey, Earl Percy in the chair. 

Mr. Gosselin read the following Report for the past year: — 
" Report of the Council for the Year 1889-90. 

" The forty-seventh Ann